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DESCRIPTION: These images show 19th and 20th century reconstructions of the world-view of the Greek philosopher Strabo who wrote his famous geography at the beginning of the Christian era and compiled his map from travelersa€™ reports and the a€?writingsa€? of ancients. The contribution of Strabo as a scholar of great stature as philosopher, historian, and geographer, epitomizes the continuing importance of the Greek intellectual heritage - and contemporary practice - to the development of cartography in the early Roman world. Strabo claimed to have traveled widely to bring together an enormous amount of geographical knowledge. In many ways the most interesting passages relating to cartography in Straboa€™s Geographia are those that, although they contain no maps, give an account, for the first time in a surviving text, of how a description of the known world should be compiled. In order to avoid the deformational problems of flat maps, Strabo stated that he preferred to construct his map on a globe large enough to show all the required detail. As with all Greek world maps, the great impediment to study for the historian of cartography is that we have only these verbal descriptions, not the images themselves. It is not clear how we should interpret these familiar graphic similes Strabo employed to describe to his readers the land areas and other features on the world map. Strabo was a lengthy and discursive writer, but demonstrated good critical power in assessing earlier geographical writers and has given us a verbal picture of the known world of the time. The most detailed examination of a term arising from Homeric geography (#105) is in respect of Ethiopians.
The function of geography, according to Strabo, is to be an interpreter, not of the whole world, but of the inhabited world. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?a€?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦.
Strabo has summed up for us the knowledge of the ancient world as it was in the days of the Emperor CA¦sar Augustus of the great Roman Empire, as it was when in far-off Syria the Christ was born and the greater part of the known earth was under the sway of Rome. Strabo begins his book with a detailed account of southern Spain where he tells of her two hundred towns. Large quantities of corn and wine are exported, besides much oil, which is of the first quality, also wax, honey, and pitch . But if anyone disbelieves the evidence of reason, it would make no difference, from the point of view of the geographer, whether we make the inhabited world an island, or merely admit what experience has taught us, namely, that it is possible to sail round the inhabited world on both sides, from the east as well as from the west, with the exception of a few intermediate stretches. Despite the extension of the geographical horizons of the inhabited world since the time of Eratosthenes, Straboa€™s oikumene [inhabited world] was smaller. He goes on to suggest that the quadrilateral in which the Atlantic lies resembles in shape half the surface of a spinning-wheel, and that the oikumene [inhabited world] resembles a chlamys, a Greek mantle. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦. Those best known are situated on the rivers, estuaries, and seas; but the two which have acquired the greatest name and importance are Cordova and Cadiz.
He grows enthusiastic over the richness of this part of southern Spain, famous from ancient days under the name of Tartessus for its wealth. It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos (#113), a contemporary of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic school of Philosophers, who made the first attempt to construct a terrestrial globe, and that he exhibited the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B.
As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. The now lost map by Strabo represented the sum total of cartographic knowledge before the Christian era.
It is generally accepted, however, that he must have compiled much of this information in the great library at Alexandria, where he had access to many earlier texts now lost. His motives for writing such a geography (so he tells us) were that he felt impelled to describe the inhabited world because of the considerable strides in geographical knowledge that had been made through the numerous campaigns of the Romans and Parthians. The first stage was to locate the portion of the terrestrial globe that was known to be inhabited. And, as to these stretches, it makes no difference whether they are bounded by sea or by uninhabited land; for the geographer undertakes to describe the known parts of the inhabited world, but he leaves out of consideration the unknown parts of it - just as he does what is outside of it.
Although PythA¦s, Eratosthenes, and perhaps Posidonius had fixed its northern limit on the parallel through Thule [Iceland ? He recommended that it be at least ten feet (approximately three meters) in diameter and mentions Crates (#113) in this regard. Nevertheless, apart from the reduced size of the inhabited world, the map Strabo envisaged was similar in its overall shape to that drawn by Eratosthenes (#112).
