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I first saw them perform at the 2009 Tribes Hill Annual Meeting and Hootenanny at the historic Hammond House headquarters in Valhalla, NY. Much of their work carries the style and emotional power of musical theater, something Ia€™m very fond of.
After they found out that they were all into music, they'd go over to Paul's house and play just for fun doing covers of Sheryl Crow, Bonnie Raitt and others.
Outside of her positive chorus experiences, there were two stumbling blocks, one of them having a lasting negative effect. The next step she took was to enroll as a Theater major at SUNY (State University of New York), Fredonia, near Buffalo NY.
Around 1996, the three had been getting together to play at Paul's house for some time, eventually playing a few shows as The YaYas, but never took any of it too seriously. In 2003, they self-produced their first 10-song CD, Everything, co-produced and mixed by Ben Wisch whoa€™d produced the Grammy-winning album Walking in Memphis by Mark Cohn and additionally, other notable performers (Patty Larkin, Lucy Kaplansky, Jonatha Brooke, Red Molly).
While Catherine is the lyricist for the band, she readily acknowledges the integral part that Jay and Paul play, sometimes helping her complete the songs, pushing her past hurdles in the narratives.
Paper Boats was just completed in September, and I was able to listen to the album before its release. The band moved to Mohegan Lake, near Peekskill, NY in 2005, and has become a part of the Tribes Hill community. The YaYas will appear in Acoustic Live showcases at NERFA and wea€™ll be at the Postcrypt Coffeehouse for their October 1st show.
I thought Jay, wry humorist, was the joker in the 3-card hand until Paul started to tell his story. A A  i??*Empty Bowl was a small, non-profit press dedicated to publishing books and periodicals that reflect the visions and concerns of Pacific Rim communities, biological and cultural features of distinct regions, and the interdependence of all life along the Pacific Rim. When we weren't working in mud, when we weren't covered in it, we were holed up in big green Army tents, smelly like the back of the truck, to dry out, keep warm, cook a little stew for dinner, or make cheese sandwiches without leaving thumb prints, lie back and read. Sometime during those months, Bob and I came up with the idea of publishing a poetry magazine for the Pacific Northwest. One of the last flyers printed in that building was a statement written and handset by Grant Logg to protest a proposed Kaiser plant in Port Townsend. Our magazine was going to be printed on one of those letterpress machines, and Bob and I were going to take a month or so of our own time surviving on unemployment checks to handset each page. Although by the second issue, in 1978, Bob was no longer interested in continuing with the project, he put up no resistance when I adopted the Empty Bowl name, as if in a spirit of shared ownership. Put out by Planet Drum, this rather formal document presented us, some for the first time, with the idea of a continent divided only by recognizable natural boundaries. Both issues quickly sold out at $2.00 each and Empty Bowl's loose knit group of editors and friends fell back into meetings, reading and discussion.
Composed mainly of people fresh from what we saw as victory in the pullout from Vietnam, the activists in the movement may, for a short time at the beginning, have harbored the belief thatA  protests, pamphlets, books, lectures, and news articles could in fact bring about a halt to the production and proliferation of the Trident Nuclear Submarine System, or even the production and shipment of weapons grade material, which brought on massive protests against the so-called White Train. While producing the first issue of Dalmo'ma, I attended, at one of Centrum's first summer writing programs, a workshop led by Kenneth Rexroth. Yet, because Empty Bowl was so profoundly committed to Our Place, were we deceived into thinking that the Northwest native, Gary Snyder, was a Northwest Poet? Digging For Roots: Dalmo'ma 5 alluded to the de Angulo quote in its title, but did not use it in the frontispiece.
Working The Woods is one of the few books, perhaps the only such book, to portray the lives and experiences of treeplanters. The last issue in the series was published in 1992 and called Shadows of Our Ancestors, Readings In the History of Klallam-White Relations, Dalmo'ma VIII.
We were a cooperative with a collective editorship, if such terms of a relationship aren't mutually exclusive. Jody Aliesan's book Desire (1985) and my own, The Straits (1983), were continuations of Empty Bowl's opposition to militarist experimentation; they were anti-Trident and firmly opposed to a nuclear civilization. Yet other books, Here Among The Sacrificed (1984) by Finn Wilcox and Psyche Drives The Coast (1990) by Sharon Doubiago, Untold Stories (1990) by Bill Slaughter, and The Basin (1988) by Mike O'Connor expanded for us the boundaries of our region, taught us something of what it was like to be an outsider, even an outcast. Here Among The Sacrificed was published with a grant from the Washington State Arts Commission, although the grant covered only half the cost.
The editors of The Dalmo'ma Anthology in 1982 were: Jerry Gorsline, Michael O'Connor, David Romtvedt, Tom Jay, Sharon Doubiago, Finn Wilcox, Tree Swensen, Tim McNulty, Michael Daley, Beverlee Joesten, and Steve R. Finn Wilcox, Pat Fitzgerald and Jerry Gorsline ran Empty Bowl for its fourteen years, disbanding the nonprofit and dispersing the unsold books in 1998.
A A  *Empty Bowl was a small, non-profit press dedicated to publishing books and periodicals that reflect the visions and concerns of Pacific Rim communities, biological and cultural features of distinct regions, and the interdependence of all life along the Pacific Rim. Bob Blair and I shared a tent big enough for our cots, boxes of supplies and books stuffed underneath, a small round airtight wood stove, and a couple of lamps. To the Anti-Trident section, the anthology linked Central American poetry and essays, and the work of writers about the environment, feminism and Northwest Poetry specifically.
