Category I consists of the five most populated islands that account for about 75% of the population of Micronesia.
Category II islands have a smaller but still significant population (above 1000 people) and have a maximum elevation that is above the height of a tsunami wave, meaning that people on the island would have somewhere to evacuate to on the island. Category III islands have very small populations, usually under 1000 people, a small area, usually less than 1 kilometer squared, and most important, their highest elevation is not high enough to escape the height of a tsunami, meaning people will have to evacuate off of the island.
Island basement: This first plan was to build a large underground evacuation center out of concrete and other waterproof materials, large enough to house the entire population of the island. Out to sea: This plan is to send the population out in their fishing vessels towards the direction of the tsunami. Evacuation to larger islands: Some of these small islands are close enough to larger islands that they can be reached during an emergency situation, although this will depend on the time available between the warning and the tsunami. The pedestrian evacuation routes in many cases overlap with the vehicular evacuation routes. The plan also seems to completely neglect the fact that there may be disabled people or elderly people without access to cars, who could not walk such distances. We did this by taking the entire department’s population and subtracting the population of provinces that were deemed to be safe within that department. Motor Vehicles: People will be allowed to evacuate via motor vehicles along vehicular evacuation routes, which will include the larger highways that can take the amount of traffic that evacuation will generate. Pedestrians: People without motor vehicles will evacuate along predetermined "rutas pedentales" (pedestrian routes). Traffic Issues: In our revisions of Peru's current tsunami evacuation plan, we have designed separate routes for automobiles and for pedestrians.
Where are large places, like gyms, stadiums or buildings where many people can stay for a while? Basically, this leaves us with the same information we had before: evacuation sites should be large places, like universities, stadiums, and parks that are in a safe zone (a relatively high elevation).
The police, governmental organizations and other emergency organizations make the evacuation safe and fast as possible. A battery-powered radio, flashlight, extra batteries for each and writing materials for taking notes of information.
Special medicines or foods required by members of your family; such as insulin, heart tablets, dietetic food or baby food, as medical supplies will not be available for at least 36 hours. China Sea The Citizen Citizens Bank Classic Chevrolet Classic Chevrolet - pre-owned The Clock Works Co-Go's Coins R Us Colaizzi Pedorthic Center Community Care Plus Costcutters Family Hair Care Cricket - Bellevue Wireless Curves of Bellevue CVS Pharmacy Dairy Queen of Bellevue Dance America Dari-Villa Restaurant John B DeBonis Family Dentistry Joseph G DeFrancesco, DMD Domenic S. Enjoy Bellevue Ephesus Mediterranean Erin's Hallmark Esthetica Salon Family Dollar First Niagara Bank Samuel S Floro, Esquire Fodi Jewelers, Inc Forest Avenue Presbyterian Church Frankfurter's Hot Dog Shoppe Fred Dietz Floral, Gifts and Antiques David Gillingham Girl Scouts Western Pennsylvania Gold Star Construction USA, Inc. Jackson-Hewitt Tax Service James Trunzo Collision Shop James V Jordan, Attorney at Law Jatco Machine & Tool Co., Inc. Pittsburgh Regional Chiropractic Center Pittsburgh Valve and Fitting PJ's Smoke Shop Plank Eye Board Shop PNC Bank Donald H Presutti, Esquire Produce Plus Market & Deli, Inc.
EAT'N PARK RUSTY NAIL HOME DEPOT STATE STORE BASEBALL PITTBIRD THREE RIVERS CASINO FOOTBALL PNC PARK HEINZ FIELD CONSOL ENERGY CENTER CADDY DOLLAR GENERAL BELLEVUE POLICE DEPARTMENT PD FAMILY DOLLAR AVALON BEN AVON EMSWORTH WOODS RUN GIANT EAGLE KUHN'S LINCOLN AVENUE BUSINESS DISTRICT GROCERY SHOPPING KMART WALMART BELLEVUE POLICE DEPARTMENT PD P.D. Supreme Court, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania and several of the U.S. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region.
In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S.
On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.
The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks.
As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.
In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary.
The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public.
The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage.
In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation.
In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights.
Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals.
In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L.
Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006.
22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents.
30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000.
33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. During the reigns of Nero, Galerius, Domitian, and Diocletian there were specific empire-wide persecutions of the Christian Church.
Rome was the capitol of the Empire, but it lacked the grandeur of a world-dominating capitol with its narrow streets and wooden buildings. Legend has it that Nero a€?played his fiddle while Rome burned.a€? History does confirm that during the fire Nero appeared on stage and lamented the fire as another major drama, much like the defeat of the ancient Troy.
Nero attempted to deflect the focus from himself through acts of civil charity, opening his palace to house the homeless, and supervising food lines for the hungry. To deflect attention from himself he placed the blame on the Christians in Rome, announcing that the fire was part of a greater plot to overthrow the empire.
He instigated a persecution of Christians and systematically, under torture, gained the names of Christians and their leaders from those initially interrogated. Some of the Christians were fed to wild beasts in the colosseum, with Nero, himself presiding as the grand master of the games.
The people realized that Christians were being put to death not for starting the fire but to cover Nero's crimes and to sate his appetite for cruelty. They were accused of being atheists, because the God they worshipped could not be seen, there were no statues erected to him by the Christians, and, hence, he probably did not exist. Addressing each other as a€?brothera€? and a€?sistera€? and a€?mothera€? and a€?fathera€? when there were no apparent natural blood ties, and referring to themselves as a€?a familya€? started rumors of incest and crazy relationships. An example of how a civil magistrate responded to Christians is found in a letter by Pliny the Younger (c. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, Syria was eighty years old when he was put to death in December 107 A.D.
