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GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 7MAYTAG "NEWTON" MACHINES (for Maytag Performa and Atlantis models,see Chapter 7a)NOTE: Chapter 2 covers problems common to almost all washer designs.
GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 8DOMESTIC ICEMAKERS8-1 ICEMAKER TYPESIcemakers are divided into two basic types; flex-tray and hard tray. In a way, it was the end of a 15-year era for me and the Tacoma, Toyotaa€™s smaller pickup truck. The a€™97 Tacoma served me well, but at the end of 4 years, I wanted something with a few more perks. As nice as my new pickup was, it still lacked one basic feature that was also missing in the a€™97 a€“ a clock. Fast-forward 5 A? years: I notice that my a€?newa€? truck is starting to struggle ever so slightly on startup. At the end of the 4-year lease in 2005, I gladly entered a purchase contract to pay off the remaining balance. At this point I would like to regale you with amusing anecdotes about things that happened in and with my Tacomas. I started with some Internet research to determine the approximate value of my a€?newa€? truck, and after checking out the RAV4 options, I quickly fell in love with the Pacific Blue color. I knew I could get more for my truck if I sold it myself, so I consulted my brother, who is an expert (nay, I say, genius!) at handling such matters.
There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in.
The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy. Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view.
Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later. Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher.
He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo. The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist. Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing.
Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles.
By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles. What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past. Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past!
Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image.
His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627).
Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian.
Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week.
He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687.
Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom.
Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes.
Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture.
Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian. List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution. Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin. Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations.
Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning. The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual.
Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought.
The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live. The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality? The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed. The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth.
If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world?
They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives. There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws!
The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes. The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists. However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town. In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays.
Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government. He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king.
Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear. Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman.
Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society.
He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best. Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope. One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI. After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule.
Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy.
He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare. Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler. Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters.
Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants.
A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history. As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland. Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being. His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great. Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle. Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop. He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly. The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices. Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs. Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture. In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society.
He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years.
A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other.
By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress.
A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity.
The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe. Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed.
Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government. He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free. However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed.
Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people.
Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke). Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church. He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life. And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract. The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry.
Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being.
Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy. Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers.
Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits. Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit.
Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science. Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe. Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America.
Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself. The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on. While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church. To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination. Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own. If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards?
The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason.
The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history.
The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!! The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason? There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France. The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain.
The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France.
Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life.
Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes.
Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above). The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches.
Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ. His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism.
With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority.
Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community.
Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches. When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches.
Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart. Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians. Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c. As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality. The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England.
The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later.
At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces. One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry. Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV!
Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes.
Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans.
It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England. It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions. List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason. Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason. Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes. In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government.
Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason.
Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. The struggle between neutrality and those who believe Britaina€™s war is our war too intensifies during the summer of 1940, with American heroes like the eighty-year-old General John a€?Black Jacka€? Pershing speaking out insistently on behalf of aid to Britain. 1940 is an election year, and President Roosevelt, seeking an untraditional third term in the White House, is hesitant to support Churchilla€™s Britain too strongly as he faces the most serious opponent of his lifetime, Republican dark horse Wendell Willkie whom many Americans like and admire. FDRa€™s alter ego Harry Hopkins is one of the administrationa€™s most controversial figuresa€”part New Deal champion, part political hack. A warm glow spread through me, and I was ready to climb off my high horse, but now Hopkins was frowning. I had one thing left to do: cancel my New School course and apologize to the students I was leaving in the lurch.
I got a platter of doughnuts for my students and explained the situation as they showed up. Chamberlain returned home to a sensational welcome, waving a scrap of paper he called a€?peace with honor, peace in our time.a€? Churchill called it unmitigated defeat. His words thrilled me, but Charles Lindbergh, a universal hero if we had one at the time, called for neutrality instead, and flew to Nazi Germany for a red-carpet tour of the Luftwaffe that had been poised to bomb Paris and London. For the next few years Lindbergh will be neutralitya€™s champion, and the leading spokesman for the isolationist a€?America Firsta€? movement opposing U.S.
Chamberlaina€™s policy of appeasement has failed abysmally, but the a€?phony wara€? he reluctantly declares on Germany neither saves the Poles nor incommodes the Germans for the next eight months. On the afternoon of August 22nda€”the news of the German-Russian treaty had arrived that morninga€”Paul White of the news department of the Columbia Broadcasting System called Elmer Davis on the telephone.
Elmer Davis had continued to warn the public about the dangers ahead in articles like a€?We Lose the Next Wara€? in the March a€™38 Harpera€™s. The proposal for a popular referendum on the declaration of war implies a growing conviction that the people themselves should make the ultimate decision of international politics; but to make it intelligently we need to know more about the cost of wara€”and about the cost of trying to remain at peace in a world at war. There, set down twelve years ago, is a preview of the history of Europe after Municha€”a Europe which at the end of 1938 stands about where it stood at the end of 1811, with this difference: In 1811 England was not only the implacable but the impregnable enemy of the man who dominated the Continent.