Paul Lunde, in his article a€?Pillars of Hercules, Sea of Darknessa€?, writes that for the Latin Middle Ages, the Atlantic was Mare Tenebrosum; for the Arabs, Bahr al-Zulamat.
This name - and its analogue, a€?The Dark Sea,a€? Bahr al-Muzlim - sufficiently indicates medieval mana€™s fear and ignorance of the Atlantic Ocean. The Arabs used other names also, such as the scholarly Uqiyanus, directly transliterated from the Greek word okeanos, and even, in later sources from the western Islamic world, Bahr al-Atlasi [The Sea of the Atlas Mountains] - an exact rendering of the word Atlantic.
The most frequent Arabic name for the Atlantic was al-Bahr al-Muhit, the Circumambient, or All-Encompassing, Ocean.
The ancient belief that nothing lay beyond the Pillars of Hercules became a tremendous psychological barrier. It is a generally accepted opinion that this sea - the Atlantic - is the source of all the other seas. The Historical Annals, which presumably gave a much more detailed account of this and other voyages, is lost. The voyages of the mugharrirun and Khashkhash were private undertakings, apparently motivated by curiosity and bravado. We know little for sure about how he supported himself during such extensive travels within and beyond the lands of Islam. The information we have gathered here is the fruit of long years of research and painful efforts of our voyages and journeys across the East and the West, and of the various nations that lie beyond the regions of Islam. The geographical sections, which are among the most interesting to modern readers, are either accounts of his own very far-flung travels or, where there are gaps in his personal experience, accounts gleaned from sources he considered reliable. Al-Jahiz claims that the Indus, the river of Sind, comes from the Nile and adduces the presence of crocodiles in the Indus as proof.
Al-Masa€™udi claims he visited China, yet he actually depended very much on previous accounts to write his section on China and what he learned from contemporaries like Abu Zayd.
Al-Masa€™udi supplies a lot of theoretical information about world geography in Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, which derives from earlier Greek works that he studied in Baghdad and Damascus. This concept of sea division is similar to the Chinese division of five great seas in Zhou Qufeia€™s Land beyond the Passes examined in Hyunhee Parka€™s Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds, although the actual divisions and standards differ from each other. In the Sea of Rum [the Mediterranean] near the island of Iqritish [Crete], planks of ships of Indian teak, which were perforated and stitched together with fibers of the coconut tree, were found.
This discovery near Crete of the planks of a boat from the Indian Ocean surprised geographers of the 10th century, who correctly knew that the Indian Ocean was not linked to the Mediterranean. Ahmad Shboul notes that al-Masa€™udi is distinguished above his contemporaries for the extent of his interest in and coverage of the non-Islamic lands and peoples of his day. His normal inquiries of travelers and extensive reading of previous writers were supplemented in the case of India with his personal experiences in the western part of the subcontinent.
He described previous rulers in China, underlined the importance of the revolt by Huang Chao in the late Tang dynasty, and mentioned, though less detailed than for India, Chinese beliefs.
Al-Masa€™udi was also very well informed about Byzantine affairs, even internal political events and the unfolding of palace coups. One example of Al-Masa€™udia€™s influence on Muslim knowledge of the Byzantine world is that we can trace the use of the name Istanbul (in place of Constantinople) to his writings of the year 947, centuries before the eventual Ottoman use of this term. Al-Masa€?udi also made great efforts to find out as much as possible about remote areas of the world. There is a certain amount about Africa, but there he is more concerned with the geography and natural history, such as exports of panther skins, the habits of the rhinoceros and the course of the Nile, than he is with the customs of the people. More surprising is the lack of information on North Africa and Spain, which at that time was Muslim. In general his surviving works reveal an intensely curious mind, a universalist eagerly acquiring as extensive a background of the entire world as possible.
Theories of pre-Columbus Arab arrival to the Americas state that medieval Arab explorers (from Spain and Africa) may have reached the Americas (and possibly made contact with the indigenous peoples of the Americas) at some point before Christopher Columbusa€™ first voyage to the Americas in 1492.
Numerous evidence suggests that Arabs from Spain and West Africa arrived to the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus. In al-Masa€™udia€™s map of the world, there is a large area in the ocean, southwest of Africa, which he referred to as Ard Majhoola [Arabic for a€?the unknown territorya€?]. There are some scholars such as Professor Ivan Van Sertima and Shaykh Abdallah Hakim Quick, and articles in various Muslim publications beginning in 1996, who assert the pre-Columbian presence of Muslim Africans in the Americas. It is one thing to read about towering figures in the ancient Muslim world like Al-Idrisi (#219), Al-Biruni (#214.3), Al-Masa€™udi and many, many others whose contributions laid the foundations of the modern sciences of history, geography, cartography, and sea navigation. To read about the existence of West Africa Muslim scholars and monarchs like Mansa Musa and Abubakari II, is titillating. These references and more all point to what the non-expert activist dismissed as a€?wish-fulfillmenta€?. The list of distinguished Non-Muslim African American scholars who have written on the subject is long, stemming from as far back as the 1920s.