As he made his way from Antioch to Smyrna in present-day northern Turkey, Ignatius was greeted by Christians at each stopping point. At the festival of Caesar in Smyrna (near Ephesus in present-day western Turkey) a number of Christians were forced to fight against wild beasts at the local games. Hearing this, Polycarp decided to remain in the city, but the other Christians urged him to leave and hide at a series of local farms. As he entered the stadium, a voice from heaven said to Polycarp, a€?Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man.a€? The voice was heard by other Christians who were present.
The Julian line and their successors attempted at every turn to eliminate the new, radical religion erupting from Jerusalem, with this self-styled a€?King of the Jewsa€? as their fabled leader. Now with the ascension to the throne of Constantine, the Christian faith had become through the Edict of Milan in AD 313 a legal religion in the empire and by AD 380 was THE religion of Rome. The Christian Faith spread rapidly throughout the Empire after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
Setting the example for the missionary enterprise were the Apostles themselves, each having traveled widely for the remainder of their lives. Although the Arian doctrine was rejected at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD, it was the version of the Christian Faith that was carried to the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths and to which they were originally converted from heathenism.
Constantine struggled with the issue of how the State and Church would relate and interact. At the early death of Constantine II, the Empire was speedily divided between Constantius and Constans, who rigorously attacked the remnants of pagan worship in the empire and in 346 AD issued a joint edict ordering all pagan temples to be closed, and forbade sacrifices on the pain of death. Valens and Valentius became emperors of the East and West respectively, Theodocius succeeded them. Leading Christian centers of power and scholarship in the empire were Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Constantinople, and Rome. Theodocius, to assure orthodoxy, urged all Christians, to especially revere the leadership of the bishops in Alexandria and Constantinople. Describe and identify where each of the original Apostles went in their missionary travels and what impact they made.
List at least five reasons for the strength and growth of the Christian faith enabling it not only to survive, but also to dominate the empire. Analyze how the Council of Nicaea stabilized and unified Christianity in the 4th century A.D. Explain the contributions of Constantine and Theodocius on the emerging growth of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Analyze the rejection by the four other Patriarchies of the Church of the claims of superiority issued by the patriarchy of Rome. Born to a Christian mother, Constantine continued the tolerant approach of his father to the Christians in the West. Constantine had previously gained an alliance with Licinius by offering his half-sister Constantia as his wife. The night before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Constantine and his troops reported to have seen signs in the sky of Christ and the cross. Because Licinius was the husband of Constantia, his half-sister, Constantine allowed Licinius to live.
Now the sole ruler in the empire, Constantine was sickened by the filth and corruption in Rome.
Constantine built several large churches in the city to signify that the new capitol was capitol of a new Christian Roman Empire. Should Christians have preference and priority or not in appointments to government offices and leadership positions in the military?
Should the old system that released pagan temples and priests from taxation be continued, and if so, should it be extended to church property and to Christian bishops and priests?
Critics of Constantine have coined the term a€?Constantinisma€? for what they interpret to be undue influence by Constantine in the affairs of the Church. Constantine soon discovered that there were as many disputes, controversies, and even assassinations in the Church as there had been in the pagan empire.
The first major problem to be faced was the dispute that had erupted in Alexandria, Egypt between two bishops, Athanasius and Arius. The Council at Ephesus dealt with the question about the relationship between the two natures of Jesus. All three councils affirmed the deity of Jesus and his two natures, and thereby also the doctrine of the Trinity. The image to the left is a symbol devised to explain the decision of Chalcedon concerning the relationship of the three persons who make up the triune Godhead. The Father is not (non est) the Son, the Son is not the Spirit, the Spirit is not the Father, but all three are (est) God. Constantine has been given the title by historians, a€?Constantine the Greata€? for his many important contributions made, not only for the empire, or the Christian Church, but also for western civilization as a whole. He further strengthened the observance of Sunday by conducting Christian worship services every Sunday in his palace.
Freedom of religion was granted, including the legalization of Christianity, through the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D. Churches and clergy were exempted from taxation, as were priests and sacred buildings of other religions in the empire, thus strengthening the separation of Church and State. He produced a new concept of a€?Romantitasa€? -- a new Roman society devoid of its basis built upon blood, gore, sacrifice, military prowess. Slavery, although not abolished (it was too tightly wound into the economy and culture to be abolished completely all at once) was limited, the treatment of slaves was improved, and the process for freeing slaves was greatly modified and facilitated. Crispus was Constantinea€™s oldest son, whose mother, Minervina, was never married to Constantine. Both the Catholic and the Orthodox Churches have named Constantine a saint, and therefore they likely have accepted the theory that the report of the illicit affair was true and that Constantine was bound by law to enact the death penalty for both his son and his wife. Upon the death of his wife, Fausta, Constantine designated his mother, Helen, as Empress Imperatix.
Diocletian (293 AD) was the first emperor to divide the Empire into Western and Eastern halves, while at the same time maintaining ultimate authority over both. Constantine (324 AD) reunited the empire at Constantinople, but prior to his death divided the empire into three sections, giving his three sons authority over each. In 337 AD his sons Constantine II (Orthodox, West), Constans I (Orthodox, Middle), and Constantius II (Arian, East) fought for control and fought over Christian doctrine. On one occasion while in Egypt, Theodocius ordered the destruction of the famed bronze statute of the Greek goddess Serapis, who had been worshipped for generations.
Born in Spain, Theodosius, son of a famous general, distinguished himself in the military and then retired from public service.