1939 passes with Americans mainly at the movies, though, in what will go down as their best year ever. There is a vast difference between keeping out of war, and pretending that this war is none of our business. When Hitler invades the Low Countries and France, driving the British Army to the Channel, a new Prime Minister takes office, Winston Churchill. The stranger will never become a Baker Street Irregular, but he has come to New York on a wartime mission that will change Woodya€™s life.


Churchill, overage and once-scorned maverick politician out of another era, seems to mean it, too. In New York, where much of Americaa€™s public opinion is made, unmade, and remade, two years of uneasy peace and agitation following the outbreak of war in Europe make for a turbulent climate, but one in which Mr. Elmer Davis has some ideas about that last item, though he isna€™t prepared to share them with Chris Morley yet.
Woodya€™s afternoon is not over, as Elmer Davis takes them from Christopher Morleya€™s shabby hideaway office on West 47th Street to the magnificence of his own club on West 43rd. In the distance, beyond Fifth Avenue rushing by a stonea€™s throw away, lay Grand Central and the Chrysler Building rising beyond it. In Western Europe, the a€?phony wara€? smoldered through the winter of 1939-40, but with spring, Hitler invaded Norway and Sweden, and his blitzkrieg started its blast through Holland, Belgium and France.
By mid-May, Ia€™d begun organizing a National Policy Committee meeting to be held June 29-30 under the title, Implications to the U.S.
Beneath the ancient oak trees on Pickens Hill, we sat in a circle, each giving in turn his or her reaction to the very present danger of a Nazi conquest of Britain.
Whitney Shepardson retired to Francisa€™ study and emerged with a brief declaration we called a€?A Summons To Speak Out.a€? Next day, Francis and I compiled a cross-country list of some hundred names to whom we sent the statement, inviting signatures. On the previous Friday, just before giving our release to the press for Monday's papers, I had telephoned Morse Salisbury at the Department of Agriculture: a€?Get me off the payroll this afternoon.
Woody, Elmer Davis, and Fletcher Pratt bring the BSI into the Century Groupa€™s proposal for the United States to exchange fifty mothballed World War I destroyers desperately needed by Britain for air and naval bases on British territories in the New World, a deal proposed by FDR before the disastrous summer is out, as the Battle of Britain begins.
The Century Association continues today, but two venues that have disappeared are also part of this chapter.
Largely forgotten today, Billy the Oysterman was a Manhattan institution at the time, though West 47th Street was a second and newer location. The midtown Billy the Oysterman opened in the a€™Thirties and was managed very personably by Billy Ockendon Jr.
In contrast to the original location, the West 47th Street Billy the Oysterman was an attractively modern place, with Walrus and the Carpenter murals on the walls. The other is Pennsylvania Station at Seventh Avenue and West 33rd, torn down in 1964 thanks to developersa€™ greed, but whose destruction led to preservation of many other architectural and historical landmarks in New York.
A A A  A warm glow spread through me, and I was ready to climb off my high horse, but now Hopkins was frowning.
Many Americans are relieved by the avoidance of war, but how tautly nerves are stretched becomes clear when the Halloween War of the Worlds broadcast by Orson Wellesa€™ Mercury Theater of the Air panics radio listeners from coast to coast. A A A  His words thrilled me, but Charles Lindbergh, a universal hero if we had one at the time, called for neutrality instead, and flew to Nazi Germany for a red-carpet tour of the Luftwaffe that had been poised to bomb Paris and London.
British Armya€™s hair-raising evacuation at DunkirkA  to avoid destruction or surrender, he was sent by Winston Churchill to New York with a top-secret job description emphasizing finding ways to circumvent the U.S. T-Enami.org - A Welcome, all who like old Photos of Japan !YOU ARE ONE OF OVER 100,000 VISITORS TO THIS SITE.
THIS chapter covers only diagnosis and repairs peculiar to CERTAIN Maytag-designed machines.
No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them.
The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism. It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many. He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth. He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own. The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error!
There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong.
He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body. At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly?
Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return. He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity. He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light.
This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more.
The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds. He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end. He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God.
Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war.
The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church.
A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes.
Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free.
Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner. The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne.
Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780. Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs.
If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office. There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech. There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven. He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule.
What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty. The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church.
Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe.
As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic. They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights.
Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities. Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it. This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent.
One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695).
Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy. If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress. The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy.
Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development.
When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them. While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848.
So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England. Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith.
It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music. He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God. Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener. He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family. Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America.
He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans. Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students.
There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church. And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet! He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ. Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia.
They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes.
Churchill warns that the Battle of Britain is about to begin, and that a€?never has so much been owed by so many to so fewa€?a€”the RAF fighter pilots in their Spitfires and Hurricanes. Widowed dowagers holding court in the lobby in long gloves and high collars eyed me disapprovingly through lorgnettes. One thing Ia€™d want you to do is put together a weekly assessment of where the war stands. I went down early the first night of class and put a note on the classroom door telling them to see me in the fifth-floor lounge.
Woody works out his frustrations on her, using Bentona€™s murals on the walls around them to heap scorn upon her politics.
