Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Vitamins A, D, and K cooperate synergistically not only with each other, but also with essential minerals like magnesium and zinc, with dietary fat, and with key metabolic factors like carbon dioxide and thyroid hormone. Vitamins A, D, and K2 interact synergistically to support immune health, provide for adequate growth, support strong bones and teeth, and protect soft tissues from calcification.
The 1990s had come and nearly gone by the time awareness of its role in bone metabolism broke out of the confines of the vitamin K research community, and only in the twenty-first century has its role in preventing calcification of the blood vessels and other soft tissues become clear.
Vitamin K2, found in animal fats and fermented foods, is present in much smaller quantities in most diets when compared to vitamin K1, found in leafy greens. Since researchers throughout the twentieth century saw the two forms of the vitamin as interchangeable, they ignored vitamin K2 as though its scarcity made it irrelevant.
The realization that vitamin K is not just for “koagulation,” however, led us to discover that vitamins K1 and K2 are not interchangeable after all: vitamin K1 more effectively supports blood clotting, while vitamin K2 more effectively ensures that calcium winds up in the bones and teeth where it supports health rather than in the soft tissues where it contributes to disease.
While vitamin K2 languished in obscurity, vitamins A and D continually traded places with one another as the favored vitamin du jour. Consistent with this point of view, clinical trials in the 1930s showed that cod liver oil could reduce the incidence of colds by a third and cut hours missed from work in half.6 Cod liver oil also caused dramatic reductions in mortality from less common but more severe infections.
The idea that vitamin A alone was “antiinfective,” however, led to similar trials with halibut liver oil, which is rich in vitamin A but poor in vitamin D.
He published his own clinical trial in 1941, showing that massive doses of each vitamin alone provided no benefit and often proved toxic. The emergence of molecular biology in the late twentieth century provided new evidence for synergy. We now know that vitamins A and D also cooperate together to regulate the production of certain vitamin K-dependent proteins. As described below, the synergistic action of the fat-soluble trio depends on support from other nutrients like magnesium, zinc, fat and carbohydrate, as well as important metabolic factors such as carbon dioxide and thyroid hormone. Magnesium contributes to more than three hundred specific chemical reactions that occur within our bodies, including every reaction that depends on ATP, the universal energy currency of our cells.13 Magnesium also activates the enzyme that makes copies of DNA, as well as the enzyme that makes RNA, which is responsible for translating the codes contained within our genes into the production of every protein within our body. Vitamins A and D carry out most of their functions by regulating gene expression, which means they rely directly on magnesium to carry out these functions. The well-studied interaction of magnesium with vitamin D and calcium provides an illustrative example.
Altogether, these findings suggest that vitamins A and D can only fulfill their functions in the presence of adequate magnesium.
As with magnesium, the fat-soluble trio can only support health if our diets contain adequate zinc. Zinc is an essential structural component of many vitamin A-related proteins, including the primary protein that transports vitamin A through the blood, the enzyme that carries out the first step in the activation of vitamin A to retinoic acid, and the nuclear receptor that binds to retinoic acid and allows it to regulate gene expression. Altogether, these results suggest that vitamins A and D can only fulfill their functions in the presence of adequate zinc. Similarly, studies in humans show that consuming beta-carotene with beef tallow rather than sunflower oil increases the amount we absorb from 11 to 17 percent. While dietary fat is clearly important, there may be a role for dietary carbohydrate as well. Ideally, we should study this further by determining whether dietary carbohydrate affects the amount of activated vitamin K-dependent proteins in humans. We also produce more carbon dioxide when we burn more calories, regardless of whether we are burning carbohydrate or fat. Future studies should directly investigate whether exercise increases the activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, but it seems reasonable to suggest that part of the reason exercise promotes cardiovascular health may be because it ensures a more abundant supply of carbon dioxide, which vitamin K uses to activate proteins that protect our heart valves and blood vessels from calcification.
Thyroid hormone directly increases the production of vitamin K-dependent proteins and protects blood vessels from calcification in rats.29 The reason for this relationship is unclear. Investigators fed twenty adult patients requiring artificial ventilation a standard or low-carb, high-fat diet through a feeding pump. Twenty healthy young adult men and women performed crossword puzzles and word finds for forty-five minutes either at a traditional sitting desk or at a standing desk. While the function of opsin is to help generate visual images by binding and releasing vitamin A, opsin can only maintain its proper shape and function when it is bound to zinc. Robert Russell of Tufts University studied ten patients with deficient blood levels of vitamin A who also failed the dark-adaptation test. Chris Masterjohn has a PhD in nutritional sciences from the University of Connecticut, and has published five peer-reviewed papers on vitamins and supplementation.
