Exercises to Reduce Belly FatThere are many exercises to reduce belly fat but are you doing the right ones? Abdominal fat can be so stubborn that a proper diet and exercise won’t melt it away, even when the method works for the rest of your body. You wouldn’t think of supplementing with fat when you want to get rid of adipose layers. Alcohol in small quantities is no big issue, but when it’s consumed too often, or you have too much of it, it affects the way you metabolize food.
It seems that every time science uncovers some type of association between body fat and anything, opportunistic entrepreneurs are waiting in the shadows to create a product and a marketing campaign around it.
The advertising claims include just enough scientific fact to make even the savviest consumers say, "That makes sense, I think I'll try that." They also hit home emotionally by focusing on common hot buttons such as stress (who isn't at least a little stressed in this day and age?) Brilliant marketing.
Cortisol is a very important hormone that you must understand if you want to get maximum results from your training and nutrition programs, but if you don't educate yourself, you may become one of the millions of victims to fall for this latest fad. Cortisol levels are higher in adults than children and levels fluctuate throughout each 24 hour period, so tests must account for the time of day. For serious competitive athletes, it may be worth the time, expense and inconvenience to have cortisol tests done on a regular basis. If cortisol is related to abdominal obesity, then will taking a cortisol suppressing pill get rid of abdominal (belly) fat?
Cortisol is not "bad for you," it is a hormone that is essential for life as part of our natural stress response.
High cortisol levels can increase muscle protein breakdown and inhibit protein synthesis (building up muscle proteins), so a chronically elevated cortisol level is clearly counterproductive to building muscle.
There are quite a few supplements, mostly herbs, which are reputed to have "calming," "relaxing," "tranquilizing," "stress-relieving" or "anti-anxiety" effects. It makes sense to take steps to reduce stress in your life and lessen the impact of stressors that cannot be avoided. One of the best ways to keep cortisol in the normal range is to reduce stress and allow time for recovery and renewal.
Other ingredients that are often used in the various product formulations include Epidemium, phytosterols, tyrosine, Branched chain amino acids, ginseng, ashwaganda, astragalus, kava kava, St.
Before you even think about supplements (or drugs), keep in mind that unnatural suppression of cortisol may not be wise or necessary, especially if you haven't used all the natural cortisol and stress management strategies at your disposal first. Carbohydrate consumed with lean protein immediately after training has a cortisol suppressing effect.
Vitamin C, known mainly for cold or flu protection and antioxidant properties, may decrease cortisol levels. Phosphatidyl serine (PS) is a phospholipid, which appears to have cortisol suppressing properties. Glutamine is an amino acid, which in some studies, has been shown to decrease cortisol and prevent a decrease in protein synthesis. Acetyl-L Carnitine (ALC) has been studied in Alzheimers patients as a method of improving cognitive function.
It's important to note that the research on some of these substances is often conflicting and inconclusive. Avoid overtraining by matching your intensity, volume and duration to your recovery ability. Suppress cortisol and maximize recovery after workouts with proper nutrition: Consume a carb-protein meal or drink immediately after your workout. The cortisol pill is just one in a long string of bogus weight loss products, and it won't be the last! Tom Venuto is a natural bodybuilder, an NSCA-certified personal trainer, certified strength & conditioning specialist (CSCS), and author of the #1 best selling diet e-book in Internet history, "Burn The Fat, Feed The Muscle.” Tom has written hundreds of articles and been featured in IRONMAN, Natural Bodybuilding, Muscular Development and Men’s Exercise. Simply enter your name and e-mail address below and I will immediately send you my FREE 12-part mini course called, "BIG FAT LIES: A shocking expose of the 12 biggest scams, cover-ups, lies, myths and deceptions in the diet, supplement and weight loss industries! You'll also get my fat burning tips newsletter, which is delivered weekly to more than 250,000 subscribers all across the world. How to get rid of lower belly fat - trainer josh fitness, Figuring out how to get rid of lower belly fat can be one of the most frustrating things when people start losing weight.