The strength of the Christian Church in the empire by this time can be seen in a sad story that took place during the reign of Theodosius.
Several days prior Theodosius awakened to his error and ordered the reversal of his previous dictum. In horror at his own actions, and with the rapid response of Christian leaders condemning his actions, Theodosius shut himself up in his palace and wept for days. Because of his personal godly virtue and strong administrative leadership, Theodosius, as with Constantine before him, is known to history as Theodosius the Great.
Earlier invasions of Italy and of Rome occurred on several occasions in the early part of the 5th century. In Europe, meanwhile, successive waves of Germanic invasions swept through virtually every area. The wars fought by Emperor Justinian from Constantinople in the 6th century in an attempt to gain control of Italy back from the Goths, did further damage to Europe. Christians were accused of being traitors to the empire because they refused to worship the emperor.
3.A A  Setting the example for the missionary enterprise were the Apostles themselves, each having traveled widely for the remainder of their lives. 6.A A A  Constantine struggled with the issue of how the State and Church would relate and interact. 8.A A A  At the early death of Constantine II, the Empire was speedily divided between Constantius and Constans, who rigorously attacked the remnants of pagan worship in the empire and in 346 AD issued a joint edict ordering all pagan temples to be closed, and forbade sacrifices on the pain of death. 10.A A  Valens and Valentius became emperors of the East and West respectively, Theodocius succeeded them.
11.A A  Leading Christian centers of power and scholarship in the empire were Alexandria, Jerusalem, Damascus, Constantinople, and Rome.
12.A A  Theodocius, to assure orthodoxy, urged all Christians, to especially revere the leadership of the bishops in Alexandria and Constantinople.
5 Palikir is at an elevation of 682 feet and Kolonia is at an elevation of 9 feet6, so excluding the population of Palikir, we estimated that there were 25,000 people living in danger areas along the coast.
Vehicles will be in place for evacuation at hospitals, churches, and nursing homes (although there aren’t very many nursing homes or hospitals on the islands) where it is more likely to find people who are going to need assistance during the evacuation. By having everyone sign in, the Micronesian government will be able to see who survived the tsunami by looking at the records of the people in the evacuation sites.
As Micronesia is lacking in asphalt, we will have to cut trails into the low-lying jungle foliage. For example, some of the Lima safe-havens include sports stadiums (Estadio Municipal) and universities (Universidad Nacional).
This is a problem because panicked people will not act rationally, especially when in a group. There should be a special evacuation "bus" system for hospitals, nursing homes, and other locations with a high concentration of such people.
After analysis of topography, elevation, and population maps, we have concluded that the high-risk areas include Lima, Callao, Trujillo, Chiclayo, and other areas of lower elevation as these locations are low or densely populated. These routes are different from the pedestrian evacuation, but lead to the same evacuation sites.
These routes will follow a similar path to the vehicular routes, though there will be no overlap to limit unnecessary potentially lethal risks.
As these people are unable to walk the distance to the safety zone, it is necessary to have them bussed. Again, getting people to volunteer and remain dedicated to the task will require psychological research.


Psychologically, this is also a better plan because the workers will already have an emotional connection and responsibility to the patients, which would not be the case if separate government workers were assigned to drive the emergency vehicles.
Basically, emergency vehicles must be stored at the special case evacuation locations as bringing in cars would be impossible (they would have to move against the flow of traffic). These meeting places are also easy to indicate on signs because people already know of these locations.
But if there are more people than the stadium or university can hold, as there most likely will be because of the large numbers of people we are evacuating near the coast, we will make sure that extra tents are provided so tents can be set up in the parking lots to accommodate everyone. By having everyone sign in, the Peruvian government will be able to see who survived the tsunami by looking at the records of the people in the evacuation sites.
Evacuees in Peru staying in hotel rooms, dorms, or other indoor facilities, will be provided with just the settlement kit.
Jesse The Tailor Jim's Hidden Treasures Joe's Rusty Nail Restaurant Johnston Self Storage Joyce's Antique Emporium of Bellevue (Antiques & Uniques) Just Playin Norman J.
Hickton was nominated for United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania by President Barack Obama on May 20, 2010, and was confirmed by the U.S.
The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department.
They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.
It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v.
Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964.
The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him.
Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know?
Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391).
Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. And the Christian faith spread rapidly throughout the empire, displacing local and empire-supported paganism.
True to his visions of immense self-worth, he envisioned himself as the worlda€™s greatest architect -- in addition to being the self-proclaimed best charioteer, artist, musician, and dramatist. Perhaps the clearest example of the madness of Nero and the evil that consumed him was his evening garden parties which he lit by tying Christians to poles, soaking them with oil, and using them as human torches. Compassion for the meek followers of Jesus, whose blameless conduct was apparent to many, led to a new wave of conversions. Stories about how the Christians a€?ate and drank the body and blood of Jesusa€? were usually the basis for this misunderstanding. Further, they refused to join in the worship of the gods that could be easily seen in the local temples. He hated everything Constantine and his sons stood for and did much to restore paganism in the empire. He was committed to the faith of the West, the anti-Arian postion of Nicea, and with co-emperor Gratian, in 380 A.D. He was not yet a Christian but perhaps in addition to following his fathera€™s lead also wanted to set himself apart from Galerius and his persecution of Christians in the East.
Constantine was told, it was reported, that if he trusted in Christ and became a Christian, as well as his troops, they would win the battle, although greatly outnumbered. However, after a second occurrence of Liciniusa€™ plotting to overthrow and kill Constantine, Constantine sent men to hunt Licinius down and they killed him in northern Greece.