Professor Ivan Van Sertima is an internationally acclaimed historian, linguist, and anthropologist.
These scholarly, ground-breaking works, focusing upon African Muslim (as opposed to European Viking) pre-Columbia exploration of North America, include those written by what is believed to be the first Western author to write on the subject, Harvard Professor Leo Weiner (Africa and the Discovery of America, 1920-22). These works compliment references in the writings of Christopher Columbus, Balboa, and other European explorers, to those very same Muslim African explorers (specifically The Mandinka a€“the people of Kunta Kinte, ancestor of Alex Haley, author of Roots, and The Autobiography of Malcolm X) who were already present in the Caribbean and North America, before the bearers of the Cross arrived (e.g. Lunde, Paul, Caroline Stone, Kegan Paul, Masa€™udi, The Meadows of Gold, The Abbasids, translation, London and New York, 1989. IBC has made available just about every inflatable boat parts drawing in existance for a very small and resonable fee. This top-of-the-line FSH model is packed with features, including a T-top over the centre console. The band in which she sings lead vocals, The YaYas, has just released a new album, Paper Boats.
With her husband, Jay Mafale on guitar and old friend Paul Silverman on piano, she forms the point at which the lineup, in tandem, pushes its way into the listenera€™s heart. Neither of his parents had musical ability, but his father played Sinatra records all the time. Her teachers were serious about teaching everything from folk singing, to sight reading and ear training. The company would rearrange the space differently, according to need, sometimes in-the-round, often with the audience in close proximity to the actors.
He didn't pursue any type of musical performance during his 4 years at college, but his drive to play was persistent.
He did some acting for fun and enjoyed the camaraderie of the other actors, continuing with the theater group after graduation. During this period, Jay and Catherine fell in love and in October of 1997, they got married. On their honeymoon, Catherine was thrown from a horse and two of her vertebrae were crushed. Reaching back to their first CD, Everything, it was evident that they had something special.
Catherine continues to do what she does best, writing songs that touch upon her personal experiences, but contain universal appeal, then express them with refined, passionate vocals. Reaching back to their first CD, Everything, it was evident thatA  they had something special. This was 1975, from November or December to April or May of '76, the Bicentennial year, Greyhound buses all over town. The rest of the crew slept in tents except for those who'd done it once before; they were in homemade campers mounted on their decrepit pickups.
Bob had just acquired a Chandler-Price platen press, which he'd installed in a second floor office of the Taylor Building in Port Townsend. The day after Kaiser decided not to build, Jim's brother, a millionaire in Seattle, had us kicked out of the building, and some of those big Chandler-Price printing presses grew feet and walked out with us.
We had enough material from many fine writers throughout the Northwest to print, for the Fourth of July, 1976, the first issue of Dalmo'ma.
We set type in that sunny room in the Taylor Building for a few weeks, and printed stacks of several sheets of the little book before I thought to ask the name of the press. He said once that he'd tried writing poetry and found it easy and didn't want to do it anymore. The first time I heard them was when I met Jerry Gorsline and Linn House, now known as Freeman.
Throughout the book, Puget Sound Salishan calendar terms set the poems and translations in specific seasonal turns. The three or four white-haired men and women standing in front of Skagit County Court House today or King County Courthouse and other prominent locations across the country are a more emphatic pronouncement against the continuing military build-up. Jerry Gorsline published an interview with a young Buddhist monk who, along with a small group of craftsmen monks from Japan, was building a Temple on Ground Zero. He had a great deal to say about publishing during that week, as well as writing and the influences a beginning writer could best profit from.
In hindsight her criticism is justified, yet at the time, we found it ludicrousA  how could we not combine all these themes?
Was he a Californian Poet because he lived there, and wrote so much about his community's having claimed that place? It also examines the neglect of watershed management and how the status of the Pacific Northwest as a resource colony for timber and fish has lead to the losses of various species and to accidents, results of corporate decisions or the impact of the Trident Nuclear Submarine System in our waters. Edited and with commentaries by Jerry Gorsline, it is monumental in the scope of Empty Bowl's vision. One gives up the long-awaited approval of some venerable editor, perhaps because the manuscript itself has become so compelling both to the author and to many readers.
Judith Roche's Ghosts (1985), Susan Goldwitz's Dreams Of The Hand (1985), Mary Lou Sanelli's Lineage (1985), Bill Ransom's The Single Man Looks At Winter (1983), and Tim McNulty's Tundra Songs (1982), connected us with Alaska, or portrayed the Northwest as wilderness at peace, a civilization of humans who fail easily, and have the victory of recognizing that.


Finn Wilcox's book is a collection of haunting poems and captivating stories about his travels on freight trains, accompanied by the startling and beautiful photos of Steve R.
While we were in the midst of publication, I returned to the East Coast to spend some time with my family. They were filling orders, although fewer and fewer, for years after the books were published. Both phrases meant a€?The Sea of Darkness,a€? and anyone who has looked west from the northern coast of Portugal and seen the heavy cloudbanks lying across the horizon will admit the name is well-suited to the Atlantic. Writing almost 1400 years after Aristotle, and perfectly aware that the earth is spherical, al-Masa€™udi could still compare it to an egg floating in water. They tell marvelous stories of it, which we have related in our work entitled The Historical Annals, where we speak of what was seen there by men who entered it at the risk of their lives and from which some have returned safe and sound. If he went north, he may well have plundered the coasts of Portugal, France or even England. The author of this work compares himself to a man, who having found pearls of all kinds and colours and gathers them together into a necklace of and makes them into an ornament that its possessor guards with great care. I do not know where he could have found such an argument, but he puts the theory forward un his book, Of the Great Cities and Marvels of the Earth. The eighty-five sources that he lists at the beginning of his book include Ibn Khurradadhbiha€™s Book of Routes and Realms. It begins with traditional Greek theories about the shape of the earth and the division of the lands and seas.