How to get rid of lower belly fat and love handles, When adhering to a healthy diet and exercise regime, it can be super frustrating when the fat from your lower belly or love handles refuse to go away.. Studies have shown that an increase in cortisol increases the fat around the belly, increases your hunger (leading you to more cravings),  and having high cortisol levels have been linked to low testosterone levels. Some advocates says yes and that your body is empty of food so that you will be burning directly from your fat storages. The body breaks down more and more muscle proteins as fuel because of an inadequate supply of carbohydrates.Cortisol and ACTH are released and begin to break down amino acids for process of protein synthesis. When the person is constantly stressed and there’s too much cortisol, the fat simply accumulates in layers and stays there. This is because exercising is also a form of stress to your body and when it lasts, cortisol is being produced in great amounts. By minding the steps above you can lose belly fat without compromising your lean muscle gains or depriving your body from the nourishment it needs. They ride the wave into the multi millions, until the buzz dies down or until the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) sues and slaps a padlock on their warehouse doors. The answers to the frequently asked questions in this article will arm you with the science-based facts, while helping you steer clear of the hype-based scams.
It falls into a category of hormones known as "glucocorticoids", referring to their ability to increase blood glucose levels.
Faced with a "life or death" situation, cortisol increases the flow of glucose (as well as protein and fat) out of your tissues and into the bloodstream in order to increase energy and physical readiness to handle the stressful situation or threat. There is a link between high cortisol levels and storage of body fat, particularly "visceral" abdominal body fat (also known as intra-abdominal fat).
In fact, one of the effects of cortisol is to increase the breakdown of stored adipose tissue into glycerol and fatty acids where it can enter the bloodstream and then be used as energy. Just because there is an association between high cortisol levels and abdominal body fat doesn't mean that a taking a cortisol-suppressing pill will remove abdominal body fat. There are many hormones in our bodies, which in the proper amounts, maintain good health, but in excess or in deficiency, have negative effects or even contribute to health problems or diseases. Cortisol is catabolic and elevated cortisol levels can cause the loss of muscle tissue by facilitating the process of converting lean tissue into glucose. Bringing elevated cortisol levels back to normal may improve recovery, strength, hypertrophy and performance. These include Magnolia bark, kava kava, valerian, L-theanine and too many others to mention. There are effective and natural means of reducing stress that don't cost a penny, including getting out in nature, deep breathing, enhancing sleep quality, relaxation exercises, meditation and visualization-guided imagery. Some ingredients are included in the formulations to have a relaxing or stress reducing effect, some are included to reduce cortisol levels, while others are aimed at insulin and blood sugar stabilization. John's wort, Melatonin, SAM-e, Valerian, Gingko Biloba, Phosphatidyl Serine (PS), Acetyl L-carnitine and Glutamine.
Once your nutrition, training and recovery bases are covered, there is some solid research showing that certain supplements may be beneficial, especially for athletes engaged in extremely hard training.
High glycemic index (GI) carbs in particular, cause an insulin spike, which not only helps restore muscle glycogen, stimulates protein synthesis and kick starts the recovery process, it also helps lower the exercise-induced rise in cortisol.
A study by Marsit, et al showed a reduction in cortisol levels in elite weightlifters taking 1000 mg. Many strength athletes swear by glutamine for improved recovery, but the research is still not conclusive about efficacy or dosages for athletes or bodybuilders. One study showed that long term use of Acetyl L Carnitine lowered cortisol in the Alzheimers patients.
It's also important to note that many of the cortisol suppressing supplements which are marketed to athletes or to people seeking weight loss do not contain doses anywhere near the amounts that were used in the research. In fact, if you are overtrained, unnatural cortisol suppression may be nothing more than a "band aid," and continued overtraining can lead to adrenal exhaustion, which could take months to remedy.
But cortisol is not inherently bad; it's a vitally important hormone and part of your body's natural stress response. But rather than thinking of cortisol supplements as a weight loss miracle (which they most surely are not), get yourself on a solid exercise and nutrition plan such as the BURN THE FAT program, and seek natural ways enhance recovery and reduce stress. Bruno, G, et al,, Acetyl L Carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short term study on CSF neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Martignoni, E., et al, Acetyl L carnitne acutely administered raises beta endorphin and cortisol plasma levels in humans. Monteleone, P., et al, Effects of phosphatidyl serine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans.
Monteleone, P., et al, Blunting by chronic phosphatidyl serine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Palermo, S., et al, The effect of L-acetyl carnitine on some reproductive functions in the oligoasthenospermic rat. We are not sure if this is entirely correct but what we do know is that cortisol levels are highest in the morning which means your testosterone levels are much lower. Remember to sign up for our newsletter on the right to find out which ones actually help you block cortisol levels from increasing! Have your cortisol levels checked and if they’re high you may want to look for relaxation means at first. It makes the carbs you digest turn into glucose at a slower rate, thus preventing a blood sugar spike. I'm 38-years-young now and am trying my best to be an authority figure in the fitness industry. Then, it's on to the "next big thing in weight loss," because they know there will always be a gullible crowd eagerly waiting for the next quick fix. Unfortunately, most of the claims being made are completely false, with only a tiny thread of truth woven in. This can include extremely low calorie diets, intense training, high volume training, lack of quality sleep as well as common daily stresses such as job pressures, fights with your spouse or being caught in a traffic jam. For the average trainee, as long as you are aware of the factors that produce excessive cortisol and take steps to keep it in the normal, healthy range, then testing is probably not necessary.