He treats Homer (#105) as the first writer on geography, and defends the Homeric picture of the known world as substantially true.
Thus he says that the legend of the Golden Fleece brought back from Colchis by the Argonauts reflects the search for gold by early Greeks in areas of the Black Sea. What did Homer mean by saying they were a€?divided in two, some where Hyperion rises and some where he setsa€?? Thus, accepting Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of 252,000 stades for the circumference of the earth, the geographer ought not to include the equatorial zone, since that in Straboa€™s view is uninhabitable. This suggests that the eastern and western extremities of the oikumene were thought of as tapering and convex. But one needs a large globe, so that the section mentioned, being only a fraction of it, may clearly show the appropriate parts of the oikumene, which win present a recognizable shape to users. But his seventeen volumes -vastly important to his contemporaries - read like a romance to us today, and a glance at the map laid down according to his descriptions is like a vague and distorted caricature of the real thing. A wall-map had already been designed by order of Augustus (#118) to hang in a public place in Rome - the heart of the Empire - so that the young Romans might realize the size of their inheritance, while a list of the chief places on the roads, which, radiating from Rome, formed a network over the Empire, was inscribed on the Golden Milestone in the Forum. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!a€?But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. Some had told him it was a third of the whole habitable world, some that it took four months to walk through the plain only. 21, and a century passed before Pliny wrote An Account of Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances, and Peoples who now Exist or Formerly Existed. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. From Genesis to Revelation, its pages reveal there are both physical and spiritual wars raging. The battleground for this intense spiritual struggle is not some piece of earthly real estate; it is the human heart. Naturally, it should stand to reason that because these battles are of a spiritual nature, the weapons we employ must also be spiritual. I was a bit disappointed to find that Saula€™s armor did not fit David and that Goliatha€™s armor was useless against Davida€™s stone. The spiritual significance is that God does not simply want us to point at the truth; He wants us to wear it and have it wrapped about us. In order to ski barefoot, it is necessary to go much faster than when wearing regular skis to stay on top of the water. As the boat roared along at about 40 mph, for a fleeting moment he was skiinga€”but then in a flash, he tumbled and began to bounce and roll across the surface of the lake like a skipping stone. In the same way, many confused Christians have fled naked and ashamed when challenged by the enemy because they had not secured the belt of truth. It was often composed of a solid piece of metal, but it could also contain numerous small pieces that were sewn to cloth or leather that overlapped much like the scales of a fish. Usually made of wood or bronze, it was often big enough to protect the whole body when the soldier crouched down under a hail of arrows. The purpose for this shield of faith was to deflect the fiery darts of the enemy and prevent them from ever making contact. Likewise, Christians cannot afford to have a flimsy faith while in the heat of spiritual battle.
In the same way, when the devil sends his flaming arrows of temptation, we are to hold up the shield bearing the name of our King of kings, Jesus. For instance, King Abimelech died because he charged a city wall without first putting on his helmet. The giant Goliath became outraged that young David would dare come against him with nothing more than a shepherda€™s staff and sling in his hand. But the purpose for this helmet of salvation is not only to keep out the rocks, but also to keep in the brains! Having our feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace gives us good footinga€”and prevents backsliding as well. On one of these days, he and I got into a little sibling disagreement, and I discovered that it is very difficult to box while wearing ice skates. After taking a drink, he removed his new hiking boots and socks to avoid getting them wet as he crossed the creek. It is also called a two-edged sword because it is to be used both against the enemy and for personal use.
Likewise, the Word of God is a practical tool for every area of life, as well as in fighting the devil.
Any general knows that victory almost always depends on which army has the element of surprise. This does not mean we go about on our knees all day; rather, we must be constantly aware of Goda€™s presence and that there is an enemy stalking us. After making progress halfway up the hill, the weary soldiers became discouraged by the constant barrage and began to retreat back down the hill.