Whatever form it took, systemized information about sea divisions was crucial to geographers who sought to understand the shape of the world, and they were able to receive information about the seas from those who actually sailed in the vast ocean to reach their destinations. They were of ships that had been wrecked and tossed about by the waves from the waters of the seas.
This could only explain how the individual planks flowed into the Mediterranean, al-Masa€™udi concludes. Other authors, even Christians writing in Arabic in the Caliphate, had less to say about the Byzantine Empire than al-Masa€™udi. He demonstrates a deep understanding of historical change, tracing current conditions to the unfolding of events over generations and centuries. Again, while he may have read such earlier Arabic authors as Ibn Khurradad, Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Rusta and Ibn Fadlan, al-Masa€™udi presented most of his material based on his personal observations and contacts made while travelling. He recorded the effect of westward migration upon the Byzantines, especially the invading Bulgars. This was clearly not easy, but he managed to glean a certain amount about the Slavs, for example, small numbers of whom traded regularly in Baghdad, as well as the other peoples of Central and Eastern Europe. This is slightly surprising, since the large number of African slaves in Baghdad would have made gathering information relatively simple. He does say a little about Galicia, but clearly al-Andalus did not interest Baghdad as much as Baghdad interested al-Andalus. The geographical range of his material and the reach of his ever inquiring spirit is truly impressive. In any case, each of my works contains information omitted in the book that preceded it, information which could not be ignored and knowledge of which is of the greatest importance and a genuine need.
Proponents of these theories use as evidence, reports of expeditions and voyages conducted by Arab navigators and adventurers who allegedly reached the Americas from the late ninth century onwards. Arab sailors in the 10th century sailed westward from the Spanish port of Delba [Palos] into the Ocean of Darkness and Fog. The oral traditions, scholarly writings, and academic research of experts ranging from centuries ago in the ancient world, to the present are offered as an argument.
On the contrary, ancient Arabic language maps, Native American tribes with African names and words clearly embedded in their languages, statues, diaries, artifacts, etc. They include not only Muslim African Americans like Clyde Ahmad Winters (who wrote a series of brilliant articles in the magazine Al-Ittihad in the late 1970s, including a€?Islam in Early North and South Americaa€?, and a€?The Influence of Mande Languages on Americaa€?,) and Shaykh Abdallah Hakim Quick (who is a widely respected and accomplished historian with a doctorate in West African studies, and author of Deeper Roots), but also scholars from the African continent - Dr.
Weiner heads a list of historians and social scientists who were neither African nor African Americans (including Basil Davidson, Robert Silverburg, Cyrus Gordon (Before Columbus, 1971), Legrand H.
Save your time and future headaches by getting the right valve, widget, or dohicky everytime. The song, a€?All these Gifts,a€? is from that album, and epitomizes her command of the songwriting craft and her vocal abilities. Once they found out about their mutual interest in making music, in small increments, their path revealed itself. When she was around 14 years old, as a Christmas gift, her mother purchased private lessons for her with a voice teacher. Finding that she liked it, she performed through the rest of high school in some dramas and a couple of musicals. It gave Catherine a new, heightened confidence, having the audience right next to her at times. She'd lost the grandmother she sang with at age 14 and her maternal grandmother the year before her mom died. I got my hands on Everything at the 2009 Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) Conference. Although no one else in her family had musical talent, her grandmother, who loved to sing, lived next door. I got my hands on EverythingA  at the 2009 Northeast Regional Folk Alliance (NERFA) Conference. History everywhere, the tourist or antique hunter became its medium; in storefront windows sat old rockers, all shined up, beds and tables, date next to the price. A lot of time seems to have been taken up sitting in woolen longjohns, learning more efficient ways to dry our clothes. Jim just kept framing, dismantling and reframing with new beams, the same vestibule staircase. The title was a Pit River tribal place name I found in Jerry Gorsline's copy of Indians In Overalls by Jaime de Angulo.A  It mattered that the name for the publication should be about our own placeA  and at that time we meant, almost exclusively, too narrowly, the Olympic Peninsula.
We were looking for roots we knew we never had, but that someone had, and places we loved still contained.
Bob or I usually asked a question by way of introducing a topic we needed to discuss, and so with this. These two pieces of writing constitute the largest portion of prose in the first two issues. There were Aztec and Sioux translations within the few pages of this issue, and in both the first and second issues the poetry and stories of such, now notable, writers as Tim McNulty, William Stafford, Kim Stafford, Bill Ransom, Sam Hamill, Barry Lopez, Jim Dodge, John Haines and Jim Heynen.
Two issues of a pamphlet series, Firecrackers, went out, and a few small postcard size poems. The obligation to provide witness to warmongers and governments is the lasting purpose of a political movement.