Others, however, look more favorably on his involvement by citing the need for major reforms in the judicial and legal systems of the empire and the difficulty of learning how best and to what degree to maintain a separation between the State and the Church. These centered around four matters: (1) local and regional rivalries among Christian, (2) disputes concerning leadership in the churches, (3) doctrinal disputes concerning the deity of Christ and the Trinity, and (4) disputes about how to handle Christians who had caved in under Diocletian and local persecutions.
Arius taught that Jesus was a created being and was not divine in the sense that God the Father was divine. Chalcedon affirmed that in Jesus two natures were united in one manhood, condemned Nestorius and his teachings, condemned another teaching that was circulating affirming that Jesus had only one nature, and affirmed the Nicene Creed. Sexual crimes and sex outside of marriage became crimes against the State because they were viewed as corrupting influences to society and culture. Crispus was raised in Gaul by his father, given an excellent education by a noted Christian teacher, and when reaching maturity proved himself to be an excellent military leader. Was this factual or was Fausta jealous of Crispus, since she bore three younger sons to Constantine: Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans, in addition to two daughters? Or, on the other hand, was he duty bound to carry out justice that was prescribed in Roman law, the very law that he helped to write requiring death for adultery and fornication? The Eastern Empire revived under the Byzantine emperors, especially Justinian I, until the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453 A.D. From that point forward he used his authority to combat the Churcha€™s long-standing second foe, Arianism.
The bishop of Milan, Ambrose, denied Theodosius participation in the Lorda€™s Supper until acts of repentance were carried out. In the West Latin prevailed and the bishop in Rome became the most powerful of Christian spiritual leaders.
Goths had made their way to Rome after the defeat of the emperor Valens at Adrianople in 378 A.D.
Under the military leadership of Odoacer the Germanic troops revolted, captured Ravenna, the functional capitol of the Western empire at the time, quickly conquered all of Italy, and captured Rome itself.
Trained volunteers from the staff of the hospitals, nursing homes, and churches will be driving the vehicles. Inside the cabin there will be a computer set up (again, taken into account in our budget estimate) so that people can login when they reach the evacuation site.
Even if everyone who survives does not go to an evacuation site, it will give the government a good estimate of survivors. These trails will have to be maintained regularly based on the growth of the local jungle plants. This is a good use of resources considering the fact that these places are used to accommodating many people, though, granted, not for an extended period of time. In this way, each person can get to safety if they can get to one of those stops, walk, or drive.
For this reason, we propose a sign network consisting of permanent signs that direct people towards the predetermined locations. These evacuation sites will include different sports stadiums, universities, and other large buildings that were designed to hold many people at once.
The pedestrian routes will go slightly more than 2 miles inland, meaning that even given the minimal time of 20 minutes (if the epicenter of the earthquake and tsunami is close to the coast)3, most people will be able to walk to the evacuation site within the warning time. They need to be warned immediately through the Emergency Warning System and have a direct connection or "ear to" the Chain of Command.
Some of the nursing homes may already have vehicles for moving their senior citizens, which can then be used for the evacuation with no extra cost to be considered in the budget. La Universidad tiene 4 locales distribuidos en la ciudad del Cusco, cerca de dos de ellos existe un estadio un local se encuentra en el centro de la ciudad el que no tiene espacios grandes cerca.
Once the people reach the evacuation site, multiple computers will be at the site to login everyone in.
In the case of Peru the evacuees will be sheltered in stadiums, hotels and college campuses. For Micronesia tents used will have sloping large overhang and made out of materials with low thermal capacity to be suitable for the warm humid climate of the islands. Maria Simbra of KDKA Pittsburgh Publicly tell the World, on the Internet and TV, whether AHN murders healthy patients for organs, via fabricated diagnosis, fraudulent life-support, torture thereby, and Morphine overdose. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements.
The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching.
The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.
They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds.
Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch.
The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
So intense was the persecution that soon public sentiment swung behind the Christians and the city realized that Nero was merely attempting to cover up his own guilt. At one point Nero disappeared from Rome for a full year, having traveled to Greece to participate as a€?the worlda€™s greatest athletea€? in the Olympic games.
There were empire-wide periods of persecution, however, under the emperors Nero, Domitian in the late first century, and Diocletian in the late second century.
Because in some areas they had become so numerous that no one shopped at the local meat market where meat was sold for sacrifice to the pagan idols. Because of the Christiansa€™ refusal to worship the local gods and the emperor, the gods poured out their wrath on the community.
Even the Roman legions refused to go into battle without first having participated in traditional rituals. Male and female prostitutes were everywhere, extra-marital affairs were the norm, unwanted pregnancies ended in either abortion or infant exposure easily presumed incestual relationships were being practiced by the Christians. If they admit it I repeat the question a second and a third time, threatening capital punishment; if they persist I sentence them to death.
He was a bishop or leader in the Christian Church and one way to attack to whole group is to eliminate their leaders. Suffer me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it will be granted me to attain to God. When the men sent by the the local sheriff, named Herod, arrived at his hiding place, he talked with them and asked for them to be served food and drink, because it was late in the day. He that granted me to endure the fire will grant me also to remain at the pyre unmoved, without being secured with nails.a€? After he prayed, the fire was then lit. Cited in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. That night Constantine embraced the faith of this mother and all the troops entered the battle the next day with Christian crosses painted on their shields. While there Constantine and Licinius together issued the Edict of Milan, granting freedom of religion throughout the empire and especially making Christianity one of the legal religions in the empire. He wanted to start with a fresh approach and moved the capitol of the empire from Rome to Byzantium located at the Hellespont. It was a revolutionary leap from the pagan emperors Nero and Diocletian to the Christian emperor Constantine.