If you were baptized, you made a promise to God, and the force of that commitment has not diminished at all over time. All his writings were firmly set in, if not direct extensions of, the work of his predecessors. The world map had to be adjusted to take account of these facts, and thus Strabo almost certainly proceeded by taking Eratosthenesa€™ map - and the criticism of it by Polybius, Crates, Hipparchus, and Posidonius - as the basis for his own work. Strabo reasoned that it lay in a northern quadrant of a globe, in a quadrilateral bounded by the frigid zone, the equator, and two meridians on the sides. And it will suffice to fill out and complete the outline of what we term a€?the islanda€? by pining with a straight line the extreme points reached on the coasting-voyages made on both sides of the inhabited world. 66A° N], Strabo, like Polybius, refused to believe that human life was possible so far north, and he blamed Pytheas for having misled so many people by his claim that the a€?summer tropica€? becomes the a€?arctic circlea€? at the island of Thule. On the other hand, if a globe of this size could not be constructed, Strabo was familiar from Eratosthenes with the transformation necessary to draw it on a plane surface.
In describing its detailed geography, however, Strabo did not employ, at least overtly, Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into irregular quadrilaterals or sphragides, but he often used geometric figures or comparisons to everyday objects to describe the general outline of a country. In some cases, where alternative descriptions are provided, he may have been attempting to collate the outlines of more than one map.
But within the Homeric chapters he has a section in which he attempts to analyze navigation of the oceans over the ages. When Homer made Hera say: a€?For I shall see the bounds of fertile earth and Oceanus, father of the godsa€?, what he means, says Strabo, is that the Ocean touches all the extremities of the land. Instead he should start his analysis with the Cinnamon Country [near the mouth of the Red Sea, Somaliland], about 8,800 stades north of the equator, in the south, and with Ireland in the north.
Again, he estimated the length of the oikumene as 70,000 stades and its width as less than 30,000. He tells us of a people living north of the Tagus, who slept on the ground, fed on acorn-bread, and wore black cloaks by day and night.
It seems to have been Cratesa€™ idea that the eartha€™s surface, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like habitable regions. In fact, during the same time period, there have been 5,305 years of war a€¦ and only 292 years of peace.
Physical wars have dominated historya€™s attention from the time Cain killed his brother Abel, right down to the present day. In this showdown between the forces of good and the powers of evil, truth and light are under constant attack from deception and darkness.
Both Jesus and the devil are supremely interested in winning possession of our minds and hearts. This is why Paul reminds us, a€?We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high placesa€? (Ephesians 6:12). I also discovered that a stray arrow found a crack in Ahaba€™s armor, killing the wicked king. In fact, at the very moment that Paul wrote his letter to the Ephesians, he might well have been chained to a soldier sporting the armor of the Roman Empire.
They take some of the armor, but forget one or two parts of the suita€”and pay an eternal price for their neglect. Not only does the belt hold everything in place, but it also serves to carry the sheath that holds the sword of the Spirit for ready access.
When a skier falls at these high speeds, it is not uncommon for him to aggressively roll and bounce across the surface of the water before sinking.
When we circled around to where the dazed boy floated with his life jacket on, I noticed that he had a bewildered look on his face. These scales could number as many as 700 to 1,000 per a€?coat.a€? When the sun shone directly on the armor, it could become very hot.
Also keep in mind that the high priest wore a golden breastplate over his linen robe that was set with 12 precious stones, each inscribed with one of the names of the 12 tribes of Israel.


Likewise, Christian soldiers should stand firm and never surrender any ground to the devil. Likewise, faith in Christa€™s blood is our first defense against the great accuser (Zechariah 3:1a€“5).
Multitudes of Christians fall on the battlefield and fail to overcome evil because they wait until they are immersed in the fires of temptation before making any effort to resist.
Goliatha€™s haughtiness apparently prompted him to carelessly push back his helmet, because minutes later a smooth stone from Davida€™s sling had sunk deep into the gianta€™s forehead (1 Samuel 17:40-49). As we become involved in spreading the good news, it will strengthen us (and others) against the enemya€™s attacks. But despite his careful efforts, he lost his footing and slipped on a wet rock, losing both his new boots and socks into the rushing water.