Poland falls, and after occupying its eastern half, Stalin attacks Finland as well, reported here by Elmer Davis whoa€™s become CBS Newsa€™ principal nightly news commentator.
He can then, in dealing with a nation that has lost its charactera€”and this means every one that submits voluntarilya€”count on its never finding in any particular act of oppression a sufficient excuse for taking up arms once more. 9 covers a single but for Woody enormously critical hour of a late-June 1940 afternoon, at Christopher Morleya€™s hideaway office on the top floor of 46 West 47th Street. The description comes from a woman who did see and condemn it, the late Dee Alexander, Edgar W. One was the big frame and boyish face of Gene Tunney, but the other was a stranger, short and thin with a freckled face, blue eyes, and brown hair going gray. But America is still divided, and even Baker Street Irregulars may question how realistic this appeal for their help is, and how far the White House is prepared to go. Stephenson is quite prepared to operate -- and one not foreign to Woody either, no matter how exasperated he gets with Rex Stouta€™s stridency about it.
Without a pause Elmer led me inside and across the lobbya€™s tiled floor to join the flow of men up the staircase beyond. Ia€™d enjoyed lunch there with Elmer, but never asked if law made one eligible; I doubted it did, short of Learned Hand. Inside a meeting-room, about ten men were talking in small groups, but I took in only the one glaring at us indignantly. Until that moment, none of us had quite recognized in our innermost selves the convictions we now found awesomely and unanimously evident: The United States must enter this war. Some recipients, like Warner and Wilson of our original group, could not sign because of their official positions. But when the group meets at the Century Association in New York, he is therea€”with Woody in tow. One is Billy the Oysterman, the West 47th Street restaurant a few doors down from Chris Morleya€™s hideaway office where the BSIa€™s leaders began to meet over lunch. The first Billy was William Ockendon, of Portsmouth, England, who came to the United States and set up his first small oyster stand in Greenwich Village around 1875. It had a well-stocked bar, which of course mattered to Baker Street Irregulars, and a menu extending far beyond the oysters that had given Billy the Oysterman its start. It was popular with people at Radio City nearby, and also with Christopher Morley and Edgar Smith. If you do not read Chapter 2 thoroughly before you read this chapter, you probably will not be able to properly diagnose your machine!!!!7-1 BASIC OPERATIONThe design uses a reversing motor, which is belted to both the pump and the transmission, using two different belts. Also like manual molds, when it comes time to eject (harvest) the ice from the mold, it invertsand twists, "popping" out the ice. They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us. But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself. Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention. He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun.
His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun. Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it. Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure. His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries. The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup. The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth. Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society.
Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733). In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God.
However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced. He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans!
The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery. As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others. The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed. His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts.
Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism. His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth. The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield.
They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians.
The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed. Nazi bombers attack London and other British cities as well as military targets, lighting up the night despite the blackout with burning buildings. The State Department and the Army and Navy have most of the dope youa€™ll need, and they wona€™t open up just to be nice. It was my favorite room, with the strong images and bold colors of Thomas Hart Bentona€™s a€?America Todaya€? murals on the walls.
Short and stacked with long dark wavy hair and strong features bare of make-up, she was frowning and tapping her foot.
For America, isolationist by instinct and neutral by law, the Sudetenland crisis during the summer of 1938 is the first great watershed. Americans become polarized over the rights and wrongs of it, especially when Hitler starts demanding territorial concessions from Poland as well. On the contrary; the more the exactions that have been willingly endured, the less justifiable does it seem to resist at last on account of a new and apparently isolated (though to be sure constantly recurring) imposition. This point of view was ably expounded by the late Senator Borah on October 2nd, in his speech opening the neutrality debate. Rough bookcases lined the walls, but books and papers were everywhere, including the floor. At the far end, Rex Stout sat in a dilapidated armchair with his feet on a footstool, arms around his knees. But at the end of May, Richard Cleveland, son of the former president and an attorney in Baltimore who had been the NPCa€™s first chairman, called me up to say he thought we should hold a smaller session on the subject, at once. But on Monday, June 10, 1940, the New York Times and the Herald-Tribune carried the a€?Summonsa€? over 30 rather influential names from 12 widely separated states and the District of Columbia.
Davis knows them all, and one of the ringleaders was his cabin-mate on the boat to England when they were Rhodes Scholars at Oxford as young men. But the cautious Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies will turn into the much more assertive organization Fight for Freedom! The tray then turns back upright and refills with water for the next freeze cycle.HARD-TRAYHard-tray icemakers have a metal ice mold which is coated with a non-stick coating. Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena. The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™).
He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe.
They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit. Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen. Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people.
Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans.
Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate. His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. Britain and France go along with Hitlera€™s demands, brokering an agreement at Munich giving the vital strategic part of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
This is only the first sip of a bitter cup which will be proffered to us year by year, unless a€“ unless! In August 1939 Hitler and Stalin turn the entire world upside-down with their surprise non-aggression pact freeing Germany from the threat of a two-front war. Denouncing a€?the hideous doctrines of the dominating power of Germany,a€? he nevertheless contended that they were not an issue and seemed to see no ethical difference between the belligerents.