Visceral fat is stored deeper in the abdominal cavity and around the internal organs, whereas "regular" fat is stored below the skin (known as subcutaneous fat). High levels of cortisol are merely one contributing factor to storage of abdominal fat, not the primary cause. The studies which showed a relationship between cortisol and body fat did not test whether suppressing cortisol removes fat that is already deposited on your body.


An excess of cortisol can also lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance, reduced kidney function, hypertension, suppressed immune function, reduced growth hormone levels, and reduced connective tissue strength.
However, there is no scientific evidence that reducing your cortisol levels below normal will have any effect on increasing strength or muscle growth.
The FTC has filed lawsuits against the makers of Cortislim and Cortistress, charging them with making false and unsubstantiated claims that their products can cause weight loss. However, very few studies exist which have directly tested the effects of these herbs on cortisol levels. Stress is an important part of life because you can't achieve positive adaptations and growth without stress to trigger them. Cortislim, for example, contains Magnolia bark, beta sitosoterol, theanine, green tea extract, bitter orange peel extract (source of synephrine), banaba leaf extract, vanadium, vitamin C, calcium and Chromium. Much of the research on Glutamine was performed on patients recovering from surgery, burns or traumas (severe stresses to the body). Research on rats and mice has shown that ALC increases luteinizing hormone, which may in turn elevate testosterone.
Sometimes the best thing you can do is take a rest or decrease your training volume and intensity rather than artificially attempt to suppress cortisol. It's when you remain under constant stress without periods of recovery that you begin breaking down. Don't take anything unless you know exactly what's in the product, why it's in the product and how much is in the product. By doing this first, you may be pleasantly surprised to find that you're losing fat and gaining muscle and there isn't even a need to take a supplement at all. Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Dallman and Per Bjorntorp, Stress-Related Cortisol Secretion in Men: Relationships with Abdominal Obesity and Endocrine, Metabolic and Hemodynamic Abnormalities, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 1998, Vol.
It was originally published in Dutch on the blog of Guy Droog, a Men’s Health cover model and personal trainer who was a long term client of mine. Four grams of fish oil a say, as suggested by a study, are enough to provide you with the essential fatty acids.
When you consume whole foods, you don’t have to worry about those evil trans-fats, because those are usually found in processed products and not in natural ones.
The most recent example is when researchers discovered a correlation between cortisol and abdominal body fat. Trauma, injury and surgery are also major stressors to the body (Note: much of the research done on cortisol and stress has been done on recovering patients, and such findings may not carry over to healthy, athletic populations).
Visceral fat is particularly unhealthy because it is a risk factor for heart disease and diabetes.
For example, Cushing's syndrome is a disease of high cortisol levels, while Addison's is a disease of low cortisol levels. Chronically elevated levels of cortisol can also decrease strength and performance in athletes.
Lydia Parnes, acting director of the FTC's bureau of consumer protection says, "The defendant's claims fly in the face of reality. Although some people may find value in these types of products, the ideal solution is to reduce the stress or change your perception of the stress to lessen its physical effects. Whether these findings carry over to healthy athletes has yet to be proven, but some coaches and athletes believe that ALC lowers cortisol and elevates testosterone. Symptoms of overtraining include elevated resting pulse, sleep disturbances, fatigue, decreased strength and decreased performance.
Eight or nine figure fortunes have been made from the sales of a single product, which was later proven to be a total farce. Guy and I share a commitment to the truth even when this upsets many people and probably isn’t a wise move careerwise. You may take these from supplements or from foods like fatty fish, flax seeds, chia or nuts. You want to maintain a healthy, normal level of cortisol, not suppress your cortisol to nothing or allow it to remain elevated. No pill can replace a healthy program of diet and exercise." Reducing excessively high cortisol levels through supplement use may prove beneficial in some ways for hard training athletes. It's okay to expose yourself to stress, provided there is a sufficient period of rest afterwards so you can fully recover.