But the statement I really remember applied to me at the time because Dalmo'ma was conceived of as the first issue of a quarterly. In other parts of the country, I imagine people from around here are called Seattle Poets by way of identifying an address or an influence suggested by movie settings, coffee companies, mountains & rivers, logging. Just as Stephen Duck, who protested the advent of the Industrial Revolution with proletariat poetry that predates Marxism, and John Clare from the same era, who with maddening ferocity describes down to the nose hairs every badger in sight, just as they and centuries of local poets offered an identification with a kind of grove, or a sacred place, so did Empty Bowl.
In 1986 we published two issues both funded by a grant from the Washington State Arts Commission's dwindling arts fund. The collection addresses eloquently and precisely the themes fundamental to our publications: regional, environmental, native and historic values override the general, vague, inexact blunders of political and academic systems. Although all such publications can be tarred as VanityA  or Subsidy books, we were not inviting authors to submit based on their bank accounts, or their benefactors', but because their work was significant to many of us in the editorial committee, because the work struck us as powerful interpretations of our human involvement with this region. Without it the literature from any given area will be left up to the press that attracts the most grant support. The misfortune of such a development is the diminishing role of an editor in subsidy presses. This is an especially significant theme of Jim Bodeen's Whole Houses Shaking (1993), a series of poems addressing the cancer treatment and death of his father, the bonds of his family, the stories and histories we're forever running up against, forever avoiding. By 1984 the editors were Tim McNulty, Jerry Gorsline, Tom Jay, Finn Wilcox, Mike O'Connor, Pat Fitzgerald and Michael Daley.
Despite our minimal advertisement, few reviews of our books, and increasing disillusionment over the tough work of distribution, orders for Empty Bowl books came steadily from book stores, distributors, collectors and readers of poetry and literature throughout the world. It was ill-omened: for Christians, the word tenebrosum suggested evil and evoked the Prince of Darkness. Two of these, The Green Sea and The Circumambient Ocean, appear in the passage just quoted from the famous 10th century Arab historian and geographer al-Masa€™udi, whose works are full of fascinating geographical information.
The Babylonians, and perhaps the Sumerians before them, envisaged the inhabited portion of the world as an upturned boat, a gufa, floating in the sea.
The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, writing 400 years after al-Masa€™udi and almost 1900 years after Aristotle, compared the inhabited portion of the world to a grape floating in a saucer of water. Thus, a man from Cordoba named Khashkhash got together a number of young men from the same city and they set sail on the ocean in ships they had fitted out.
But the story occurs in the context of a discussion of the All-Encompassing Sea, not the coasts of northern Europe, which were relatively well-known to the Arab geographers. Medieval historians focused their attention on the ruler and his court, and to a certain extent on the a€?urban elite.a€? The doings of private citizens, particularly of the humbler classes, are only incidentally mentioned by Arab historians of the Middle Ages - or indeed, by their Christian counterparts. As both a historian and geographer al-Masa€™udi presents China in the context of the entire world known to him in his Muruj al-dhahab wa-mdadin al-jawhar [Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems]. It is an excellent work, but since the author never sailed, nor indeed traveled sufficiently to be acquainted with the kingdoms and cities, he did not know that the Indus in Sind has perfectly well-known sources.
Like Ibn Khurradadhbih, he states that China was one of the seven ancient nations that existed before Islam and claims that its people descended from Noah. A general account of the seas based on Greek tradition ends with the Abyssinian Sea, that is, the Indian Ocean. Muslim geographers always began their accounts with the descriptions of seas and islands, and they often updated these discussions based on new information from contemporary sailors of the Indian Ocean. This [type of ship] exists only in the Abyssinian sea [the Indian Ocean] because all of the ships of the Sea of Rum and the west [emending Arab to gharb] are nailed, while the ships of the Abyssinian sea are not fastened with iron nails, because the sea water dissolves the iron, so the nails become thin and weak in the sea.
The seas did not connect to each other until the Suez Canal was constructed in the late 19th century.
He also described the geography of many lands beyond the Caliphate, as well as the customs and religious beliefs of many peoples. He perceived the significance of interstate relations and of the interaction of Muslims and Hindus in the various states of the subcontinent.
He surveyed the vast areas inhabited by Turkic peoples, commenting on the extensive authority of the Khaqan previously, though no longer in al-Masa€™udia€™s time.
He has some knowledge of other peoples of eastern and western Europe, even far away Britain.
Thus I have reviewed every century, together with the events and deeds which have marked it, up until the present. They returned after a long absence with fabulous treasures from a strange and curious land or unknown territory. The truth is that there is such a constantly growing, extensive body of cultural, archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic evidence of Western and Northern African Muslim pre-Columbian American (and Caribbean) presence, that those who study the evidence and continue to deny the obvious, may reveal themselves to be rooted in old, racist, European renditions of American history.
Both Idrisi and Masa€™udi wrote of Muslim African trans-Atlantic excursions to the Western world.
Sulayman Nyang, the Gambian-born Howard University Professor of African Studies , as well as Kofi Wangara, and others .
Power trim was serviced a year ago, new fuel pump, diaphragms, timing set, stator and impellor. The lead singer begins, her voice with that little catch in it which always works its way past my defenses. During a 90-minute conference-call interview, amidst many laughter-filled moments, we learned about each membera€™s individual path and what brought them together. Given that there wasn't much money available for such things, it was for just one lesson per month and, to her, it was a special gift. However, during her senior year, her English teacher told her that the subject matter in her poems was immature and not worth writing about.