And just as Woody receives a cryptic summons one day in June, after the fall of France, a great stirring in the land is beginning. Elmer occupied a smaller chair nearby, and Edgar Smith perched between them on an upturned beer crate. After years of Downing Street appeasement, and Britain facing Hitler alone now, Churchilla€™s first hurdle is convincing America that Britain is finally determined to fight it out to the end. Both Whit Shepardson and Francis Miller are foreign policy establishment figures whom Woody will also meet again in Washington, after America is in the war. Woody and smoky, comfortable rather than classy, with lumbering, loquacious waiters, it prospered too.
When viewed from the top, the motor turns clockwise for the agitation cycle, and counterclockwise for the spin cycle. If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles.
Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church.
Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. Murrow brings the Blitz into American homes nightly with his broadcasts from the streets and rooftops of the beleaguered city. In those days I did relief work on the Lower East Side, and there were some pretty nasty gangsters around.
We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away!
The good thing about the Murray Hill was that I couldna€™t possibly run into anyone I knew, not before the BSI returned in January. And at the Worlda€™s Fair in Flushing Meadows, Long i??Island, New Yorkers and tourists taking in a€?The World of Tomorrowa€? learn that it will be indefinitely postponed. Dust was thick everywhere and hung in the smoky air where sunlight fell through unwashed windows.
He is personally committed now to what Churchill declared in another speech to Parliament this month, and the world. And at the Worlda€™s Fair in Flushing Meadows, Long Island, New Yorkers and tourists taking in a€?The World of Tomorrowa€? learn that it will be indefinitely postponed. During agitation, the brake keeps the transmission casing from turning, and the drive pulley turns the transmission shaft. The amount of time spent in the freeze cycle is controlled by a number of factors depending on the individual design, but it is best explained by knowing how the harvest cycle is triggered.HARVEST CYCLEThe harvest cycle occurs when the ice is ejected from the ice mold.
Woodya€™s is not immune, and that summer he leaves home to live alone in the Murray Hill Hotela€™s Victorian confines. Occasionally he would get away to a nearby hotel, but this was no refuge, as he was liable to be routed out of bed at any hour of the night to deal with a fresh sensation from overseas. During the spin cycle, the brake releases and the whole transmission starts slowly spinning around. Author: How Like a God (1929), Seed on the Wind (1930), Golden Remedy (1931), Forest Fire (1933), The President Vanishes (1934), Fer-de-Lance (1934), The League of Frightened Men (1935), The Rubber Band (1936), The Red Box (1936), The Hand in the Glove (1937), Too Many Cooks (1938), Mr. At the end of the spin cycle, the motor stops and the brake brings the basket to a stop. In the late '80's, Maytag redesigned the transmission.


OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. The result is the "orbital" transmission, which has just a few moving parts and is serviceable in the machine.
Author: Travels in East Anglia (1923), River Thames (1924), Whaling North and South (1930), Lamb Before Elia (1931), The Wreck of the Active (1936). However, it should be noted that the accumulation of "run" time is, in one way or another, thermostatically controlled. For example, Admiral-type flex-tray machines have a thermostat in line with the icemaker timing and drive motor that opens at 19 degrees, and doesn't close again till the freezer temperature drops to 15 degrees. Springs attached to the motor mounting plate keep tension on the belts. The pump reverses with the motor, but there is no recirculation.
ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900. Follow the safety precautions described in section 1-4(2).To open the front of the cabinet, remove the two screws at the bottom of the front panel.
A thermostat pressed against the ice mold senses that it is cold enough to ensure that the ice is frozen. ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL. FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. When the harvest mechanism contacts the ice, it stalls until the ice melts enough to release it from the mold. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO. THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER.
In order to diagnose these machines, you need to keep the lid up far enough to look inside, without tripping the lid switch. Cubes in the bin might occasionally stick together a little bit because of this liquefication, but they should be easy to separate.In a hard-tray icemaker, the thermostatstartsthe harvest cycle, but it does notendthe cycle. Author, Giant of the Western World (1930), The Church Against the World (1935), The Blessings of Liberty (1936). The mold heater would open the thermostat and end the cycle way too early; long before the mold was refilled. AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES. When the thermostat begins the harvest cycle, a cam attached to the drive motor closes a "holding" switch. Author: Foreign Trade and the Domestic Welfare (1935), Price Equilibrium (1936), Appointment in Baker Street (1938). AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL. This switch keeps the drive motor turning until the ice is harvested and the mold refills with water. AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT. When the ejection mechanism is reset, the mold is refilled and the cam reaches the proper position, the cam allows the holding switch to open. This ends the fill cycle and begins the freeze cycle.FILL CYCLE AND FILL VALVETowards the end of the harvest cycle, a cam on the drive mechanism closes the fill switch. This switch opens a fill solenoid valve, usually located on the back of the fridge, at the bottom. The shape of the cam that closes the fill switch controls the length of time the valve stays open. A flow control washer within the valve adjusts the flow for variations in house water pressure, so that the same amount of water flows through the valve regardless of water pressure. Replace as described in section 7-10. With the machine in "spin," look at the pump pulley beneath the machine with a mirror. If it is spinning, but water is not pumping, check for a clog in the hose between the tub and pump. After a repair, you can't stand there with the freezer door open, waiting for the next harvest cycle, to make sure the machine is working properly. Most icemakers are temperature-sensitive, and as the freezer temperature rises and falls, this sensitivity can cause symptoms to be intermittent.Icemakers can behave erratically, and be difficult to diagnose because of it. But a basic understanding of how a particular design operates can go a long way towards removing the mystery of intermittent malfunctions. Knowing how the icemakershouldoperate may point you towards whatisn'toperating correctly.Has the fridge or freezer seemed warmer or colder than usual?