While much of his decisions and actions related to these matters were built on solid principles, much had to be learned through trial and error.
Arianism became the dominant view of Christianity that was embraced, for instance, by the Goths and Visigoths, and found adherents in Syria, Persia, and Egypt.
It is not one God showing up in three different costumes, as Chalcedon rejected, but three persons, each distinct, yet each sharing in one essence of Godhead.
Her loyalty to her husband was proven when she informed Constantine of a plot by her father to kill him. At his death his cousin, Julian the Apostate (last pagan emperor in the empire) became sole emperor. Theodosius, ruling from Constantinople, issued an edict proclaiming Christianity as the only legal religion in the East. But when the statue fell, rather than the gods responding, a pack of rats ran out from under the base of the statue. He also opposed Arianism in the West and assisted the famed Bishop Ambrose of Milan in crushing Arianism.
In response, Theodosius, instead of hunting down those responsible, took the path of impulsive anger and ordered the death of all people living in the city. After he was restored by the Churcha€™s leaders, Theodosius entered the church in Constantinople and showed his repentance by falling to the floor and crying out to God and to the people for forgiveness. With the demise of the Roman government in the West the people increasingly fell into a primitive feudalism and military strongmen became the civil leaders.
This was the greatest single military loss in Roman history and the Roman legions were left in shambles. Roman culture survived, chiefly through the presence of the churches and priests in the cities and towns, but the political system and the a€?Pax Romanaa€? was finished.
We have checked to make sure that there are people with computer use skills, and especially from the large cities, many people are capable of using new technology15. The login records will also be posted online and updated every hour so that people can check for the names of family members and friends. In this way, people would have a general idea of where they are supposed to go, and upon seeing the signs recall where they should go. The login records will also be posted online and updated approximately every hour so that people can check for the names of family members and friends.
Those whose homes were not affected by the tsunami are encouraged to return to their homes.2 If the home community is deemed unsafe and uninhabitable, citizens are to continue living in the evacuation sites.
Settlement kits will also include personal hygiene items such as soap and toothbrushes and food preparation units.
Keystone Rehabilitation Systems KFC Klauscher Architects Knights of Columbus Council #1400 Jonathon Kohler, DDS P.C.
Monda, DMD Mount Assisi Academy PreschoolMount Zion Baptist Church Mt Assisi Convent Mt Nazareth Center Muddy Cup Coffee House Lisa M. Hickton was involved in a wide range of community activities, and has long been an active supporter of and participant in organizations which benefit children and the arts. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D.
Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States.
He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel.
A 50-60 CE: Apostle Thomas brings the Torah-Gospel of Christ to the Jewish Community of Malabar, India who gladly embrace it and share it with the wider India who joyfully become Torah-Observant followers of the Jewish Messiah, Ya`shua.
The common complaint was that the Christians were not loyal citizens of the empire because they refused to participate in emperor worship, signified by sacrifices made in the pagan temples.
Groups of street thugs were caught spreading the fire, who claimed that they were operating under orders from a civil authority. He also organized chariot races in Rome and required the public and the Senate to attend, while he raced as a€?the worlda€™s greatest charioteer.a€? There were command performances also featuring Nero as a singer, a harpist, and actor. The civil authorities did not care what particular religion a person practiced, so long as it included emperor worship.


For I do not doubt that, whatever kind of crime it may be to which they have confessed, their pertinacity and inflexible obstinacy should certainly go punished. I am the wheat of God, and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of God. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber River during the battle and Constantine won the battle of the Milvian Bridge. Licinius had the support of pagan Goth warriors and represented the old ways of the pagan empire. Arianism is the basic doctrinal basis in the 21st century among Unitarians, Jehovaha€™s Witnesses, and Mormons. Nestorius taught that (1) Mary should not be referred to as a€?god-bearera€? (theotokos) for this emphasized the deity of Jesus at the expense of his humanity; and, (2) Jesus had two distinct natures that were never united -- divine and human.
However, her relationship was probably put to the test when Constantine defeated her brother, Maxentius, at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, and then paraded his head around the streets of Rome on a spike in 312 A.D.
With imperial funds Helen erected churches at various sacred sites, including the Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth, at the cave where Jesus was reportedly born (Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem), and the place of his capture (Church at the Mount of Olives). This was done in part, perhaps, because it was his uncle, Valens, who had been defeated by the Arian Goths at Adrianople in 378 A.D.
Theodosius set out to crush all doctrine that did not a€?conform to the ancient doctrines delivered by the Apostle Peter to Rome.a€? All known Arians were expelled from Constantinople and all Arian churches were closed in the East. Thessaloniki was home to one of the early churches in Greece and to whom the Apostle Paul had written two New Testament letters. He officially ordered before his death that the empire would be permanently divided into East and West under the leadership of his two sons. In the East Greek prevailed, the culture was more prosperous, and the patriarchs in Constantinople, Damascus, Jerusalem, and Alexandria provided the spiritual leadership. Making their way to Rome, the Goths exacted a cruel and thorough sacking of the city in 410 A.D. Within a short time, however, the Ostrogoths invaded Italy and their leader, Theodoric the Great, was recognized by Zeno.
There will also be supplies in this cabin such as food, water, materials to put up shelters, medical supplies, blankets, clothing, etc. The trails should be large enough to allow passage of the few cars that are present (and wide paths would also make it easier for a large group of people to get to the evacuation site).
