Propionic acid was first described in 1844 by Johann Gottlieb, who found it among the degradation products of sugar.
The human skin is host to a species of bacteria known as Propionibacterium acnes, which is named after its ability to produce propionic acid. Hydrofluoric Acid: This acid is extremely corrosive and has the unique property of being able to etch (eat away) glass.
The key to understanding acids is to note that acids and solutions of their salts all conduct electricity. Many substances, such as ionic compounds, dissolve in acid no differently than they dissolve in water. Older cells are constantly being pushed to the surface by new cells which grow from below. As an adult, you may have more than 20 square feet of skin -- about the size of a blanket.
Right now there are over a million dust mites, microscopic critters invisible to the naked eye, on your mattress and pillow, chomping on the dead skin cells that fell off you last night! Most of our site visitors are committed to natural foods and remedies, but many aren't as selective when it comes to personal skin care products.
Another significant group of cell in the epidermis are melanocytes, the cells producing melanin, the pigment responsible for skin tone and color. The stratum corneum, or outer layer: This layer is made of flattened epithelial cells in multiple layers. The basal or cell-division layer: This layer is just above the basement membrane and the dermis.
Since the human epidermis is renewed every 15-60 days, proper surface nutrition feeds the cells of the basal layer.
The dermis is the middle layer of the skin located between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. The dermis also contains capillaries (tiny blood vessels) and lymph nodes (depots of immune cells).
Finally, the dermis contains sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair follicles as well as a relatively small number of nerve and muscle cells. The dermis is the layer responsible for the skin's structural integrity, elasticity and resilience. Subcutaneous tissue is the innermost layer of the skin located under the dermis and consisting mainly of fat. The loss of subcutaneous tissue, often occurs with age, leads to facial sag and accentuates wrinkles. Several groups of microorganisms cause skin infections: bacteria, fungi (molds and yeast), and viruses. Results: Razor Gunk contains 'billions' of bacterial colonies, as seen by the growth on the agar plates.
Results: Razor Gunk supports the growth of bacteria even when the blade is left to dry for 24 hours.
Results: Razor Gator cleans and sanitizes the blade head, removing over 99% of the bacteria present in razor gunk. Results: Razor Gator removes over 99% of the bacterial colonies present, thus reducing their subsequent growth over 24 hours. To have objectionable or potentially copyrighted material evaluated for removal, click here.
Have you got skin problems?Is your skin itching, breaking out, covered in a rash, or playing host to strange spots? To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. One of the things that can really put a damper on your summer is over exposure to the sun’s rays. First Degree – This is where the skin is a nice hue of pink or red and yes it can happen on any type of skin no matter how much melanin is involved.
Third Degree – When you have pushed yourself to a 3rd degree sun burn you now have raised water filled large blisters with skin eruptions. All stages of sunburn are dangerous and can cause side effects such as fever, nausea, flu like symptoms, blistering, skin loss and aging skin as well as eczema, dehydration, burns, infection, shock from fluid loss, and even death. I’m sure you’re wondering what a post like this is doing on a fitness and weight loss blog, but this makes a lot of sense if you’ll bear with me. Yes it does protect from rays from the sun, but you need to re-apply it every couple of hours.
I had a bad experience as a young lady, I forgot to put the lotion on, well didnt really forget, was desperate to get a decent tan.
I Require Assistance In Boot Camp Plan For Next Week Please » Similar Threads loose skin vs fat? Gold Shape Firming Lotion is innovative products that help to reduce the appearance of fat and cellulite simply by massaging with it. Gold Shape received worldwide recognition when it was presented at the 3 rd World Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.
Trimone Shape Firming Lotion is a new-formula lotion from Goldshape that promises a smoother feel and quicker absorption. A luxurious, light lotion formulated with a balanced mixture of plant extracts with unique properties for reducing the appearance of fat and cellulite on the skin, along with valuable properties for protecting dermal elasticity, increasing skin firmness, and providing visibly smooth skin. Garcinia atroviridis, Mentha arvensis, Centella asiatica, Capsicum frutescens, Zingiber officinale and Camillea sinensis. Apply TrimOne Shape Firming Lotion onto the desired areas and massage it in a circular motion until it has been completely absorbed (about 2 to 3 minutes). From the fruit of Garcinia atroviridis traditionally used as a condiment in Thai cooking Thai scientists have developed Super Hi–Sol containing over 70% of hydroxycitric acid in a readily bio-available from. Super Hi–Sol is now incorporated into many forms of beverages and is popular among the figure and health-con-scious people in Thailand. This product is not recommended for children, women pregnant or nursing, people with gastric ulcers and people with phenylketonurea conditions.