If you hear the motor buzzing, but it doesn't start in either or both directions, test the capacitor (if any) and starting switch as described in sections 2-6(e) and 7-8. This can point towards refrigerator problems other than the icemaker, such as defrost or sealed system problems. The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time.
If it does start with the load removed, turn the pump and transmission pulleys by hand, in both directions, to see which is locked up.
Any higher, and the ice may not freeze fast enough or the thermostat may not trigger a harvest cycle. Any lower, and the cold may migrate into the refrigerator compartment.Has the freezer or refrigerator door been opened a lot? OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience.
Note that the transmission pulley will normally be very stiff when turning it in the clockwise direction, as you look at the bottom of the washer.6) If the washer spins but does not agitate, check the agitator splines as described in section 7-11. In some circumstances, this can keep the freezer temperature too high and cause slow or no ice production, or "shelling," where the cube has not frozen completely before the harvest cycle begins.Do not yet discard any "slabbed" ice. See section 7-13.7-4 PUMP AND PUMP BELTRemove the pump belt and check to see if the pump will turn freely by hand. The ice cubes are "shelling," or not freezing completely before the harvest cycle tries to eject them from the mold. See section 8-2(b).D) The fill tube keeps filling with ice and blocking the flow of fill water. See section 8-4.8-2(a) SLABBINGThis generally occurs when the ice is not ejecting from the ice mold properly. If there are cubes left in the ice mold after a harvest cycle, the new waterfill will overfill the mold for the next batch. It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street. Depending on the design, this may cause the mold to overflow, or it may just cause a thick sheet of ice to fuse together the tops of the cubes too solidly. In this case, the icemaker can jam and the problem can compound itself rapidly.This can be caused by a number of factors. It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street.
Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique.
This can simply prevent the ice from dropping into the bin, (Figure S-1) or it can interfere with the ice level sensor arm, preventing the icemaker from shutting off when the bin is full.
Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time. A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums. Both hard-tray and flex-tray machines are prone to this problem; it is caused by impurities in the fill water. While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content. The problem can get so bad that you may see black or gray flakes and sediment in the cubes.
In both hard- and flex-tray machines, the solution is usually to replace the ice mold, or just the entire icemaker. Test as described in section 2-6(e). Maytag motors have a piggyback centrifugal starting switch.
If you do this, rinse the mold with a weak chlorine bleach solution and flush with copious amounts of water before you put the mold back into service. To make matters worse, the motor wire colors do not always correspond with the colors marked on the switch. The next fill will then cause overfill, and slabbing symptoms may develop.Low water pressure can also cause the valve to leak, sometimes badly enough to overfill or overflow the ice mold. Whenever removing the motor or switch from the machine, mark which wires came off which of the switch terminals.Draw a picture if you must.
Make sure you differentiate in your notes between a motor wire and a wiring harness wire of the same color, and where each goes on the switch. If the drive motor does not start, try replacing the starting switch as described in section 2-6(e). See Section 8-2(c), section 8-3 and Figure S-4.8-2(b) SHELLINGHollow cubes, or "shelling" can occur if the ice cubes are not fully frozen when the harvest cycle begins. If the motor STILL doesn't start, replace it. To remove the motor, first remove power from the machine. Depending on the design, either the harvest cycle is being triggered prematurely, or the cube is not freezing in the allotted time.Shelling may be an early sign of defrost, sealed system or other cooling problems of the refrigerator itself, especially in flex-tray machines. Remove the plastic water shield from the motor, and mark and remove the wires. Remove the drive belts.
The freezer vents in flex-tray machines must direct cold air directly at the surface of the water or the mold, to insure that it will freeze in the alloted time. Remove the four motor baseplate screws and lift the motor and baseplate out of the machine. Installation is the opposite of removal.
Check that nothing is blocking the airstream and that the freezer vent directing air over the icemaker is not damaged, missing or misdirected.In hard-tray machines with shelling symptoms, ice or water left in the mold after harvest may cause overfill and slabbing problems.
Shelling is usually a sign of low waterfill, which allows the mold to get colder faster, triggering the thermostat into a harvest cycle too quickly.