The other armaments in Goda€™s arsenal are defensive in nature, but the sword is primarily an offensive weapon.
Like the Philippian jailer, we must be ready to apply the sword of Goda€™s Word to ourselves (Acts 16:27). In the story of Gideon, the soldiers were chosen based upon their watchfulness, and they caught the enemy sleeping and won through surprise. It is time that we, as Goda€™s soldiers, stop simply discussing His commands and begin obeying them. Then they noticed that their standard bearer, who carried the company flag, refused to fall back. When you enlisted in Goda€™s army, you promised to work in and attend the church, return your tithe, dress modestly, eat and drink to the glory of God, and care for your body temple. The One who forged our armor guarantees its effectiveness and promises that a€?the gates of hell shall not prevail against ita€? (Matthew 16:18).
Thus his Historical Memoirs in forty-seven books, now lost, was a continuation of Polybius.
For a graticule, Strabo adopted the straight forward rectangular network of parallels and meridians.
It is also probable that students were expected to consult the text of the Geographia with the help of maps, so that the shapes thus enumerated may have served as a simple mnemonic. Or again, when Homer describes Odysseus as seeing land as he was on the crest of a great wave, he must have been referring to the curvature of the earth, a phenomenon familiar to sailors.
He categorizes regions from south to north according to greatest length of day in equinoctial hours.
If one cannot make it as big or not much smaller, one should construct a map of the oikumene on a plane surface at least seven feet long. He does not think Britain is worth conquering - Ireland lies to the north, not west, of Britain; it is a barren land full of cannibals and wrapped in eternal snows - the Pyrenees nun parallel to the Rhine - the Danube rises near the Alps - even Italy herself runs east and west instead of north and south. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us. One inch of ice in 3 days !!!It wasreal windy most of the day and I spent more time in the EskimoQuick Fish 3.The two holes in the shelter provided some steady action for perch and bluegills.
Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population.The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library.
This should not surprise us, for Jesus predicted, a€?And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars. For this reason, Christians are called to be more than peaceful spectators or mediators in this cataclysmic conflict.
Paul could see firsthand how frail the defenses of man were against the prince of darkness.
Some people have the sword of Goda€™s Word, but without the belt of truth they come to reckless conclusions. Never forget that wearing the belt of truth also means wearing Christ, for He is a€?the way, the truth, and the lifea€? (John 14:6). So to avoid being burnt, or even pinched, by the moving metal plates, the soldiers always wore a sturdy robe under the armor. As we study and come to understand Goda€™s Word, there should be a settling into the truth a€?that we should no longer be children,tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in the cunning craftiness of deceitful plottinga€? Ephesians 4:14, NKJV).
He then described the agony of hiking barefoot for miles on burning-hot rocks through cactus-lined trails. In fact, the sword of Goda€™s Word is what Jesus used against the devil and it also gave the beast of Revelation 13 a deadly wound (Revelation 13:3, 14). God calls you to be extraordinary and differenta€”to stand firm in a world of gutless wonders. Just as Jonathan so loved David that he gave him his armor, sword, robe and indeed his very throne (1 Samuel 18:3, 4), so Jesus gives us all we need to be assured of total and final victory.
The Geographia is of key importance to our whole knowledge of the history of Greek cartography as well as to the history of science in general. The so-called quadrilateral, bounded by half of this arctic circle, half of the equator, and segments of two meridians, is a spherical quadrilateral, a portion of a sphere. He defended his projection on the ground that it would make only a slight difference if the circles on the earth were represented by straight lines, a€?for our imagination can easily transfer to the globular and spherical surface the figure or magnitude seen by the eye on a plane surface.a€? The dimensions of this flat map were also to be generous. Similarly, Strabo compares the shape of Iberia to an ox-hide, the Peloponnese to a plane-leaf; and the northern part of Asia, east of the Caspian, to a kitchen knife with the straight side along the Taurus range and the curved side along the northern coastline.