As the age advances, a lot of health complications crop in, be it the eye sight, hearing problems, diabetes, hypertension, heart, kidney, and digestive problems or bone and muscle related problems.
Several studies have concluded that around two thirds of the elderly people suffer from mal-nutrition and are deficient in many vital nutrients like vitamins and minerals leading to frequent infections and illnesses resulting in hospitalization. Importance of Vitamin A in Elderly People: Although deficiency of this vitamin is not generally found as many fruits and vegetables are loaded with vitamin A, one should not forget to include it in the diet. Significance of Vitamin D in Elders: As you age up, the bones become fragile and make you more prone to various skeletal disorders like arthritis and osteoporosis. Benefits of Vitamin K in Aged People: Though not considered as one of the most vital vitamins earlier, recent studies have found more benefits of this vitamin than just its contribution in blood coagulation. Importance of Vitamin B in Elderly People: Elderly people might need this vitamin more than the younger ones due to its effectiveness in energy production. Significance of Vitamin C in Elders: As the age increases, individuals are prone to diseases and also the common colds and flu's. Importance of Potassium in Elders: Just like calcium, potassium is also very important in keeping a good bone health. Importance of Iron Intake in Elderly People: Another most important mineral is iron which is extremely essential for producing hemoglobin in the body and prevent from anemia. Significance of Magnesium Intake in Elders: This essential mineral has a wide usage in the body. Significance of Zinc Intake in Elders: Immediately after iron comes zinc in the concentration levels in the body. Significance of Sodium and Iodine Intake in Elders: Both sodium and iodine are vital minerals for the proper functioning of the thyroid glands which has a major contribution in the metabolic activity of the body.
The other vital minerals required by the body are selenium, chromium, boron, copper, molybdenum, manganese among the rest of the minerals.

Thus a proper food intake with all these vitamins and minerals are very essential for the body on an elderly individual to keep health dysfunction and disorders at bay. From its discovery in the 1930s through the late 1970s, we knew of no other roles for the vitamin.
The pendulum initially swung in favor of vitamin D because rickets was common in the early twentieth century while eye diseases resulting from vitamin A deficiency were rare. Massive doses of both vitamins together, however, caused no toxicity and offered powerful protection against the common cold.10 Nevertheless, as antibiotics grew in popularity after World War II, interest in the fat-soluble vitamins waned and cod liver oil use began its steady decline (Figure 1). They also rely indirectly on magnesium because our cells can only produce their receptors and all the proteins with which they interact with the assistance of this critical mineral. As can be seen in Table 1, magnesium is abundant in many whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, and vegetables, some fruit, and some seafood. The interaction between vitamin A and zinc is particularly well studied.15 Vitamin A supports the intestinal absorption of zinc, possibly by increasing the production of a binding protein in the intestines.
As can be seen in Table 2, zinc is found most abundantly in oysters, beef, and cheese.22 Chicken and eggs have considerably less zinc than beef, while milk and most plant foods contain very little. The figure shows the proportion of children with abnormalities in the conjunctiva of the eye, a characteristic sign of vitamin A deficiency. The reason for this is unknown, but it may be that oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids promote the oxidative destruction of fat-soluble vitamins in the intestines before we are able to absorb them. Once vitamins A and D stimulate the production of vitamin K-dependent proteins, vitamin K activates those proteins by adding carbon dioxide to them. Thyroid hormone is a key regulator of the metabolic rate and may thus be a major determinant of the carbon dioxide available for activating vitamin K-dependent proteins. We could speculate, however, that our bodies in their infinite wisdom use thyroid hormone to tie the production of vitamin K-dependent proteins to the production the carbon dioxide needed to activate them. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a low-carbohydrate diet could be used to reduce the need for a ventilator.
The fat-soluble vitamins not only synergize with each other, but cooperate with many other nutrients and metabolic factors such as magnesium, zinc, fat, carbohydrate, carbon dioxide and thyroid hormone. At the level of scientific research, a study about one vitamin can easily come to false conclusions unless it takes into account its interactions with all the others.