In essence, putting people and cars on the same road just creates an additional risk that is potentially lethal. It may seem a bit silly having their signs; however, in the event of such an event, there would be such hysteria that this precaution is warranted. On university campuses, evacuees will occupy areas designed to hold many people like stadiums, courts, fields, and dorms. He is a past Executive Board Member of the Pittsburgh Public Theater, and served as its President.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982. Their descendants will later be persecuted mercilessly by the Roman Catholic Cult in 1671.A Indian Torah-Observant Evangelists travel Eastwards (60-70 CE) carrying their Message throughout other Asian nations to China.
Locally there was anger against the Christians because they refused to participate in the local pagan religions and rituals, thus bringing, it was feared, the wrath of the gods on the local community. Peter request was granted to be crucified upside-down, because he was not worth, he said, to die in the same manner as Jesus.
There was always room for one more god in the local temple, so long as it took its place among the other gods worshipped locally. Anything contrary simply rocked the boat and disrupted business as usual and threatened peace and security. There were others who displayed a like madness and whom I reserved to be sent to Rome, since they were Roman citizens.a€? (Plin.
Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my tomb, and may have nothing of my body. Constantine and his legions marched on Rome and defeated Maxentius and the famed Praetorian Guard at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 A.D. The God nature expressed itself through the human nature as an artist would his painting, but remained distinct from it.
The Council affirmed that this was a divine mystery, unfathomable by the human mind, but taught in Scripture. In the same year, however, Constantine had Fausta also put to death for an undetermined reason.
This was a courageous move, because the vast Gothic armies were primarily Arians in their faith. Seven thousand people were lured into the citya€™s stadium under the pretense of viewing a chariot race. He left behind an empire that had officially declared for the Christian faith and condemned both paganism and heresy. These paths will be maintained by the government at least once a month so that they remain usable. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996.
But if one refused to participate at all, and further claimed that his or her god was the only true god, that was grounds for execution as a traitor. Some sources speculate that Constantine found Faustaa€™s original story to be a lie and that Fausta was a willing participant in the illicit affair. There will also be a large canopy set up at each evacuation site where the people can congregate under in case of inclement weather. Those leaders include, Demas, Philetus, Alexander, Hymenaeus and Phygellus.`They Loved Not The Truth`. The deity of Jesus Christ and the reality of the existence of three persons in the Trinity were affirmed as being those doctrine taught in Scripture as well as embraced by the Church generally since the first century.
They further affirmed that Mary, as the one who bore Jesus, could properly be referred to as Theotokos a€?the bearer or mother of God.a€? By this they did not confer any sense of deity to Mary, but if Jesus was both God and man, and if it is correct to refer to Jesus as God, then she would have been a€?the bearer of God. Others speculate that Constantine had Crispus put to death believing the word of his wife, Fausta.
The familiarity of the village with their evacuation site will lessen the psychological trauma of the tsunami. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. Cited in Documents of the Christian Church, Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, 1963, p. Later, when finding out that either she had lied or else was a willing participant in an affair, he had her also put to death. The local officials from the village or town that will use the clearing will maintain the clearings monthly, the cost of which has been marked in the budget. Then shall I be a true disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not see so much as my body.
Each evacuation clearing will be a permanent fully equipped workstation with an Evacuation Site Coordinator. Entrust the Lord for me, that by these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God.a€? (Ep. Furthermore, the site will be accessible by heavy trucks from an all-weather road for loading of camp supplies. Furthermore, the site should have two ventilated improved pit latrines built according to the book: The Design of Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine written by the United Nations development program14. The rest were exiled from Israel and scattered throughout the known world, adding to what is now called the `Diaspora.` Judaism was no longer recognized as a legal religion. They were forbidden, upon pain of death, from practicing circumcision, reading the Torah, eating unleavened bread at Passover, etc. A temple dedicated to the Roman pagan god Jupiter was erected on temple mountain in Jerusalem. Gregory empowered by the Emperor DiocletianA  forces 4 Million Jews and Torah-Observant Christians of Armenia to become Catholics or face death. A 306 CE: The Catholic Church Synod of Elvira banned marriages, sexual intercourse and community contacts between Christians and Jews and prohibited them from eating together. A 315 CE: Constantine published the Edict of Milan which extended religious tolerance to Catholics. And may I be anathema in the world to come, and may my soul be set down with Satan and the devils. James Parks, `The Conflict Of The Church And The Synagogue`; `Atheneum` - New York, 1974, pp.
The Cult of Mithras followed devoutly by Roman soldiers (`man-only` managed Cult) along with the Orphic Cult (a singing cult whose main tenet was `celibacy`) and the Roman Empire under Constantine amalgamate at Nicaea. They stated: "For it is unbecoming beyond measure that on this holiest of festivals we should follow the customs of the Jews. It is evident that this is the religion that is followed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic sanctity; that is, according to the apostolic discipline and the evangelic doctrine, we shall believe in the single Deity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, under the concept of equal majesty and of the Holy Trinity. We command that those persons who follow this rule shall embrace the name of Catholic Christians. The rest, however, whom We adjudge demented and insane, shall sustain the infamy of heretical dogmas, their meeting places shall not receive the name of churches, and they shall be smitten first by divine vengeance and secondly by the retribution of Our own initiative, which We shall assume in accordance with the divine judgment (27 February 380). Cunctos populos, quos clementiae nostrae regit temperamentum, in tali volumus religione versari, quam divinum petrum apostolum tradidisse Romanis religio usque ad nunc ab ipso insinuata declarat quamque pontificem Damasum sequi claret et Petrum Alexandriae episcopum virum apostolicae sanctitatis, hoc est, ut secundum apostolicam disciplinam evangelicamque doctrinam patris et filii et spiritus sancti unam deitatem sub parili maiestate et sub pia trinitate credamus.