Yet if such suggestions must remain speculative, there can be little doubt that by the early Roman period world maps and globes drawn by Greek scholars were encouraging a distinctively geographical way of thinking about the world. The problems of the armchair geographer are revealed in the journalistic trick of quotes from quotes on an important exploration: a€?Posidonius, says Herodotus, thinks that certain men sent by Neco completed the circumnavigationa€™. Some of this was polemic against Eratosthenes, who would not have if that early epic poetry could contribute anything to scientific theory.
Cratesa€™ view was based upon an unorthodox view that the division was north-south rather than the obvious interpretation of east-west. This list, starting at Meroe with thirteen hours and ending at an area north of the Sea of Azov with seventeen hours, is similar to that given by the elder Pliny. A vast number of people dwell along the Guadalquivir, and you may sail up it almost a hundred and twenty miles from the sea to Cordova and the places a little higher. Through the formulation and expression of such a theory the idea of the existence of an antipodal people was put forth as a speculative problem, an idea frequently discussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the day of great transoceanic discoveries. But he gives us a fuller account of Great Britain, based on the fresh discovers of Roman generals. This is why he twice emphasized a€?the armor of God.a€? It is also clear that Paul was expanding on the words of the Old Testament prophet Isaiah, who had made a similar spiritual association for two of the articles of armor.
When Jesus said, a€?I did not come to bring peace but a sword,a€? He was not saying that He, the Prince of peace, had come to start wars (Matthew 10:34). Swords were kept clean by frequent use or by honing them against a stone (the Rock of Ages) or another soldiera€™s sword. We are commanded to be a€?watchful to this end with all perseverancea€? (Ephesians 6:18, NKJV). Armando CortesA?o states that as a source it was a€?second to none in the history of geography and cartographya€? of this period. In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly.
He estimated the latitudinal extent of the inhabited world as less than 30,000 stades (compared with Eratosthenesa€™ 38,000 stades) and reduced its length to 70,000 stades instead of Eratosthenesa€™ 78,000 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by various authors]. Strabo envisaged that it would be at least seven feet long and presumably three feet wide, which would suit the length of the inhabited world (70,000 by 30,000 stades), one foot being equivalent to 10,000 stades.
India, with two adjacent sides (south and east) much longer than the two others, he described as rhomboidal; Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, he saw as being like a boat drawn in profile, with the deck on the Tigris side and the keel near the Euphrates. And it is likely, among the educated group at least, that an increasingly standard image of the inhabited world had come to be more widely accepted through the use of these maps. This is all he reports, so that we have to beware of using all his work as scientifically worthy material.
As mentioned earlier, in the extreme north, Strabo denied the existence of a Thule Island [Iceland?]. A considerable quantity of salted fish is exported, not only from hence, but also from the remainder of the coast beyond the Pillars. That Strabo, at a later date, had this Pergamenian example in mind when stating certain rules to be observed in the construction of globes seems probable, since he makes mention of Cratesa€™ globe. The death lull kicked in around1230 and fishing picked back up again at 3pm.I landed the usual residents of the lake-- a few trout, afew nice crappies, perch and gills. Rav Izak Haleva, is assisted by a religious Council made up of a Rosh Bet Din and three Hahamim.
The only way we can experience victory in battle against the devil is through confidence that the righteousness of Jesus covers our hearts and that we are forgiven. Hold up that shield of faith and do everything in your power to keep as much distance as possible between you and the temptation. You dona€™t want to be caught without your gospel shoes while journeying through this wilderness! But despite the fact that cannons were exploding all around him, this courageous soldier was unwilling to yield an inch. But we are also assured, a€?I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth mea€? (Philippians 4:13). Many of the earlier treatises that touch upon maps are known to us only through Strabo, while the interest of his commentary on these writers is in its critical handling of their theories, albeit he sometimes fails to advance truth by this process. Strabo repeats that the river Nile was described by Eratosthenes as a reversed N, and that its mouth was named after the Greek capital letter delta. Perhaps because he is drawing on an account at second hand, he is afraid to support what may have seemed like science fiction. To him the most northerly inhabited area was Ierne [Ireland], itself a€?only wretchedly inhabitable because of the cold, to such an extent that regions beyond it are regarded as uninhabitablea€?.