This vitamin carries out most of its known actions by regulating the expression of specific sets of genes.
In addition, zinc supports the conversion of retinol to retinal, the form of vitamin A that binds to opsin.
Eight of them achieved normal dark-adaptation thresholds after supplementing with 10,000 international units of vitamin A for two to four weeks. An elderly individual often experiences lack of appetite, delayed digestion, reduced metabolism, loss of taste, problems in chewing. It was also found that elderly people are 10 fold more like to face death due to infections.
Vitamins have the most vital role to play in the formation of various hormones, immune cells, enzymes, neurotransmitters and also energy.
Vitamin A is very essential in maintaining the moisture content of all the organs and also the throat and mouth.
Maintaining a proper level of Vitamin D in the body is very important since it helps in the keeping a strong bone, absorption of calcium from food. The free radicals present in the body damage the cells and its DNA structure and can also cause cancer. Vitamin K helps in maintaining bone metabolism and also prevents blood clotting in the arteries.
However, only 17 are mentioned by researchers as the most important ones to keep the body working. Almost 99% of the calcium in the body is found in the bones and the remaining 1% is found in the blood and cell membranes. Iron is required from carrying oxygen throughout the body and also to fight the foreign particles in the body.
It plays an important role in sensations like taste and smell along with its importance in cell growth and division, breaking down carbohydrate and also in healing wounds. Sodium is also important in the cells for many mechanisms including that of the neural transmission of impulses. It has an important role in making teeth and bones, growth, maintenance and repair of the tissues and the cells and also in nerve signaling, muscle contraction, kidney function and normal beating of heart.
It is less abundant in meat, by contrast, and almost entirely absent from refined grains and sugar.14 Thus, we would expect a well-rounded diet devoid of “the displacing foods of modern commerce” to be rich in magnesium and thereby support the synergistic action of the fat-soluble vitamins. Zinc, in turn, supports the formation of vesicles involved in transporting vitamin A and the other the fat-soluble vitamins across the intestinal wall. We absorb zinc about five times more effectively from animal products than from plant products. For example, one study showed that absorption of beta-carotene from a salad with no added fat was close to zero. Thus, the more fat we eat, and the lower those fats are in polyunsaturated fatty acids, the more fat-soluble vitamins we absorb.
Once added to a protein, carbon dioxide carries a negative charge and allows the protein to interact with calcium, which carries a positive charge.
Theoretically, thyroid hormone should increase the rate of metabolism and a greater rate of metabolism should produce a proportionally greater supply of carbon dioxide. Carbohydrates generate more carbon dioxide than fat, and we eliminate excess carbon dioxide by breathing faster. We should reverently and humbly bow before the complexity of these interactions, realizing how little we know and recognizing that we are always learning. Vitamin A regulates gene expression only after being activated in a two-step process from retinol to retinal, and finally to retinoic acid. We could predict, then, that vitamin A would only be able to support vision in the presence of adequate zinc.
Some of it may be attributed to the reduced physical activity because of reduced stamina, while most of it is due to deficiencies of nutrient content such as the essential vitamins and minerals in the body.
Elderly people should specifically incorporate it since vitamin A improves vision, maintains proper functioning of the digestive system, urinary tract and also protects the teeth, bones, and skin. It also aids in maintaining calcium levels in the blood for using in other bodily functions like maintaining the calcium ion in the cellular level for constriction of muscle and impulse transmission to and from the brain.

These free radicals can also cause various heart diseases by oxidation of the low-density-lipoproteins which in turn blocks the arteries and cause heart attacks.
The natural sources are broccoli, cabbage, grapes, chicken leg and liver and dairy products. It also plays a key role in protecting the digestive system, cardiovascular system, prevents prenatal problems. Minerals are not formed in plants, rather plants absorb the minerals from the earth and it is also found in herbivorous animals.