Rather than solid food, many athletes prefer a liquid "meal" using a commercial post workout drink containing whey protein and maltodextrin plus dextrose or glucose (fast acting protein and high GI carbs) because the rapid absorption time may speed recovery. Stress may lead to increased appetite& Increased appetite may lead to eating too much& Eating too much makes you gain fat. This particular article instigated such a controversy that the owners of Overload Worldwide got involved. However, if stress stimulates appetite and leads to overeating, then the excess calories from "stress eating" can make you fatter. Don't jump on the phone with your credit card in hand after watching a thirty-minute infomercial!
Overload Worldwide is an organization that preaches the sayings of Charles Poliquin and makes major bank in the process of certifying others to do the same.
You may as well incorporate interval training, because it helps reduce fat and also the resistance to insulin, which is often to blame when stubborn belly fat exists. As did tons of other personal trainers that were certified as Personal Hormonal Profiling (PHP) trainers. Guy and I have a clear conscience and are always open to challenge our views, so we both accepted. Rob Trousselot, the owner of LIJFSTIJL Coaches, picked up on the story and invited Overload Worldwide, Guy, me and Chi L. Chiu, representative of Chivo, a scientific health institute, to a public debate at his cost. Women can’t get rid of the fat on their hips that leaves them with a fat ass and men can’t get rid of the belly that obscures the glorious six-pack underneath. The best part is you don’t even have to eat less.So goes the story of an exponentially rising number of organizations that promise a perfect beach body by correcting your hormonal imbalances, notably Charles Poliquin’s BioSignature Modulation and Overload Worldwide’s Personal Hormonal Profiling. This article focuses on BioSignature, because it’s the grand daddy of them all.The essence of BioSignature is as follows.
You can determine the serum concentrations of the most important hormones in your body without blood work. You do this by measuring your skinfold thickness on various sites on your body using calipers. Your regional fat storage at specific sites is indicative of specific hormones being out of whack. For example, if you store a disproportionate amount of fat on the subscapular site (below your shoulder blades), this indicates that you produce too much insulin. When you know which hormones are unbalanced, you can correct this using specific training, nutrition, supplementation and lifestyle interventions. The result is that your undesirable fat storage pattern will correct correspondingly.This image summarizes the BioSignature Modulation hormonal assessment. Your fat distribution and your fat mass are two distinct anthropometrical (literally ‘bodily measurement’) characteristics.
Fat mass is the total amount of fat on your body and its distribution defines where it is stored. If you change your fat distribution via hormonal correction without actually losing fat, you’re simply shifting the fat around your body.
For example, during menopause women ‘lose’ fat on their hips and legs due to hormonal changes.
The scientific literature is unequival about the fact that your regional fat distribution is affected by the activity of various hormones [7, 9].Yet this is not the end of the hormone story.
It is easy to think that this is a result of men having high testosterone levels and women having high estrogen levels.
Those are after all the hormones involved in sexual differentiation.However, this is a typical case of mistaking correlation for causality. The truth is that both differences in hormone production and differences in fat storage pattern are largely genetically determined. Approximately 50% of the difference in fat storage pattern between men and women can be explained solely by our DNA.
I’ll revisit transsexuality in relation to fat distribution later on, but for now I’ll assume that people are not interested in a sex change simply to ‘balance’ their hormonal profile.Of the remaining 30% of the difference in fat distribution between individuals of the same gender, age and ethnicity explain the majority [6, 7].
This already indicates that the role of hormones in influencing fat storage pattern is marginal compared to the gross differences we can observe between individuals. Testosterone affects the depth of the fat storage but not on which body part its stored, so you cannot tell what a man’s testosterone level is by looking at his fat storage pattern like BioSignature does.If testosterone did influence regional fat distribution, you’d expect men and women to store fat in the exact opposite way they actually do. Testosterone acts via the androgen (‘man making’) receptor and stimulates lipolysis AKA fat burning. Androgen receptor density is much higher in the upper than the lower body, so this would imply that men store fat primarily in their lower bodies and women store fat primarily in their upper bodies [6, 9].
Testosterone combats the effects of cortisol, the stress hormone.Cortisol is the hormone with the strongest relation to fat distribution in both genders.
The notorious fat in between the organs in your abdomen consists mainly of fat cells called visceral adipocytes. Fat cells in the torso have fewer glucocorticoid receptors and subcutaneous fat cells found on the rest of your body have even fewer.
Testosterone and cortisol are in a constant battle for the activity of LPL, the enzyme that prepares fat cells for storage. Estrogen production (estradiol + estrone + estriol) is always proportional to androgen production in healthy men.