Rehearsals were held mostly on Long Island and toward the end also in Manhattan, where Jay was living. She was confined, with a brace, to bed rest for three months, allowed to take a few steps once a day. In my December NERFA CD reviews, I wrote: a€?While Jay on guitar and Paul on keyboard are terrific, Catherinea€™s voice is the jewel in the setting. In addition to co-bills with Freda€™s band, Hope Machine and the YaYas, Fred and Catherine will be touring together this fall.
But we escaped most of that for those four or five months we worked on the clear- cuts planting trees. A system of lines ranged out from the safest point near the stove, clothes pins bearing the weight of socks and underwear.
I had helped set type with Bob, Rod Freeman, and Kevin Quigley when they published a collection of poetry and art in 1973 known as The Wale. The Pit River people lived in Northern California which was beyond the southern boundary of the region where we found ourselves.
That places could be structured as natural rather than political systems seemed a more appropriate form of anarchy than measures then being suggested in cities. Empty Bowl began the first Dalmo'ma Anthology by collecting significant documents of the Northwest Anti-Trident movement and publishing them. When they had completed the Temple, built on property adjoining the Bangor Naval Base, Trident's Home Port, it was burnt to the ground by unknown arsonists. Rexroth said, without any sarcasm, that editors who start poetry magazines, do so to publish their own poetry. It became our consensus as a group of editors meeting in one another's living rooms, that we could not criticize the government without looking at the governed.
Remembering that a great deal of software originated here could suggest a Seattle Poet writes exclusively for cyber readerships. Just as Robert Frost and Virgil meditated on how the human condition thrives in the vegetative bucolic, and as Gary Snyder depicted the ghost logger visiting the demolished grove, Empty Bowl did too. It was an effort to expand our own sense of community, to demonstrate what the Sister City movement of that era was accomplishing, and to establish a relationship with environmental issues beyond our own bioregion.
Grant support is dependent upon past performance, and for small press publishers this means bigger and more beautiful books by more celebrated authors.
Compared, for instance, to those graduate students or hired guns who pre-read contest submissions, one's friends may seem less objective.


A month earlier I confessed to her I wanted to write an article about Central American refugees, but couldn't sustain more than thirty minutes of uninterrupted time at my mother's house.
In the years that followed most us were to remain involved in less active ways, while others would replace them: Barbara Morgan, Beth Barron, Ru Kirk, and still others who I hope will forgive my bad memory. During those years they published many of the books I have already described: Working The Woods Working The Sea (1986), Shadows Of Our Ancestors (1992) and Psyche Drives The Coast (1990) by Sharon Doubiago.
This old Sumerian word was used to describe the round-bottomed reed boats used in the marshes of southern Iraq, where they are still known by the same name.
We know as much as we do about the efforts of Prince Henry the Navigator to find the sea-route to the Indies because these expeditions were sponsored by the Crown, and the same is true of the four voyages of Columbus.
Thus having been well traveled throughout both the a€?Abbasid empire and India during his lifetime, al-Masa€™udi acquired a variety of sources that he used to compile his encyclopedic historical and geographical masterpiece. In contrast, al-Masa€™udi supplies richer and more detailed description than Ibn khurradadhbih does, providing detailed geographical facts and a genealogy of the imperial family (which is unreliable, however, because it provides names that are difficult to trace in contemporary Chinese sources). Al-Masa€™udi portrays the Indian Ocean as one mass of water comprising seven connected seas.
So people [of the Abyssinian sea] used stitching with fibers instead of the nails, and [the ships are] coated with grease and lime. Yet, as we now know, Abu Zayd and al-Masa€™udia€™s suggested route is unimaginable because small dhow planks could never have floated all the way from the Sea of China to the Pacific Ocean, through the straight of the Bering Sea and into the Arctic Ocean, down Norwegian Sea near Scandinavia, and then through the Strait of Gibraltar at Spain in order to finally enter the Mediterranean Sea.
He conveyed the great diversity of Turkic peoples, including the distinction between sedentary and nomadic Turks.
He knows less of West Africa, though he names such contemporary states as Zagawa, Kawkaw and Ghana. Furthermore, there is to be found at the beginning of this book a description of the seas and continents, of lands inhabited and uninhabited, of the lives of foreign kings, their histories and those of all the different peoples. It is a literary prize awarded every two years a€?for a work of excellence in literature and the humanities relating to the cultural heritage of Africa and the African diaspora.a€? Van Sertimaa€™s later compilation, African Presence in Early America, is considered a definitive work on the subject. Hearing them again, on a number of occasions, their brilliance reinforced my initial impression.
When he was 12, his parents took him to a Sinatra concert and he was thrilled to watch Buddy Rich drumming. During the third lesson, Catherine asked the teacher if she had a chance to become a singer. We cooked over the wood stove our odd concoctions of carbohydrates and protein; once I nearly gagged Tim McNulty with some barely cooked grain. Copies of this book, indeed rare now, seemed to be all over Port Townsend and Seattle for about five years. A few years later, a tunnel which originated in the basement of the Weir Building caved in one morning in the middle of Water Street halfway to Seafirst Bank, Jim blinking up into the dust. I had admired the intent of Kuksu, a magazine edited by Dale Pendell, Gary Snyder and Steve Sanfield. I remember very little, other than the distinction between a glottal stop and a glottal click.
