Presentation on theme: "(i) Clinically distinct forms of nephrotoxicity (nephritic syndrome, acute and chronic tubular necrosis, acute vs. This topic will assist in Meeting the Following Curricular Endpoints pertaining to Nephrotoxicity- Gather and organize accurately and comprehensive patient information to identify ongoing or potential drug therapy problems. This section will assist in Meeting some of the Following Course-specific Endpoints pertaining to Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Kidney Diseases of Iatrogenic Origin-- Select appropriate drug therapy based on mechanism of drug action via integration of knowledge gained from the drug structure with concepts of organic chemistry, anatomy, physiology, pharmacotherapy and pharmacology. After injury, changes can occur in the cytoskeleton and in the normal distribution of membrane proteins such as Na +, K + -ATPase and integrins in sublethally injured renal tubular cells. POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE (PKD): AN EXAMPLE OF A KIDNEY DISEASE PKD is a disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily on kidneys.
TOP-- SEVERE ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN A PATIENT WITH DIABETES MELLITUS LED TO SEVERE AORTIC ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH RENAL ARTERIAL STENOSIS AS WELL AS NEPHROSCLEROSIS AND NODULAR GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS OF THE KIDNEYS. POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE The two forms of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are: Autosomal dominant PKD, a form that usually causes symptoms in adulthood Autosomal recessive PKD, a rare form that usually causes symptoms in infancy and early childhood. KIDNEY FAILURE DUE TO IATROGENIC AND NONISTROGENIC CAUSES ACUTE KIDNEY FAILURE OCCURS WHEN KIDNEYS SUDDENLY STOP FILTERING WASTE PRODUCTS FROM BLOOD. Mainly caused due to external factors like tobacco chewing, smoking and excess alcohol consumption, throat cancer is one of the easiest diseases to prevent. Also called larynx cancer, throat cancer generally affects the windpipe, vocal cord, and the surrounding soft tissues along the throat. Easy To Detect Symptoms Of Throat Cancer Change In Voice A sudden change in voice making it appear hoarse could be a symptom of throat cancer.
Vomiting Blood The affected person might also vomit blood, indicating the presence of cancerous outgrowths in the body.
Difficulty In Swallowing A growing tumor in the throat region will automatically obstruct the windpipe and food pipe, making it difficult for the person to swallow food, water or just about anything. Breathing Problems Some people might also complain about difficulties in breathing, which could be accompanied with persistent cough and phlegm accumulation in the chest region. Other Symptoms Sore throats, earache, bad breath, swollen lymph glands, numbness in and around the mouth region are a few other symptoms associated with throat cancer. Diagnosis Physical examination, a CT scan and biopsy are some of the common procedures adopted to diagnose the presence of tumor in the throat region.
Treatment Once diagnosed with throat cancer, the patient could be given medications to dissolve the tumor if it is in its initial stages. In some cases, the vocal cords are removed completely to prevent further spread of cancerous cells to healthy regions in the body. Prevention With nearly 80 percent of throat cancer cases being directly linked to chewing tobacco, one of the most effective ways to prevent this disease is to stop practicing such unhealthy habits.
Noodles are a favorite among many but it is associated with a lot of oil and fat content too! Tangerine essential oil is derived from citrus fruits and gets extracted through cold compression method. Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels, disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from either insulin secretion and or insulin action. The International Diabetes Federation predicts that there will be 334 million diabetics by 2025.