Make sure you check the box that the new motor comes in for a wiring diagram.7-9 TRANSMISSIONI do not recommend the novice trying to replace a transmission in a Maytag washer, for several reasons.
Check and adjust the water level (sections 8-5 thru 8-8) or check for low water pressure or the incorrect water valve.
Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images.
And by the time you throw in a brake package, stem and seal kit, etc., it is usually just not worth it. Over time it will freeze the tube completely shut.To melt the ice from the tube and clear it, you can use a blow dryer, or blow hot water into the tube with a turkey baster. While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26.
If both break, there will be NO tension on the belts and in addition, the motor shaft will probably be hitting the washer baseplate, causing a heck of a racket. The roller tracks can get clogged up with dirt, soap deposits or other obstructions. Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio.
One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. Lubricate the rollers and tracks with a little wheel bearing grease. Examine the condition of each belt as described in section 2-5(a). In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives.
Sediment from improper installation or low water pressure may prevent the valve from closing fully. The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). Pump belt tension is explained in section 7-4.7-11 AGITATORMost Maytag washers have an agitator that lifts directly out.
If you have this symptom, especially if it returns after clearing the ice blockage once, start checking for water supply pressure or sediment problems. These models have a rubber stop ring around the agitator shaft at the bottom of the splines. I've seen people tap into hot water pipes, but the piping should be long enough so that water does not fill the icemaker while hot, or the water may not freeze fast enough.
It is far better to use a cold water line if possible."Saddle valves" are often used on a new installation to pierce into an existing pipe, (Figure F-1) and generally work pretty well. However, you must be careful of using dissimilar metals; for example a copper valve on a galvanized steel pipe. A water supply drawn from a saddle valve on a galvanized pipe is an invitation to scale and sediment problems.Similarly, a saddle valve installed too close to a hot water tank can pick up calcium sediments from the tank itself. Scale and sediments can block the saddle valve and cause low water flow.Low water flow through the saddle valve may cause the same symptoms as low water pressure at the solenoid valve inlet. They can also get into the solenoid valve seat and prevent the valve from closing fully, causing symptoms from fill tube freeze to slabbing. However, the only long term solution is to secure a better supply, directly from a copper cold-water pipe if possible. It's a little cheaper, easier to cut and install, and less prone to leakage when you have to move the refrigerator.
However, some people feel it's more prone to leakage than copper simply because the material is stronger. That's not been my experience, but it's your call.If you do use plastic, make sure you insert the brass sleeves into the ends (Figure F-2) before installing the compression fittings. Without them, the ends of the plastic could collapse and leak.HOT WATER OR COLD?I've seen people tap into hot water lines to feed the icemaker, but I highly recommendagainstit. Block up the tub so the tub remains in line with the cabinet. Beneath the washer, in the center, is the brake package. ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T. The brake package changes the machine from the spin to the drain cycle and back when the motor reverses.
It also brakes the spinning basket at the end of the spin cycle or when the lid is lifted. The brake lining is normally lubricated by a few drops of oil. If the lining gets too dry, it can start squeaking at the very end of the spin cycle, when it is braking the basket. But when the temperature of the water drops, the heat flow slows to the same rate as if you had just filled it with cool water in the first place. Common complaints and contaminants are chlorine, rust, sand, dirt, sediment, dissolved calcium, organic substances such as PCB's, THM's, herbicides and pesticides, chloramines and detergents, causing bad taste, odors or even health hazards. This book is not intended to be a primer on water filtration; I would in no waybegin to try to pretendto be able advise you what contaminants you need to guard against in your area. YOU MAY HURT YOURSELF OPENING IT, AND IT IS IMPRACTICAL FOR YOU TO TRY TO REBUILD IT YOURSELF. BRAKE PACKAGE REMOVALRemove the center screw from the driveshaft. For that, you need to hire a water chemist, or talk to your water company or neighbors who might have been through this already. These contaminants you can pick up independent of what your water company supplies you, through old or inadequate water piping or other house conditions. This will help you to thread the brake package into the base plate without cross-threading it. With the tub blocked up, grab the bottom of the transmission casing and move it by hand until you can slip the brake package onto the splines. You don't think the pipefitters washed all the bugs and dirt out of the tubing before they brazed it in place, do you?INLINE AND UNDER-SINK (CARTRIDGE) FILTERS(Figures F-3 and F-4)In my opinion, about the only good thing about inline filters (vs.
If you don't, you will be trying to overcome brake pressure to turn the package.Turn the transmission and brake package until the brake package is hand tight in the baseplate. Being behind the fridge instead of under the sink, they are harder to get to, and easier toforgetto change.Cartridge-type filters, on the other hand, have replacable cartridges which are relatively easy to get to and change.
Some even have water shutoff valves built right into them to make filter changing even faster and easier.
They are little, if any, more difficult to install initially, and replacement cartridges usually cost less than a new inline filter. While holding the transmission so it doesn't turn, run the drive pulley up as tight as you can by hand onto the helical shaft.You will see a drive lug on the pulley that corresponds to the shaft drive lug.