Let the equator be conceived as a circle on it, and let a second circle be conceived parallel to it, delimiting the frigid zone in the northern hemisphere, and through the poles a circle cutting these at right angles. The eye is also delighted with groves and gardens, which for this district are met with in the highest perfection. Formerly they exported large quantities of garments, but they now send the un-manufactured wool remarkable for its beauty. Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as we find in use at the present day. This was the strategy employed by Jesus to emerge victorious after being tempted by the devil in the wilderness. He does not deal extensively with Hanno the Carthaginian, instead spending much effort on questioning the explorations of Eudoxus of Cyzicus, who must have added to the accumulation of knowledge about the remote parts of Africa. Straboa€™s own view is that there were two groups of Ethiopians, one living in Asia and one in Africa; and that Homer thought likewise, though not to the extent of placing the eastern group in India, of which he had no knowledge.
Likewise, if one were to go not more than 4,000 stades [500 Roman miles] north from the center of Britain, one would find an area near Ireland, which like the latter would be barely inhabitable.
For fifty miles the river is navigable for ships of considerable size, but for the cities higher up smaller vessels are employed, and thence to Cordova river-boats.
He thought that a globe to be serviceable should be of large size, and his reasoning can readily be understood, for what at that time was really known of the eartha€™s surface was small indeed in comparison with what was unknown. We never need to worry about them wearing away; God will resole them every time we return to the cross.
You come up to where the standard is.a€? Inspired by the bravery of their comrade, the Yankees renewed their efforts and took the hill. However, this idea of eastern Ethiopians living in some area of India and resembling Indians in appearance and customs persisted throughout antiquity.
These are not constructed of planks pined together, but they were formerly made out of a single trunk. There is a superabundance of cattle and a great variety of game, while on the other hand there are certain little hares which burrow in the ground (rabbits). Should one not make use of a sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions, in comparison with the eartha€™s entire surface, would occupy but small space.
In the same way, a Christian should a€?be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and feara€? (1 Peter 3:15). A chain of mountains, rich in metal, runs parallel to the Guadalquivir, approaching the river, sometimes more, sometimes less, toward the north.
Founded by Ashkenazim of Austrian origin in 1900, it is the last remaining synagogue among a total of three built by Ashkenazim.
Surprisingly, though, it seems not to have been read in Rome in the first century, judging from the fact that it is not even mentioned by the elder Pliny.
Whoever would represent the real earth, he says, as near as possible by artificial means, should make a sphere like that of Crates, and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart of geography is to be placed. Visits con be made during weekday mornings and for Shabbat services on Saturday mornings.,The Neve Shalom Synagogue ,uilt and opened in 1951 and the scene of a tragic terrorist attack in 1986, it is the largest synagogue in Istanbul where most of the religiou,s ceremonies are held. It is said that formerly the inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca sent a deputation to the Romans requesting that a new land might be given them, as they were quite driven out of their country by these animals, being no longer able to stand against their vast multitudes.


For this purpose however a large globe is necessary since the section mentioned, though but a very small portion of the entire sphere, must be capable of containing properly all the regions of the habitable earth and of presenting an accurate view of them to those ho wish to consult it. Plenty ofpanfish with a few perch hitting the 9-inch mark and a crappie thatwas almost 10 inches.I caught trout sporadically throughout the day, ending with 9. The Neve Shalom is open to the public for morning visits during the weekdays and for Shabbat prayers every Saturday morning.,,The Ahrida Synagogue ,Located in Balat near the Golden Horn, built by Jews of Ohri (Macedonia) more than 550 years ago and recently renovated during the Quincentennial Celebrations in 1992, the Ahrida Synagogue is known foremost by its boat-shaped bimah.