Once the code was enforced, Jews in the Empire could not build synagogues, read the Bible in Hebrew, gather in public places, celebrate Passover, or give evidence in a judicial case in which a Catholic was a party. Canon XXX decreed that "From the Thursday before Easter for four days, Jews may not appear in the company of Catholics." Marriages between Catholics and Jews were prohibited.
Day Sabbath Observance, Kashrut Law, Civil and Ceremonial Laws all reflect Torah adherence. Their evangelistic fervour cause them to carry the Apostolic Message into all Europe and Africa. THEY WERE DEEPLY EVANGELISTIC AND CARRIED THEIR MESSAGE OF FULL SALVATION AND OBEDIENCE TO THE TORAH TO EVERY AREA AND CORNER OF SCOTLAND. FISHERMEN, FARMERS, TRADERS, CARPENTERS, CLERICS AND SHEPHERDS, ALL WERE FOLLOWERS AND PRACTICERS OF THEIR TEACHINGS AND HISTORICAL RECORDS DECLARE THAT THEIRS WAS A MINISTRY OF THE SUPERNATURAL; SIGNS, WONDERS, AND HEALINGS WERE MUCH EVIDENT IN THEIR LIVES, AS IT WAS IN THE APOSTLES AND DISCIPLES OF JESUS CHRIST. IT IS DOUBTFUL THAT THERE IS A VILLAGE, TOWN OR CITY THROUGHOUT SCOTLAND OR IRELAND THAT DOES NOT HAVE A MEMORIAL OF SOME KIND TO THESE SERVANTS OF CHRIST WHETHER IT BE THE NAME OF A VILLAGE, LANDMARK, ROAD, RIVER OR CHURCH. WERE JOYFULLY RECEIVED AND PRACTISED BY SCOTLAND`S ANCIENT FOREFATHERS THROUGHOUT THE LAND OF SCOTLAND RIGHT THROUGH TO THE 12TH. CENTURY, THE SCOTS WERE UNDER UNRELENTING AND FORCEFUL PRESSURE TO REJECT THE HEBRAIC ROOTS OF THEIR FAITH BY EMISSARIES OF THE ROMISH RELIGION SENT TO SCOTLAND. THEN THE ROMISH RELIGION UNDERTOOK A FORM OF ETHNIC CLEANSING OF THE RECORDS TO AIRBRUSH ALL REFERENCE TO, AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE CELTIC-HEBRAIC HERITAGE FROM THEIR CELTIC FAITH AND TO INTRODUCE A TEACHING THAT SCOTLAND RECEIVED THE CHRISTIAN FAITH ONLY AFTER POPE GREGORY SENT HIS ENVOY, ST. AUGUSTINE OF ROME TO ENGLAND IN 580CE.NEVERTHELESS THE CONTROVERSY RAGED IN SCOTLAND UNTIL THE TIMES OF THE REFORMATION. A 612 CE: Jews in Europe were not allowed to own land, to be farmers or enter certain trades. In Iceland and Greenland Torah-Observant Christians forced to bow to Roman Catholicism on pain of death by sword-wielding Armies. A 1035 CE: Slavic Tribes again re-conquered by Catholic Armies and forced into Roman Catholicism. They also fought long and hard against the restrictions placed upon them by Rome before being mercilessly crushed and subjugated by the Romish religion. A 1078 CE: The Pope, under Inge`s authority stole the magnificient Church at Upsala, Sweden, which in earlier times belonged to Torah-Observant Christians. As the soldiers passed through Europe on the way to the Holy Land, large numbers of Jews were challenged: "Christ-killers, embrace the Cross or die!".
12.000 Jews were slaughtered in Mainz, Cologne, Neuss, Altenahr, Weveling-hoven, Xanten, Moers, Dortmund, Kerpen, Trier, Metz, Regensburg, Prague and other locations. A 1099: The Crusaders mass-murdered Moslems at Jerusalem and forced all of the Jews of Jerusalem into a central synagogue and set it on fire. Bernard of Clairvaux, a Militant Roman Catholic, confiscates the Clairvaux Valley-lands from the Torah-Christians, slaughtering many of them in doing so, and urges the 2nd Crusaders to "Kill, Kill for Christ!" A 1146: The Second Roman Catholic Crusade began. King of England, has the Rev.Gerard and 30 other Torah-Observant Christians murdered at Oxford. A 1179: Third Lateran Council prohibited certain medical care to be provided by Christians to Jews. Vatican records declare that in all, 68 Million Persons were killed in the Inquisition by Roman Catholic Clergy during those 6 Centuries. Catholic Government of France under Bertrand de Got, is so appalled at the gross wickedness of Pope Boniface 8th.
A 1337 CE: Starting in Deggendorf Germany a Jew-killing frenzy reaches 51 towns in Bavaria, Austria, and Poland. A 1338: The councilors of Freiburg banned the performance of anti-Jewish scenes from the town's passion play because of the lethal bloody reactions against Jews which followed the performances. This was undoubtedly due to the Jewish sanitary and dietary laws, which had been preserved from Old Testament times. Rumours circulated that Satan was protecting the Jews and that they were paying back the Devil by poisoning wells used by Catholics.
Killing Mob led by Catholic Archbishop Ferran Martinez, 4,000 were slain, 25,000 sold as slaves.
Their identification was made easy by the brightly colored "badges of shame" that all Jews above the age of ten had been forced to wear.