Phenylketonurea (PKU) is a condition found in people who are allergic to phenylalanine which is generated from aspartame, the artificial sweetener used in this product. Over the next few years, other chemists produced propionic acid in various other ways, none of them realizing they were producing the same substance. This bacteria lives mainly in the sebaceous glands of the skin and is one of the principle causes of acne. In their weaker forms they can add a sour taste to our food; in their stronger forms they are corrosive agents which can burn skin, and be used to etch or dissolve metal and even glass. Consequently it is used in industry to write signs on glass windows in stores and office buidings or on glass products.
This implies the existence of charged particles that migrate under the influence of an electric field. However, metals can also be dissolved in acids, but this is by an entirely different mechanism, and it's not really dissolving at all. It's made of many thin sheets of layers of flat, stacked cells in which you'll find nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles, glands, and sensory receptors. When the old ones reach the top, they become wider and flatter as they get rubbed and worn by all your activity. Most people are content to let skin be until dryness, oiliness, a rash or a wrinkle rouses attention. Each square centimeter has 6 million cells, 5,000 sensory points, 100 sweat glands and 15 sebaceous glands. A cell is born in the lower layer of the skin called the dermis, which is supplied with blood vessels and nerve ending.


The body expends this effort to replace skin every month because the skin constitutes the first line of defense against dehydration, infection, injuries and temperature extremes. These otherwise savvy shoppers might purchase any sale shampoo, skin care cleanser or lotion. Finally, Langerhans cells are essentially the front door of the immune system in the epidermis.
These layers are called keratinized layers because of the buildup of the protein keratin in those cells.
This layer is sometimes visible in thick skin; however, nuclei and other organelles are not visible. This is three to five layers of flattened polygonal cells that have granules in the cytoplasm. It is a single layer of cells that undergo cell division to renew the upper layers of the epidermis. Exfoliation will remove dry or damaged skin of the outer layer to allow newer cells to be visible. It is the thickest of the skin layers and comprises a tight, sturdy mesh of collagen and elastin fibers. The former are important for oxygenating and nourishing the skin, and the latter -- for protecting it from invading microorganisms.
Sebaceous glands, located around hair follicles, are of particular importance for skin health as they produce sebum, an oily protective substance that lubricates and waterproofs the skin and hair. A common procedure performed by dermatologists to counteract this process is to inject fat (collected elsewhere in the body) under the wrinkles on the face. Areas such as the axilla (armpit), the perineum (groin) and the toe webs provide typically moister regions for bacterial growth. Based on the appearance of the infection, the physician determines what group of microorganisms is likely causing the infection, then he or she collects a specimen for one or more types of cultures. After it dries, the slide is colored with purple and red stains, then examined under a microscope.
The bacteria are tested against different antibiotics to determine which will effectively treat the infection by killing the bacteria.
Skin inflammation, changes in texture or colour and spots may be the result of infection, a chronic skin condition, or contact with an allergen or irritant. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. And keep in mind that anything SPF 100 or more usually has the same effect as SPF 50 or so. Protecting yourself from permanent skin damage or worse skin cancer is more important than your daily intake of vitamin D. They can be used on parts of the body with excess fat like the hips, thighs, upper arms, and waist. In addition, proof of the product’s effectiveness has been demonstrated in numerous public massage competitions in the U.S. It helps to reduce the appearance of fat and cellulite and can be used on parts of the body with excess fat like the hips, thighs, upper arms, and waist.
This formulation with the highest percentage of active ingredient over those produced anywhere has been clinically proven in multi center clinical study to be efficacious in slimming body figure reducing body fat content and blood triglycerides without any undesirable side effects. Recently we FDA have approved one of Super Hi-sol-containing products for import and distribution in the United States.
Drink before meals, at least twice a day (one sachet per cup), and enjoy the fresh orange aroma and great taste. Acids are acids by virtue of the presence of an excess of hydrogen ions in the solution, Their salts are created when the positive hydrogen ions are replaced with positive metal ions, for example when HCL reacts with Sodium (Na) to produce NaCl with the release of H2 gas. When some metals are added to acids, a reaction takes place which oxidizes the metal, or removes electrons from the atoms.