The classical symptoms of diabetes mellitus are Polydypsia, Polyphagia, Polyuria and unexplained weight loss. By increased frequency of urination (Polyuria) the body tries to remove the dangerously elevated levels of glucose in the blood and excretes it through urine, hence diabetes mellitus commonly was referred to as sweet urine disease in the earlier times. Increased appetite (Polyphagia) in a diabetic is a result of the body cells inability to take up nutrients and glucose (due to inefficient insulin secretion and or insulin action) and also because the unused glucose comes out of body through urine. As the body needs energy and is unable to use glucose (due to inefficient insulin secretion and or insulin action), it converts fat into free fatty acids for energy leading to weight loss despite a normal appetite. Due to the high blood glucose levels, some of it is taken up by lens leading to a distorted blurred vision. Recurrent skin infections is often seen in diabetics as the glucose provide a rich environment for the micro organisms to grow. The feeling of fatigue is a common symptom as the cells are unable to use glucose to produce energy. Breath that smells sweet and like nail polish remover needs immediate medical attention as it is probably due to diabetes ketoacidosis which is a deadly complication.


This may be accompanied by feelings of nausea, weakness, rapid heartbeats, abdominal pain and deep and rapid breaths.
In hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) the diabetic experiences weakness, fainting spells, rapid heartbeat, excessive sweating, trembling, irritability, hunger or suddenly drowsiness. People with Type – I diabetes mellitus develop symptoms over a short period of time whereas type – II diabetes mellitus symptoms are often not as noticeable as in Type – I. Another form is the Gestational diabetes mellitus which occurs only in pregnancy and disappears after the birth of the child.
A 2008 study published in the British Journal of Cancer confirms a strong connection between anemia and cancer, with the risk rising as the hemoglobin level falls. An organism called Helicobacter Pylori infects the duodenum present in the small intestine in the human body and this leads to duodenal ulcer.
There might be various symptoms associated with this condition, such as abdominal pain, internal bleeding and other symptoms which might be very bothering as well as disturbing. These symptoms would be seen in a few people, whereas a few others would not develop any sign at all.
When having this type of ulcer most of you might experience a few symptoms, such as tiredness, weakness, vomiting, nausea, bloating, belching and loss of appetite which will also trigger a throat pain.
When you suffer from this condition, you might face perforations along the linings of the duodenum wall.
If you or a person known to you is suffering from this condition of ulcer, be aware of the complicated duodenal ulcer symptoms which might be fatal to your life.
When the intestinal walls get inflamed, the food you eat cannot pass through the passage of the intestine. Describe nephrotoxicity specifically originating from iatrogenic causes [in pharmacies, EDs, hospitals, and in several other health-care settings and care-givers].
These changes result in: i) Loss of cell polarity, ii) Tight junction integrity, and Iii) Cell-substrate adhesion Lethally injured cells undergo necrosis or apoptosis, And both dead and viable cells may be sloughed-off into the tubular lumen Adhesion of sloughed cells to other sloughed cells, & to cells remaining adherent to the basement membrane may result in cast formation, tubular obstruction, & further compromise the glomerular filtration rate. CAUSE OF ACUTE PRERENAL FAILURE Ж Sudden loss of kidneys ability to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes. ACUTE INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS Ж Involves structures in the kidney outside the glomerulus (primarily tubules and interstitium; glomeruli is not involved).
Unfortunately, a large section of the population has failed to give up on unhealthy practices like smoking and drinking, making them easily vulnerable to throat cancer. In some cases, if left untreated, the tumor could spread elsewhere, affect the head, neck and in some cases, even other parts of the body.
The sooner the symptoms are recognized and diagnosed, the faster and more effective are the chances of recovery and survival.
Although some symptoms could be mistaken for other diseases or disorders, recognizing and acknowledging the presence of symptoms are crucial for increasing the rates of survival. With a tumor growing inside the throat region, it will become difficult for the affected person to eat properly. After diagnosis, the treatment procedures are solely dependent on the size of the tumor and the location and severity of the tumor. In Type-I either the body have stopped making insulin or the amount of insulin produced is less whereas in Type –II there may be decreased or nil insulin levels and or the insulin levels may be normal but it is not being utilized by the body (Insulin resistance). Symptoms of diabetes vary from person to person and are related to elevated blood glucose levels.