Then turn the pulley gently clockwise until you just barely begin to feel the brake spring pressure.The shaft lug should be at about 9 o'clock from the pulley lug. When the new membrane is new, probably half of the water that enters the RO system goes down the drain to flush themembrane. If not, adjust the shaft lug on the splines. The idea is to get the pulley to bottom out on the helical drive shaft just as the drive lugs touch. If you don't change the elements frequently, then when the membrane gets older and plugged with contaminants, as much as 15 to 20timesas much water goes down the drain as comes out the faucet.
Also, water flows through the RO membrane very slowly, so it can drop water pressure at the tap considerably.Most manufacturers recommend AGAINST an icemaker water supply coming from an RO system. If it is not correct, you will hear the drive motor bogging down and perhaps tripping on the overload during the agitation cycle.7-14 DAMPER PADSThe damper supports the weight of the water in the tub.
I have been personally using an RO system on my Whirlpool crescent cube icemaker for two years now and I am tickled with the results; ice as clear and clean tasting as our drinking water, and no scale or calcium deposits. Mark the position of the nuts on the three eyebolts (Figure M-15) and remove the bottom nuts. But if you understand the risks, and the RO system doesn't drop the water pressure too low, it can be done.8-3(b) FILL SOLENOID VALVEWater fill volume is controlled by a couple of things. This will remove spring tension on the tub centering springs.Lean the washer back against the wall at an angle. For one, the length of time the valve stays open, which is usually controlled by a cam in the icemaker head, which closes a switch for the proper amount of time. Place a 4x4 wood block directly underneath the transmission pulley and lower the machine onto the wood block.
Aflow control washerwithin the valve adjusts the flow for variations in house water pressure. However, if the water pressure is below about 20 psi at the solenoid valve inlet, problems can occur. If the cube is too small, it may not eject properly, and the next fill may cause overfill.Water solenoids operate using a pressure diaphragm with pressure on both sides of the diaphragm. Different icemakers require a wide variety of fill volumes, from about 3 ounces in certain GE units to as much as 8 ounces in Admiral-type machines. The valve bodies might look the same from the outside, but you must make sure the valve is the correct one (has the correct flow control washer) for the icemaker you're working on. If someone has previously replaced the solenoid valve, and you experience low flow problems or slabbing in an icemaker, double check that the valve is the correct one. This is acriticallyimportant point.8-3(c) TESTING AND ADJUSTING FILL VOLUMETo test fill volume, remove the icemaker from its freezer wall mounting (but leave it plugged in) and initiate a harvest cycle if possible. Baby bottles are generally just about the right size for testing fill volume; most are graduated in both cc's and ounces. A good rule of thumb is that one fluid ounce equals about 30 cc's.Water fill level can be adjusted onsomeicemakers.
See sections 8-5 thru 8-8 about your design.8-4 SLOW OR NO ICE PRODUCTIONThere are a number of things that will slow or stop the production of ice. If you are working on an icemaker where you can do so, a good start is to try to manually trigger a harvest cycle and watch what happens.
However, there a few common causes.8-4(a) FREEZER TEMPERATURECheck the freezer temperature. In most icemakers, a freezer temperature above about 15 degrees may cause icemakers not to harvest or to have other ice production problems. If the freezer temperature is hovering right around the thermostat temperature setting, the icemaker's thermostat may open and close, causing slow or intermittent ice production.
If the freezer temperature is not low enough, check the refrigerator's temperature settings.High freezer temperatures may also mean that therefrigeratorhas cooling problems such as defrost or sealed system malfunctions.
If adjusting the controls doesn't lower the freezer temperature, see Chapters 4 and 5.8-4(b) POWER SUPPLYCheck that the icemaker is getting power. Unplug it from the freezer wall socket and see if you have power between at least two of the terminals.8-4(c) WATER SUPPLYCheck also that the icemaker is getting water.
If possible, unmount the icemaker from the freezer wall and manually initiate a harvest cycle. The electronic one has a circuit board and an on-off rocker switch on the right side of the icemaker head.Most of the symptoms and the malfunctions between the three designs are similar.
However, the internal differences between them are pretty pronounced, so testing and troubleshooting are quite different.8-5(a) MODULAR CRESCENT CUBE DESIGN OPERATIONThe harvest cycle on these icemakers is thermostatically triggered.
Very shortly thereafter, a cam on the drive shaft closes the holding switch, keeping the motor circuit energized even after the thermostat opens back up. If you hear the motor buzzing, but it doesn't start in either or both directions, test the capacitor (if any) and starting switch as described in sections 2-6(e) and 7-8. The motor then stalls, with the ejection fingers applying pressure to the ice, until the mold heats up enough for the cubes to separate from the mold.