The full biosynthesis pathway of estrogen by aromatase from adrogens is shown in the image below. As such, it is impossible to distinguish between the fat storing effects of testosterone and estrogen in healthy men.
This is a dose-response effect, not just a permissive effect like that of testosterone in men. A woman with low estrogen levels will have a more evenly spread fat distribution pattern with more fat on the abdomen and torso and less on the lower body.
So, the BioSignature claim that high estrogen is associated with fat storage on the lower body is true in women (only).
However, you could just as well say estrogen is associated with a lack of fat storage on the abdomen.


The exact mechanisms are not yet known, but we can readily observe the effect of increasing testosterone and decreasing estrogen during menopause.
The same occurs in woman-to-man transsexuals undergoing testosterone therapy: the fat distribution pattern becomes more masculine (pear to apple transformation?).
Growth hormone is also a cortisol antagonist and it increases the anti-cortisol activity of testosterone in men and estrogen in women.
High growth hormone levels will therefore preferentially burn abdominal fat, followed by fat on the torso and lastly fat on the lower body. They developed a Z-formula based on skinfold thickness measurements that could diagnose growth hormone deficiency with over 90% certainty.
The skinfold thickness sites that were higher in individuals with low growth hormone production than in healthy individuals were the abdomen (suprailiac, abdominal low and high), chest (pectoral) and back (subscapular).
So, this fat storage pattern could be associated with not just growth hormone deficiency but also high cortisol or, in women, low estrogen or high testosterone. The researchers only made the connection to growth hormone deficiency because this was a study of children with short stature.
As you’d expect in a centralized fat storage pattern, children with growth hormone deficiency had lower knee and calf skinfold thickness measurements than healthy controls. Progesterone stimulates LPL and can thus increase fat storage, but it also blocks the glucocorticoid receptor and thus decreases the fat centralizing effects of cortisol. Yet less estrogen can also reduce the effects of progesterone itself, because estrogen and progesterone strongly interact via cross-talk at both the estrogen and the progesterone receptor sites.
For example, leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells, stimulates the conversion of T4 (thyroxine) to the more active T3 by altering the activity of deiodinases. Additionally, leptin sets the entire production chain of thyroid hormone in motion by increasing the transcription of pro thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The bigger you are, the higher your metabolism has to be and your thyroid is the key regulator of your metabolism.
If you lose weight, thyroid activity goes down to decrease your energy expenditure and prevent you from starving. If the evolutionary benefit of staying lean is not immediately obvious to you, consider that obesity is linked to virtually every pathology and disease state known to man, including infertility. Since cortisol stimulates the production of LPL, insulin reinforces the effect of cortisol.
Back in the good old days, before today’s youth depraved our society, the triceps skinfold was used to estimate a person’s fat percentage [17]. This is what doctors call a non-invasive site and the back of the arm generally stores enough fat to pinch. When research showed the subscapular skinfold was a better predictor of insulin problems, the doctors were obviously overcome with joy.
Perhaps we can even take the bra off!” Subsequent research showed that the relation between insulin sensitivity and back fat disappears virtually completely when abdominal fat is also taken into account [18].
Men genetically store fat pretty evenly spread over the body, giving them a ‘banana shape’. The natural figure of both genders is only altered in one way by hormones: cortisol centralizes fat storage and changes the fat storage pattern to an apple shape. They centralize or decentralize the entire body’s fat storage pattern.The hormonal regulation of regional fat storage in men is summarized in the following picture. Visceral adipose tissue represents a central fat storage pattern with lots of fat on the midsection, less on the rest of the torso and least on the lower body.
BioSignature doesn’t take into account the large gender differences in the hormonal effects of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone – the latter isn’t taken into account in the first place.
Nor does BioSignature Modulation consider the strong interaction effects between all the hormones at play. Fat regulates your thyroid function, but thyroid hormone doesn’t affect where you store fat. Fat tissue is actually very complex and scientists are still figuring out how different adipocytes function. It regulates the secretion of many hormones, growth factors and enzymes, including the following. Of specific interest here is that fat’s function and composition varies depending on its location in the body.The fat in your abdomen has a high resistance against insulin’s storing effect.
This is bad, because the visceral fat depot in your belly is directly connected to your liver by the hepatic portal vein. If you have a large visceral fat depot AKA a gut, your liver is flooded with fatty acids that are insulin resistant.