Yet it does not deny that after the passion of Christ up to the promulgation of the Gospel they could have been observed until they were believed to be in no way necessary for salvation; but after the promulgation of the Gospel it asserts that they cannot be observed without the loss of eternal salvation.
All, therefore, who after that time observe circumcision and the Sabbath and the other requirements of the law, it declares alien to the Christian faith and not in the least fit to participate in eternal salvation, unless someday they recover from these errors."A Pope Eugene IV, Papal Bull Cantate Domino, `The Sources of Catholic Dogma`, Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, from the Thirtieth Edition of Henry Denzinger's `Enchiridion Symbolorum`, published by B. The Spanish Inquisition was set up by the Catholic Church in order to detect insincere conversions. Many migrated to Turkey, , thousands died on their way from starvation and the cold, where they found tolerance among the Muslims.
It was located in the South Girolamo parish and was called the "Ghetto Novo." This was the first ghetto in Europe (outside of Italy).
They didn't, and he began to write and preach hatred against them.A (Luther has been condemned in recent years for being extremely antisemitic.
However he was typical of most brought up in Catholicism during his era, which is no excuse for Jew-Hatred).
Michael Servetus for refusing to accept Romish `Trinitarian Doctrine of Godhead`A 1539: A `passion play` on the death of Christ was forbidden in Rome because it prompted violent attacks against the city's Jewish residents. Distressed by their reluctance he developed a hatred for Jews, as expressed in his letters to the Reverend Spalatin when he was 31 years of age. For as we have heard, God's anger with them is so intense that gentle mercy will only tend to make them worse and worse, while sharp mercy will reform them but little.
Luther and Catholic Priests join forces in order to exterminate thousands of Torah-Observant Christians and Jews. Living conditions were dreadful: over 3,000 people were forced to live in about 8 acres of land.
Jewish records estimate that a total of 100,000 Jews were murdered and 300 communities destroyed. All Europe was aflame with the burnings of literally hundreds of thousands of Jews by Papal Authority.
They sought citizenship as well as the same rights and treatment as were enjoyed by non-Jews. This appears to have provoked sporadic hatred of the Jews which hatred caused non-Jews to engage in anti-Jewish violence. During these centuries the Killing-Fields of Rome sent an estimatedA 68 MILLION SOULS TO DEATH. By it , it had aquired Billions of Pounds in wealth and property and literally millions of acres of land 1840: A rumour spread in Syria that some Jews were responsible for the ritual killing of a Roman Catholic monk and his servant.
As a result of horrendous treatment and extreme tortures, some local Jews confessed to a crime that they did not commit. 1846 - 1878: Pope Pius IX restored all of the previous restrictions against the Jews within the Vatican state. All Jews under Papal control were confined to Rome's ghetto - the last one in Europe until the Nazi era restored the church's practice. They were often supported and even organized by the government.) Thousands of Jews became homeless and impoverished. The evidence against him consisted of a piece of paper from his wastebasket with another person's handwriting, and papers forged by antisemitic officers. After 10 years, the French government fell and Captain Dreyfus was declared totally innocent. A half century later, the state of Israel was re-born.In 1894, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, an innocent Jewish Officer in the French Army, was convicted on false evidence for a crime of high treason. He was stripped of his rank, publicly degraded and deported to the penal colony of Devil's Island to serve a sentence of life imprisonment in total isolation and under inhumane conditions. The fight to prove his innocence was to last 12 years.The Dreyfus Affair which ensued caused a deep rift between intellectuals not only in France but in all of Europe and the United States. It unleashed racial violence and led to the publication of history's most famous call for justice 'J'accuse' addressed to the President of France by Emile Zola, who was to become in the words of Anatole France "the conscience of mankind".The repercussions of the Affair were felt worldwide for decades to come and continue to this day. A Russian Orthodox (Catholic) child was discovered murdered and a young Orthodox (Catholic) woman at the Jewish Hospital committed suicide. When the smoke cleared, 49 Jews had been killed, 500 were injured; 700 homes looted and destroyed, 600 businesses and shops looted, 2,000 families left homeless. Later, it was discovered that the child had been murdered by its relatives and the suicide was unrelated to the Jews.
A 1915: 600,000 Jews were forcibly moved from the western borders of Russia towards the interior. This led to a series of antisemitic articles in the Dearborn Independent, which were published in a book, "The International Jew." The Protocols were sold on Wal-Mart's online bookstore until they were removed on Sept.
Later he was photographed being awarded the `Grand Cross Of The German Eagle` medal from Adolf Hitler. Widespread pogroms occur in Greece, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR.A Radio programs by many conservative American clergy, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, frequently attacked Jews. In the 1930's, radio audiences heard him rail against the "threat of Jews to America's economy and defend Hitler's treatment of Jews as justified in the fight against communism." Other conservative Christian leaders, such as Frank Norris and John Straton supported the Jews. Many universities set limits on the maximum number of Jewish students that they would accept. Harvard accepted all students on the basis of merit until after World War I when the percentage of Jewish students approached 15%.
Julius Streicher organized a one-day boycott of all Jewish owned businesses in the country. Jews were barred from civil service, legal professions and universities, were not allowed to teach in schools and could not be editors of newspapers.
IMPORTANT NOTICE LITTLE BLOOMS CHILDREN`S ORPHANAGE INDIA MY INDIA MISSIONS TRIP APOSTOLIC BIBLICAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY NEW DELHI INDIA NAZARENE ISRAELITE ??? INTERESTING VIDEOS OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT OBAMA NAZI GENOCIDE PERSECUTION OF THE JEWISH RACE HITLER`S HOLOCAUST BLUEPRINT CHRIST KILLERS???



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