Excessive thirst(Polydypsia)is due to dehydration resulting from excessive urination and sweating. This is a temporary change and the vision improves as the blood sugar level returns to normal. Slowly healing ulcers, sores, wounds cuts are due to decreased immunity and blood circulation to the wound.
Diabetics are usually irritable and or depressed due to decreased glucose supply and nutrition to the brain. One should be given a carbohydrate snack or a glucose drink quickly to avoid more serious complications. This might occur when a person consumes a lot of tobacco products or alcohol, NSAIDS and aspirin. This article would let you know about the various duodenal ulcer symptoms so that you can identify them before it is too late. This is owing to the tender umbilical area in your body which might get irritated more when you consume hot and cold drinks.


This is a result of secretion of hydrochloric acid in a hyperactive way inside your stomach.
But they can get nasty and cause severe pain which sometimes would cause you to seek immediate medical aid. From time to time, this pain becomes so  intense that the patients have to hospitalized immediately. Also the swelling in the intestine would block the path and this leads to  a narrowed path that in turn might trigger blood vomit. As a result, the person suffering from such condition refuse food and eventually he or she loses a lot of weight.
You accept that you are following any advice at your own risk and will properly research or consult healthcare professional. Describe the importance of the bioactivation process for those drugs which become pharmacologically & toxicologically more active as compared to the parent compound following biotransformation. The kidneys are a pair of fist-sized organs that are located on either side of the spinal column just behind the lower abdomen (l1-3). THE TRANSPLANT KIDNEY IS PLACED IN THE PELVIS BECAUSE THIS IS TECHNICALLY EASIER AND THERE IS USUALLY NO POINT IN TRYING TO REMOVE THE NATIVE KIDNEYS. Unexplained Weight LossIf you are above the age of 50 and rapidly losing weight without any known reason, it is a cause for concern.
Describe the importance of poisoning and overdose, their manifestations (iatrogenically or non- iatrogenically), prevention strategies utilized in the management for some prototype prescription and non- prescription drugs. IN THIS CASE, THE PATIENT DEVELOPED CHRONIC REJECTION AND THAT IS WHY FOCAL HEMORRHAGES ARE SEEN IN THE KIDNEY THAT IS SLIGHTLY SWOLLEN. Arnulfo Candelaria December 27, 2015 at 1:28 pm ReplyI want more information, thank you very much. To understand the general principles of clinical toxicology and know general factors (both iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic) that influence toxicity.
This happens when tumors start bleeding slowly into the digestive tract, causing blood loss over time.
To understand the initial approach to the poisoned patient in terms of setting immediate priorities, and to appreciate the necessity to conduct, as the first order of business, those procedures that evaluate and preserve vital signs. Address and prevent side effects and toxicities from therapeutic agents and xenobiotics by applying knowledge of mechanisms of toxicity.
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron; each kidney has approximately 106 nephrons. Thank u Chenaix February 6, 2016 at 4:57 pm ReplyI has stage 3 colon cancer and I can say that the very first warning sign, for most cancer is a constant fewer, this occurs cause your body is fighting against the cancer, like it would do, for say the flu.
To determine what aspects of the physical examination and what diagnostic tests are to be conducted to evaluate the general type as well as the specifics of the poisoning, and to understand the goals of treatment e.g.
A constant low grade fever is the first sign that you should get tested, followed by fatigue. Kidneys handle 20-25% of cardiac output, yet make up less than 1% of the total body mass; hence any toxic substance in the blood is likely to affect the kidneys.
Identify important iatrogenic, chemical, physical and other exposures in the environment that can affect the health of human populations.
We would like to make an awarness of the connection of Gallbladder removal & Colon Cancer as well as Birthcontrol. The other factors such as renal perfusion, may uniquely affect an individuals reaction to a particular nephrotoxin.
My Daughter had her Gallbladder removed almost 12 years ago and was also using birth control. Only Colon cancer in our family was an uncle who was diagnosed in his late 70s., , some breast cancer, BUT never someone only 36 years old and in great shape.



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