This process is further reinforced by the production of TNF and interleukins in fat tissue, especially visceral fat tissue, that cause inflammation and insulin resistance. This in turn reduces adiponectin gene expression, which messes up your blood sugar regulation even further. The chronically elevated insulin levels stimulate the aromatase of testosterone to estrogen. Fat tissue also intrinsically produces a large amount of testosterone in women and estrogen in men. The result is that the hormonal profile of fat men starts resembling that of women: higher estrogen, lower testosterone. Essentially, your brain loses control over your hormonal balance, which is why obese women often menstruate irregularly.
The overly sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary axis responds excessively to stress and pumps up cortisol production.
All the hormones that decentralize your fat distribution are suppressed and all the hormones that centralize your fat distribution are stimulated. Baseline insulin action in healthy individuals only minimally affects where you store fat, but obesity inevitably causes insulin resistance [26]. A healthy body has extremely meticulous homeostatic machinery in place that regulates its systems, like your level of blood glucose.
This is why the insulin and glycemic index of your food is irrelevant if you’re healthy and a carb is a carb.The same is true for the other hormones. Only serious clinical pathologies and states of disease where your body’s natural feedback mechanisms are disrupted, like obesity, considerably affect where you store fat. Think in terms of menopause (decrease in estrogen, increase in testosterone), Cushing’s syndrome (excessive cortisol), acromegaly (excessive growth hormone) and hormonal sex-changes.
The effects of minor changes in your diet, training and supplementation have a negligible effect on where you store fat if you’re already lean and healthy. Aside from before-after photos and testimonials being highly susceptible to manipulation, BioSignature’s success is very easy to explain.Take any fat individual. Now randomly pick a skinfold and the associated hormone and tell the person that hormone is the cause of his or her fat distribution and should be corrected. You can tell an overweight male they have low testosterone, high estrogen, low growth hormone, high insulin or high cortisol based on any skinfold reading being high. Because the solution is always weight loss and weight loss will always decrease all the skinfold readings. It’s a self-fulfilling prophecy.Guy Droog and I asked several certified BioSignature and Personal Hormonal Profiling practitioners how many people taking the caliper test get the result “Congratulations, all your serum hormone concentrations are within the physiological reference range. You could lose some fat, but this has nothing to do with your hormones.” Zip, zilch, zero, according to Mitchell from Undisputed and one trainer who wishes to remain anonymous. People want to pinpoint something specific as the cause of their weight, not get told they have to eat less. People want to hear there’s a new program with a great story and (pseudo)scientific techniques that will make everything better without going on a traditional diet. Success in a pill is always easier to swallow than the hard truth.Let this be the simple message of a complex story. If you want help in reaching your fitness goals, hire a personal trainer who knows what he’s talking about instead of a brainwashed Poliquin disciple that fills in your skinfold readings in a piece of software that spits out a generic program and a grocery list of supplements. Ley CJ, Lees B, Stevenson JC: Sex- and menopause- associated changes in body-fat distribution.
Svendsen OL, Hassager C, Christiansen C: Age- and menopause-associated variations in body composition and fat distribution in healthy women as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The expression of androgen receptors in human neck and limb muscles: effects of training and self-administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids. Effects of sex and age on the 24-hour profile of growth hormone secretion in man: importance of endogenous estradiol concentrations.
Ho KY, Evans WS, Blizzard RM, Veldhuis JD, Merriam GR, Samojlik E, Furlanetto R, Rogol AD, Kaiser DL, Thorner MO.
Estrogen regulation of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase–possible mechanism of body fat distribution. Dydrogesterone and norethisterone regulate expression of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in human subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes. Progesterone inhibits glucocorticoid-dependent aromatase induction in human adipose fibroblasts. Biology of regional body fat distribution: relationship to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Do upper-body and centralized adiposity measure different aspects of regional body-fat distribution? Ballare C, Uhrig M, Bechtold T, Sancho E, Di Domenico M, Migliaccio A, Auricchio F, Beato M. Free triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone are directly associated with waist circumference, independently of insulin resistance, metabolic parameters and blood pressure in overweight and obese women.
Effects of changes in body weight on carbohydrate metabolism, catecholamine excretion, and thyroid function. Overtraining would definitely not be part of living healthily.There is no evidence whatsoever that sports alter fat distribution. My knowledge about the practices of BioSig is from other practitioners.Reply Are You Alive? If I were to eliminate carbs for 5 – 7 days with the aim of increasing my insulin sensitivity, and then start to reintroduce low GI carbs into my diet and minimise the sugary food, would my increased insulin sensitivity last? Losing fat is by far the most effective way to increase your insulin sensitivity and improve your overall health.



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