It can only be visited during weekday mornings.,Etz Ahayim Synagogue ,Located in Ortakoy, near the European leg of the Bosphorus Bridge.
But it should have a diameter of not less than ten feet; those who cannot obtain a globe of this size, or one nearly as large, had better draw their charts on a plane surface of not less than seven feet.
When the previous synagogue burned down in 1941 with only the marble Aron-ha-Kodesh remaining, the new synagogue was rebuilt on the location of the then midrash. They feed on the fruit, of stunted oak, which grows at the bottom of the sea and produces very large acorns. We can easily imagine how the eye can transfer the figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to he that is spherical. So great is the quantity of fruit, that at the season when they are ripe the whole coast on either side of the Pillars is covered with acorns thrown up by the tides. The meridians of each country on the globe have a tendency to unite in a single point at the poles; nevertheless on the surface of a plane map there would be no advantage if the right lines alone which should represent the meridians were drawn slightly to converge. The tunny fish become gradually thinner, owing to the failure of their food as they approach the Pillars from the outer sea. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community. As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest.
When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration.
Teddy told me the lake is completed covered and the ice might be about 1 inch orso.Teddy has patrolled and lived next toAntietam Lakealmostall his life and he knows the lake. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.
Half a century later, 8070 Jewish houses were listed in the city.The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey.
Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure.
The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc. There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi.
There isplenty of rainfall predicted for that area.Most of the fish sitting in the estuary should be entering the river as I type this. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters.
Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank?? Anglers tend to give you space, the scenery is beautiful and the Osprey's always put on a show. Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century.
The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews??
Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students. Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino).
Wednesday was spent in the upper fly zone and wasslow in the morning but pretty consistent in the afternoon. Ialso landed a smallmouth bass, a few small brown trout, afew small rainbows (steelhead smolts ?), a fallfishand a baby AtlanticSalmon.
The Mohawk egg pattern accounted for many smaller fish and the salmon sized Light Spruce fly produced a few hookups. Last years--One Day Trip-- hot fly,Olive bugger with White marabou tail and redcrystal flash also received plenty of attention and did account for 2 fish. The guyI was fishing withused plenty of flies with smaller bucktail flies doing most of the damage. He didhook-up with a few fish while usingmy Death Stonefly, landing one nice Coho.I can tell you this---the next few weeks will provide some serious action. There are fish in the system at this moment and with the water release at 1800 CFS and the rain. The pool we were fishing was loaded with suckers and chubs and I did see a few trout and a couple of nice sized smallmouth bass. Any questions as to what to tie, just shoot me an email or use the Contact 2Bonthewater page.
All that cold water coming from a quarry and the creek itself in that area is near lifeless. The bridge is now being painted a Hunter Green color.Most of the creeks in the OleyValley are really low. Even with the rain, the creeks remain very low.A I have a trip scheduled to the Salmon River planned inlate September thanks to Jack. Without Jack's kindness and awesomeness, I would not be going salmon fishing.A I have startedtyingflies for the upcoming salmon trip.
Zoe competed in a National Beauty pageant and won honorable mention in the beauty competition (FYI -- Zoe wears no make-up, fake hairor fake teethand she competes in the natural division--she is my little girl and I would never DRESS HER UP like all those crazy folks you see on TV). We dressed as fishermen, answered a question about each other and then Zoe did some fly casting on stage.
Zoe was crowned Little Queen when she won the Pennsylvania state pageant back in 2006 while competing in a Sunburst pageant.
There are plenty of out of the way smaller streams that are teeming with Smallmouths, Carp and a variety of Panfish. Perkiomen Creek -- air temp 89 degrees, checked the temperature at two spots, temps were 70 and 69 degrees -- Taken between 415-425 pmA Manatawny Creek -- air temp was 88 degrees, checked the temperature at three spots, temps were 76 degrees at Red Covered Bridge, 74 degrees above TIKI bar and 76 degrees below the Rt. This heatwave has made most ofthe local trout streams too warm to fishfor the catch and release angler. Maiden Creek below Ontelaunee Lake should provide anglers with some fishthat are willing to bite.