It's the largest organ of your body, and without it, all your delicate insides would spill right out. And, sooner or later, they end up popping off like tiles blown from a roof in a strong wind. But once they understand how skin functions, many reconsider the importance of the skin and the quality and content of the skin care products they use.
Skin cells can detoxify harmful substances with many of the same enzymatic processes the liver uses. But because new skin is constantly being generated and because it plays such an important protective role, it makes sense to choose nourishing natural skin care products.
The epidermis consists of three types of cells keratinocytes, melanocytes and langerhans cells. The cytoplasm (the amorphous area between the nucleus and the outer membrane of the cell) is mostly made of keratin filaments. Below them is a layer of cube-shaped cells that also contain bundles of keratin filaments. Both collagen and elastin are critically important skin proteins: collagen is responsible for the structural support and elastin for the resilience of the skin. When sebaceous gland produce too little sebum, as is common in older people, the skin becomes excessively dry and more prone to wrinkling.
Therefore, an anti-wrinkle treatment has a chance to succeed only if it can reach as deep as the dermis. Subcutaneous fat acts as a shock absorber and heat insulator, protecting underlying tissues from cold and mechanical trauma.
A sample of material--such as skin cells, pus, or fluid--is taken from the infection site, placed in a sterile container, and sent to the laboratory.
Pyoderma are pus-containing skin infections, such as impetigo, caused by Staphylococcus or group A Streptococcus bacteria. The color of stain picked up and retained by the bacteria (purple or red), their shape (such as round or rectangle), and their size provide valuable clues as to their identity.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. It has been scientifically developed and tested, and shown to be effective in reducing the appearance of fat without producing undesirable side effects. In addition all volunteers in the study reported an improvement in their stamina and endurance. Along with a layer of fat underneath, it insulates you against all kinds of bumps, bangs and wear and tear. The unbroken surface also prevents infectious organisms from penetrating into systemic circulation. Keratinocytes, the cells that make the protein keratin, are the predominant type of cells in the epidermis.
The key type of cells in the dermis is fibroblasts, which synthesize collagen, elastin and other structural molecules.
Conversely, overproduction or improper composition of sebum, as is common in adolescents, often leads to acne.
Typical collagen and elastin creams, for example, never reach the dermis because collagen and elastin molecules are too large to penetrate the epidermis. Typical organisms include Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium and some Gram-negative bacteria. To culture bacteria, a portion of material from the infection site is spread over the surface of a culture plate and placed in an incubator at body temperature for one to two days.
These infections are usually diagnosed using a method other than culture, such as the KOH test.
Yet, while many are minor, they may signal something more serious, so always seek medical advice for proper diagnosis.


Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site.
In every competition, all the volunteers had a reduction in their waistline, ranging from 1 inch to a maximum of 4.5 inches.
This unique combination helps ensure maximum bioavailability and appetite control to provide unsurpassed results when used as part of a fat and weight loss diet program.
At the same time hydrogen gas (H2) is created with these electrons that were pulled from the metal. It keeps germs and water OUT (unless you have a break in your skin) and keeps your body's fluids and salts IN.
With sweat, not only does your body get cooled by its evaporation, but it has a convenient way to get rid of chemicals it doesn't need.
Hence, contrary to what some manufacturers of such creams might imply, these creams have little effect on skin wrinkles.
The bulk of the human skin surface, however, is much drier and is predominantly inhabited by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionobacterium. Super Hi – SolTM is a unique calcium salt of HCA that is 100% soluble without adding sodium or potassium. This is very different that just dissolving salt in water, where no chemical reaction has taken place at all. Because it cannot completely discriminate, the skin may absorb the synthetic chemicals often present in soaps and lotions and other skin care products, which at best it has no use for and at worst can be toxic or irritating. They are identified by noting the appearance of their colonies, and by performing biochemical tests and a Gram's stain.
If you add salt to water and dissolve it, you can just let the water dry up and the salt will return just as it was before.
Most people recover, but pain, numbness, and itching linger for many and may last for months, years, or the rest of their lives. Hives (urticaria)Hives, a common allergic reaction that looks like welts, are often itchy, stinging, or burning.