He smoked Drum in those days when we had money, rolling each smoke meticulously so that the end product could have been mistaken for the machined sticks of committed Lucky's smokers. It included a rough map of the strife-torn Middle East, about which most of us entrenched regionalists knew utterly nothing. A roll of brown paper from the Port Townsend mill, which employed most of the town and fouled the air with pulp fumes, appeared in our office one day.
Archbishop Hunthausen attended the protest of Trident at Oak Bay at the mouth of Hood Canal, also known as Twana Fjord. At the time, I had to admit this was true, although both Bob Blair and I were committed to the work of those authors we'd invited.
In which case, does the reflection of a poet's sensory observations need to have any definable influence?
It wasn't until the following year that Empty Bowl became a nonprofit organization, and I was officially hired as editor-publisher-trainee.
With these three books our group of editors was able to focus on the major themes the reviewer of The Dalmo'ma Anthology had faulted us for treating like buckshot. Yet a response by someone who can be impartial, and who is genuinely moved by one's poetry, can be as rewarding as an acceptance into a world of academic look-alikes.
My own involvement with Empty Bowl Press changed in 1985 when I moved out of Port Townsend. They facilitated the distribution of Empty Bowl books produced by associates of the press, such as Whole Houses Shaking (1993) by Jim Bodeen, The Family Letters of Maxwell Perkins (1995) and Untold Stories (1990) A by William Slaughter. Documents, logs and maps were placed in royal archives and were available to the historians of the time, whereas knowledge of the mugharrirun and Khashkhash has come down to us only because of the chance interest of al-Idrisi and al-Masa€™udi.
Each of these seas has its own name and features; the seventh of these lying at the easternmost end is the Sea of China.
This proves, and God knows better, the connection of the seas, and that the sea near China and the country of Slid [Korea] goes all round the country of the Turks, and reaches the sea of the west [the Mediterranean?] through some straits of the encircling ocean. He noted their independent attitude, the absence of a strong central authority among them, and their paganism. If God gives me life, if He extends my days and grants me the favor of continuing in this world, I will follow this book with another, which will contain information and facts on all kinds of interesting subjects. During her recuperation period, she had time to reflect, and she realized that singing was the most important thing in her life and she wanted to make a serious attempt to work at it full-time. Just before first light the mice in our food supply would wake us, we'd stoke the stove, cook some sorry coffee, get back into damp rain gear, and carry charcoal-stained cheese sandwiches onto the clear-cut, hip bags filled with mudball treelings, Doug Fir, probably harvested by now for the toilet paper mills. Four or fiveA  letterpress machines were located in the back of the Weir Building, kitty-corner from Seafirst Bank and just across the street from the Town Tavern. What we were doing took some of its influence from their publication, yet the name remainedA  regional, but outside our own physical region, and paying homage to the native words and stories found in the book of a Spanish anthropologist who could never be more than an observer, despite his evident reliance on primitive ways.
And being forced to admit I knew nothing about the rather odd and apparently meaningless word I'd selected for the title of our magazine, except that I liked what I thought it sounded like in my Euro-tongue's appetite for blithe colonization. Bob was steady and careful in all that he did, and painfully aware of the lack of these qualities in others. My memory, of what I'd told myself was a transition from the dual editorship toward a collective, diverged widely from his; yet despite my surprise that he'd seen it so, I could recall no conversation where the name ceased to be his property. It seemed to me that for an issue of a magazine or an anthology to successfully evolve a theme, there must be this conception on the part of the editor that a centerpiece would state the key principles about which all other entries could revolve. Firecrackers 1, which I edited, consisted of three poems by Tim McNulty, Tom Jay and Doug Dobyns.
I wrote a description of that day when protesters got in boats to meet Trident on its maiden voyage to Bangor. Yet we wanted our anthology to express hope, both through our writing and through visual art.
An out of work treeplanter rehabilitating from an injured back, I was eligible for retraining funded by the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries for six months. The Rainshadow (1983), our first book published in Taiwan and bound in the traditional Chinese fashion included poems about China with those set near the eastern slope of the Olympics. The Empty Bowl editors made a decision, which may have been a factor in its eventual demise, to run no contests.
Because we are so unsure of ourselves, perhaps, as writers in a competitive culture, it helps to approach one's own work with an astonishing authority.
I had already lost the urge to design and publish books, and I was forced to admit I didn't have the stamina needed to distribute work which deserved to be read.
They arranged to place copies of many of these books into classrooms to be used as texts in college and high school courses. It is probable, however, that they entered sailorsa€™ lore along the Atlantic seaboard and joined the tales of other fabulous islands to the west - the Antilles, Brazil, St. This complete description of the Indian Oceana€™s seven seas supplements the missing part of the extant manuscript for the original volume of Accounts of China and India in 851. Did shipbuilders in the Mediterranean Sea build ships without using nails, consciously or unconsciously imitating dhows? He was very well informed on Rus trade with the Byzantines and on the competence of the Rus in sailing merchant vessels and warships. A present day analogy would be the use of the phrases a€?I am going Downtowna€? or a€?I am going into the Citya€? by those who live near say New York City, Chicago or London respectively.