You can find Carp, Smallmouth Bass, Largemouth Bassand a wide assortment of panfish to keep you busy. Take some cold water with you !!!Your best way to keep the water cool is to freeze a bottle or two of water the night before you head out. As the day heats up, the water bottles will slowly melt, leaving you with nice cold waterto drink throughout the day. I fished for 30-minutes on Manatawny and landed 2 wild browns on a tan caddis dry fly in the area where the water temp was 68 degrees. Temperature wise, if it is 90 degrees outside, pretty sure most, if not all of the local trout waters will be at 70 degrees or higher. We don't wantto kill the trout.The trout that survive through the summer will offerus great fishing in the fall.
I have not made a trip to the Schuylkill River as of yet, but I'd bet the house that the smallie action should be pretty darn good.
You can also takeyour watercraft outbefore Epler atCross Keys Road or at Muhlenburg Township park which is below the PFBC Epler Access. There is little room to fish, unless you don't mind walking the shoreline that is covered with all types of vegetation, including Poison Ivy. Pleny of fish to be caught in this body of water, that is if you can get to them.A Manatawny Creek fished OK. This stretch used to provide some very nice smallmouth action, but the last few trips here have been poor.
Switched to a spent spinner pattern and hooked up twice--snapped one off and landed a nice stocker brown. The water is up from recent rains inthe valley, but the stream was clear and in perfect condition.
The Schuylkill River and a few tribs shouldprovide any cat or carp angler with a few bites each nite. Channel catfish prefer dead baits andsmaller live bait, while the Flatheads prefer larger live bait. Carp will eatsmaller live bait including minnows andcrayfish along with the standard fare of homemade MUSH bait or whole kernel corn.The bottom line is--It doesn't really matter what bait you areusing. But, by now it was pitch black and it was raining pretty good and thelightning made it look like the 4th of July came early.I managed to land 2 fish on my emerger pattern androll 2 other trout. Started out at the mouth of Sacony Creek but there was some serious bridge work going on, so I left after a few casts. Caught some nice bluegills, onebrown trout, pumpkinseeds, green sunfish, agolden shiner and I almost hooked into a very nice largemouth bass. Kids and water mean plenty of noise,lots of splashing and lots offun.Normally, 750pm is about the timethe sulphurs start popping off.
I saw some Iso's and huge stoneflies coming off and flying around.I caught a trophy Bluegill, no kidding check out the picture, almost 9 inches.
I left my headlamp in the truck so I had to walkout before it got too dark and miss the potential spinner fall.
I then drove to another stretch of the crick and hooked up a few times fishing a brown spent spinner. I lost them at the bank.A Fish the mornings with a brown or white spent spinner and you might get a few takes on the surface.
My favorite is a "John's Spring Creek Pupa" tied in size 18 and 20 (Trout Flies of The East--page 93). I caught two brookies on a CDC sulphur dry fly and the rest of the fish were caught with nymphs. What an amazing fish, especially on a 2 wt bamboo fly rod with a fly reel that is dated to the 1930's or 1940's. What a specimen.He looked like a submarine swimming in the water !!My first impression of the leviathan is that it was a wild fish. Tonights fishing provided a mixed bag of fish, a few smallwild brown trout, along with a few stocker browns, stockerrainbows and the brook trout. I topped it all off with a visit to Ted's house to show off the bamboo fly rod and talk shop. It was about 40 degrees and raining.I didroll a larger fish on a midge, but aside from that, it was a very slow night. Cast down and across and hop the flies upoff the bottom with quick upward lifts of the fly rod.The fish would really strike hard. I still have not figured out whyone day I will catch all browns, one day I will catch all rainbows and some days, you will catch a little of everything.



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