Severe hives can be associated with difficulty breathing (get immediate medical attention if this occurs). Medication, foods, or food additives, temperature extremes, and infections like a sore throat can cause hives.
PsoriasisA non-contagious rash of thick red plaques covered with silvery scales, psoriasis usually affects the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The precise cause of psoriasis is unknown, but the immune system mistakenly attacks skin cells causing new skin cells to develop too quickly. EczemaEczema describes several non-contagious conditions where skin is inflamed, red, dry, and itchy. Stress, irritants (like soaps), allergens, and climate can trigger flare-ups though they’re not eczema's cause, which is unknown.
Treatments include emollient creams and ointments, steroid creams and ointments, antibiotics and antihistamines. RosaceaOften beginning as a tendency to flush easily, rosacea causes redness on the nose, chin, cheeks, forehead, and can cause eye irritation. If left untreated, bumps and pus-filled pimples can develop, with the nose and oil glands becoming bulbous. Rosacea treatment includes topical gels, medication, as well as surgery to remove blood vessels or correct nose disfigurement.
Rash from poisonous plantsMost plants in the UK will not give you a rash, but the same is not always true on holiday abroad where you may be in contact with species that don't grow here. For example, in the US, contact with sap from poison ivy, oak, and sumac causes a rash in most people. The typical rash is arranged as a red line on an exposed area, caused by the plant dragging across the skin. The sharp edge of closely shaven hair can curl back and grow into the skin, causing irritation and pimples, and even scarring.
To minimise razor bumps, have a hot shower before shaving, shave in the direction of hair growth, and don't stretch the skin while shaving. Skin tagsA skin tag is a small flap of flesh-coloured or slightly darker tissue that hangs off the skin by a connecting stalk. They’re usually found on the neck, chest, back, armpits, under the breasts or in the groin area. Skin tags are not dangerous and usually don't cause pain unless they become irritated by clothing or nearby skin rubbing against them. Often seen on the face, chest, and back, acne is caused by a number of things, including the skin’s response to hormones. To help control it, keep oily areas clean and don't squeeze pimples (it may cause infection and scars).
Athlete's footA fungal infection that can cause peeling, redness, itching, burning and sometimes blisters and sores, athlete's foot is contagious, passed by direct contact or by walking barefoot in areas such as changing rooms or near swimming pools. It's usually treated with topical antifungal cream or powder, or oral medication for more severe cases. MolesUsually brown or black, moles can be anywhere on the body, alone or in groups, and generally appear before age 20.
Have a medical check-up for moles that change, have irregular borders, unusual or uneven colour, bleed or itch.
Age, sun or liver spots (lentigines)These pesky brown spots are not really caused by ageing, though they do multiply as you age.
They're the result of sun exposure, which is why they tend to appear on areas that get a lot of sun, such as the face, hands, and chest. To rule out serious skin conditions such as melanoma, seek medical advice for proper identification. Pityriasis roseaA harmless rash, pityriasis rosea usually begins with a single, scaly pink patch with a raised border. Days to weeks later, salmon-coloured ovals appear on the arms, legs, back, chest, and abdomen, and sometimes the neck. The rash, whose cause is unknown, usually doesn't itch, and usually goes away within 12 weeks without needing treatment. MelasmaMelasma (or chloasma) is characterised by brown patches on the cheeks, nose, forehead and chin.
Melasma may go away after pregnancy but, if it persists, can be treated with prescription creams and over-the-counter products.
Cold soresSmall, painful, fluid-filled blisters around the mouth or nose, cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus. Antiviral pills or creams can be used as treatment, but seek medical advice immediately if sores contain pus, you have a fever greater than 38C, or if your eyes become irritated. WartsCaused by contact with the contagious human papillomavirus (HPV), warts can spread from person to person or via contact with something used by a person with the virus. You can prevent spreading warts by not picking them, covering them with bandages or plasters, and keeping them dry. Seborrheic keratosisNoncancerous growths that may develop with age, seborrhoeic keratoses can appear anywhere on the body - but particularly on the chest or back - alone, or in groups.
They may be dark or multicoloured, and usually have a grainy surface that easily crumbles, though they can be smooth and waxy. Because seborrheic keratoses may be mistaken for moles or skin cancer, seek medical advice for proper diagnosis.



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