This mineral also plays a vital role in reducing blood pressure and kidney problems like stones. It is found in green leafy vegetables like spinach, nuts, whole grains, tofu and the best source is animal meat and liver. Magnesium triggers the bodily functions of energy metabolism, muscle contraction, cell reproduction, protein synthesis, nutrient transport to the cells and many others. Common sodium rich foods are seafood, salt, star fruits, dairy products and many other fruits and vegetables while foods rich in iodine are iodized salt, seafood, dairy products etc. One thing to remember is that as an elderly individual your requirements are much higher than that when you were young. Spiesman of the University of Illinois College of Medicine proposed a simple solution to this paradox: vitamins A and D worked together to prevent infection, he suggested, and both vitamins are needed to prevent the common cold.
Thus, we should expect a diet that contains liberal quantities of zinc-rich animal products to support the synergistic action of the fat-soluble vitamins. The development of the surface of the eye and many other tissues is regulated by retinoic acid, the fully activated form of vitamin A. The greater the supply of carbon dioxide, the better vitamin K can do its job.25 Carbohydrates are rich in carbon and oxygen, and when we break them down for energy we release these elements in our breath as carbon dioxide. The study showed that patients on a low-carbohydrate diet generated less carbon dioxide, breathed more slowly, and required less time on a ventilator. At the level of personal health, these interactions emphasize the need to consume a well-rounded, nutrient-dense diet.
This can be studied by determining dark adaptation thresholds, which determine the dimmest spots of light we are able to see after having spent a period of time in the dark to maximize our visual sensitivity. Vitamin A supplementation alone failed to normalize their visual function, but adding 220 milligrams per day of zinc to the regimen for two weeks brought it back to normal.16 These results show that vitamin A can only support healthy vision with the direct assistance of zinc. One can get the daily requirements met from foods like spinach, carrot, beetroot, animal liver, milk, mangoes, apricots, etc. Also known as "the sunshine vitamin", the best way to produce vitamin D naturally is exposure to the sun early in morning or in late afternoons with a sun protection. It helps is white blood cell, bone and cartilage formation and also slows down the advancement of osteoarthritis.
It also has a key role to play in muscle contraction and also in impulse transmission through the neuron. Dietary sources are fruits and vegetables like potatoes, green leafy vegetables, plums, prunes and banana. Magnesium also helps in maintaining bone health just like calcium, potassium and vitamin D. Zinc plays a vital role in proper growth and development during infancy, childhood and also pregnancy.
These results show that zinc supports the role of vitamin A in tissue development, probably by supporting the activity of enzymes involved in activating vitamin A to retinoic acid and by allowing the nuclear receptors for retinoic acid to bind to DNA and regulate gene expression. Nevertheless, for healthy individuals who do not require artificial ventilation, dietary carbohydrates may support the activity of vitamin K, which activates certain proteins by adding carbon dioxide to them.
Retinal binds to a protein known as opsin, forming a vitamin-protein complex known as rhodopsin. However, with advancement of age the skin loses its capacity to produce the vitamin from sun exposure so does your digestive system in absorbing it from the food.
Macronutrients are required in huge quantity whereas the trace minerals as required in small quantity by the body. If an elderly individual is deficient in calcium, demineralization of bone takes place to maintain the calcium content in blood and the cells thus making the bones fragile. Almost all fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds are rich in magnesium content. Vitamin B5 (Pantothetic acid ) helps to provide you further energy and regulate your adrenaline function. Each photon of light that enters our eye and collides with rhodopsin causes the retinal to change shape and release itself from the complex. This is the reason why more of the elderly people specially women who attained menopause would require supplements. Vitamin B9, also known as folate or folic acid helps in prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia that most elderly people are prone to. This event then translates into an electrical impulse that our optic nerve transmits to our brain. The dietary sources are vegetable oils, nuts, leafy vegetables, fruits like kiwi and dairy products.
It is crucial to make sure that you take in enough the vitamin content your body needs to work properly. The First Medical Report of the Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest8 Ellison JB. Vitamin D-sensitive and quinacrine-sensitive zinc transport in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Effect of zinc deficiency on the protein expression of vitamin D receptor and calcium binding protein in g20 Craig TA, Benson LM, Naylor S, Dumar R. Modulation effects of zinc on the formation of vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha-DNA transcript21 Lutz W, Burritt MF, Nixon DE, Kao PC, Kumar R. Zinc Increases the Activity of Vitamin D-Dependent Promoters in Osteoblasts22 Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL.
A comparison of lycopene and astaxanthin absorption from corn oil and olive oil emulsions25 J Biol Chem.

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