If the ice level in the bin is too high, or if you raise the arm to the shutoff position, this switch opens and interrupts the thermostat circuit. The icemaker then will not enter a harvest cycle until the sensor arm is allowed to return to its full down position. During the harvest cycle, a cam raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch keeps the motor turning. There is an adjustment screw on the right side of the icemaker head; one full turn equals 40cc's. Some models have water level adjustment dials on the right side of the plastic icemaker head cover that attach to this screw. This screw simply moves the fill switch closer to the cam on the drive shaft, keeping it open longer, or vice-versa. The maximum adjustment on these machines is one full turn in either direction; any more will damage the icemaker head.
When adjusting the level, do it gently and do not attempt to force it AT ALL.TROUBLESHOOTINGAside from water supply problems, what usually goes wrong with these machines is that the thermostat (bimetal) fails.
To jump the thermostat and trigger a harvest cycle, just jumper between the T and H test point holes. In this case, you would see the ejection fingers pressed against the ice, trying to eject it, but it would not eject.
Under power, test for line voltage between the L and H test point holes; if it is energized, then power is going to the heater.
Unplug and test for resistance between the same test points; the heater should test 72 ohms. If not, replace the mold.If the drive motor isn't turning at a time when it should be, test for 110 volts between L and M to see if the motor is energized. Some have water level adjustment dials on the right side of the plastic icemaker head cover.The harvest cycle on these icemakers is thermostatically triggered.
Very shortly thereafter, a cam on the drive shaft closes the holding switch, keeping the motor circuit energized and turning even after the thermostat opens back up. The fingers then continue pushing the ice out of the mold.The thermostat stays closed throughout the first rotation of the ejection fingers. Near the completion of the first rotation, another cam attached to the driveshaft closes the fill switch, butwater fill does not occur. The shutoff switch is closed, and offers a lot less resistance than the water valve circuit.
Near the completion of the second rotation, the fill switch closes again for about 7-8 seconds, and this time the mold fills with water. During the harvest cycle, a cam raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch is still closed, which keeps the motor turning. When you remove the plastic cover, you will see the motor gear turning and disengaged from the larger ejection drive gear.
The motor gear can be pressed back on and glued with superglue.Some of these machines have a "chiclet"-type thermal fuse (figure X-8) attached to the underside of the ice mold, near the icemaker head.
If this fuse blows, the icemaker will not harvest, nor will the motor start when you try to manually initiate a harvest cycle. The other two microswitches are the waterfill switch and the holding switch, both cam-operated.
Fortunately, they're pretty much commodity items at this point, and can be replaced for well under a hundred bucks.8-6 GE "BULLET" OR "BARREL" CUBE MACHINESThese machines produce five cylindrical cubes per harvest. If there is an ice dispenser in the door, you may need to turn down the crescent cube size a little to get the cubes to go through the door properly.OPERATIONThe harvest cycle begins thermostatically at about 16 degrees. An ejection shaft through the bottom of the ice mold is attached to an ejection pad, which pushes the cubes vertically from the mold.
During the harvest cycle, the mechanism raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch keeps the motor turning. The icemaker will not be producing ice, and you're sure the freezer is cold enough, but manually jumping the thermostat produces a harvest.There are two test connections on the underside of the icemaker head. In both, a small rectangular plug in the bottom of the icemaker head can be removed to reveal two small holes. When the harvest cycle is initiated, it takes about eight minutes for the tray to rotate completely around and refill. Above 19 degrees, it will not produce ice at all.You can tell if the motor is turning by looking at the end of the motor shaft as shown on the illustration. There is an adjustment screw on the right side of the head, but the factory glues it in place during construction.
In fact, the factory doesn't want you messing with these machines at all; if they malfunction, the solution is to replace them. I have had a couple of these icemakers apart and I'd have to agree with the factory in this case. After you replace your old one, try pulling it apart and reassembling it and you'll see what I mean.A conversion kit is available to convert the refrigerator to a crescent-cube design, and I would highly recommend it. Instructions will be included in the conversion kit.During the harvest cycle in this design, the twisting action of the ice tray ends with a relatively violent SNAP! Over time this can have several adverse effects.The icemaker can begin to pull its wall mounts out of the freezer wall. Cubes on the high side of the mold may be too small, while cubes on the low side may be too large or even slab together, and fail to eject.The plastic mold (tray) can crack, especially around the hub. If it is, there are a number of things that could be causing the icemaker to stop making cubes, but the solution to all of them seems to be to throw a new gear and pin set in both the front and back of the icemaker head. Gear alignment instructions are included with the new gears.There is no way to manually initiate a harvest cycle in these machines. When you replace and realign the gears and reinstall the icemaker, it will immediately enter a harvest cycle and fill with water.Time only accumulates on these icemakers when the cold control (the refrigerator's thermostat) is closed and the compressor is running. If the doors remain closed, the ambient air temperature (outside of the fridge) is low, and the compressor doesn't run much, you may experience low ice production.
Thus, the icemaker must be plugged in at all times, even if it's not being used to make ice.
If you no longer use the icemaker and wish to remove it from your machine, a module is available that replaces the icemaker with a smaller "box" unit that just performs the defrost function.



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