Without limiting myself to any particular order or method of setting them down, I will include all sorts of useful information and curious tales, just as they spring to mind. Van Sertima appeared before a Congressional Committee to challenge the a€?Columbus mytha€?. She worked 30 hours a week her first two years and didn't audition for anything the first year. She spoke to Jay and Paul about pushing for more gigs, so in 1998, they surveyed the musical landscape and began their serious run as a band.
The Weir building was unheated, so we spent a great deal of time planning at the tavern.A  The building was being remodeled by Jim Weir, who expressed himself mainly with gestures and grunts. Immediately after the United States incinerated Hiroshima and Nagasaki, he tore a hole in the middle of his living room floor and roof, and heated the home with fire vented through that smoke hole. The three foot roll became an insurmountable problem for days until my old mentor, Grant Logg, came up to the office with his chainsaw, divided it into three neat rolls, and left. By 1982, our Anthology's commitment was to the issues themselves, and to attempting to present thoughtful arguments, compelling images and serious alternatives. Although our organization had to agree to hire me at the end of that period, we knew the chances were slim that Empty Bowl could afford an employee. Even a regional contest can limit and stymie the body of work and the current of influence collaboration fosters. Besides which, they did the heroic work of keeping the press afloat, and maintaining nonprofit status. Although his biographer Ahmad Shboul questions the furthest extent sometimes asserted for al-Masa€™udia€™s travels, even his more conservative estimation is impressive: Al-Masa€™udia€™s travels actually occupied most of his life from at least 915 to very near the end.
Lunde and Stone note that al-Masa€™udi in his Tanbih states that the revised edition of Muruj al-dhahab contained 365 chapters. We may never know the story, but we can understand from the passage how Aba Zayd and al-Masa€™udi understood the geography of the world during their time. This work will be called The Reunion of the Assemblies, a collection of facts and stories mixed together, to provide a sequel to my earlier writings and to complement my other works.
After re-acclimating herself as a student, in her sophomore year, she started performing in plays again. He worked with rehearsals for shows, so there wasn't time to practice the material a€” he just had to pick it up quickly.
Jim was always framing in walls or stairs, dismantling his work and reframing a room from a totally different plan.
This was not what we've come to call a NIMBY issue, however, since the frightening power of the Trident weapons system had global reach and presented a target which would wipe out such subtargets as Seattle, Portland, Vancouver, British Columbia, and all life between. Johnson, and reproduced a triptych of paintings in black and white by the late Northwest artist, Nelson Capouilliez. It seems now to have been a shady deal, but even the treeplanters who disapproved of filing the claim for the back injury, thought their own support of the press was a significant community obligation. Collaborations should be regional, that is, the collaborators should know one another, have more in common than an exchange of writing, like bodily fluids, for money. I rented a light table from a nearby typesetting company and tried to keep my lines straight.
His journeys took him to most of the Persian provinces, Armenia, Azerbaijan and other regions of the Caspian Sea; as well as to Arabia, Syria and Egypt.
In addition, she took a writing course, and in Carolyn Sobel, her professor, found a believer. Changing his mind didn't seem unusual, until we came to see the process of assembling and dismantling was chronic, and the building would never be finished. Funding for the production is the biggest burden for a small press publisher, and when the writer enters into this swamp, it may be because a publisher with integrity has found a manuscript that deserves to be published and invited the writer to help. Steve Johnson and I were on the phone every day discussing the placement of his photos, or the quality of printing. They stored the books for years in their house and their kids grew up with poets and readers coming and going to pick up or autograph copies. He also travelled to the Indus Valley, and other parts of India, especially the western coast; and he voyaged more than once to East Africa. Ita€™s dreamlike, with Paula€™s keyboard ringing like chimes and Jaya€™s solemn guitar strum conducting a stately march. But it seems a Northwest Poet, with or without a National or Multinational Corporation's readership, besides living here, must write something that interests people from the Northwest, that somehow characterizes them and this quite unusual combination of climate conditions in which we live. He also called the printer every morning to ensure the highest quality for his duotone reproductions.
They filled orders continuously, ran meetings and kept the accounts of an organization that took its name to mean both replenishment and the gift that moves. Catherinea€™s voice floats, ethereally high over them: Please let him keep looking toward this horizona€¦When Ia€™m thinking of him, ita€™s twilight. Certainly Pound's reading of Yeats' later poems had an influence, as he did on Eliot, and many other poets of the day.
They saw that the spontaneity of poetry needed to come to rest somewhere, and took on the steady methodical job of running Empty Bowl, permitting so many Northwest writers and artists a home. The function of the press was to keep a place for writers to publish works significant to the Northwest literary community. Lunde and Stone in the introduction to their English translation state that al-Masa€™udi received much information on China from Abu Zaid al-Sirafi whom he met on the coast of the Persian Gulf. The more nebulous and loose that group became, the more apparent became Empty Bowl's purpose: to record a valuable era in the region's literary history and to represent the tradition of those who stand apart, who choose within the smaller market to act locally.
In Syria al-Masa€™udi met the renowned Leo of Tripoli who was a Byzantine admiral who converted to Islam. From our home, and the materials at hand, we did what literature commands, we made a solid thing of words. In Egypt he found a copy of a Frankish king list from Clovis to Louis IV that had been written by an Andalusian bishop.



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