HTCSI combustion is a more efficient combustion process that has a lot more advantages than the outdated HCCI combustion.
Produces a much faster burn and a lot more combustion pressure earlier After Top Centre than typical spark ignition combustion. Substantially reduces the pressure (increases vacuum) in the cylinder which produces a much greater pressure difference between atmospheric and cylinder pressure. Special ignition timing with 12° less advance allows the faster burn of the hot intake charge to increase combustion pressure (torque) and prevent pre-ignition (pinging). Cold spark plugs with 5 steps colder operating temperature prevent the faster burn of the hot intake charge from igniting prematurely.
Both slow burn (cold air) and fast burn (hot air) produce tremendous heat during combustion. Requires engines to be more mechanically complex in order to reduce emissions which substantially increase the cost of vehicles.
The increase in combustion temperature produced by today's wonder engines during the transition from part to full throttle is colder than the hotter combustion produced by HTCSI combustion. The hotter combustion produced by HTCSI combustion increases the temperature of the exhaust gas which further increases the high gas velocity produced by the Negative Pressure Supercharging header. Minor burns are an important emergency department encounter because early treatment affecst the final outcome and keeping up-to-date with current treatment recommendations is challenging. They pose a high medico-legal risk to the clinician and there is the potential for psychological morbidity if scarring occurs. A study from Western Australia (Rea and Wood, 2005) looked at 10 months of minor burn injuries presenting to the regional burns unit. Zone of stasis borders the site of coagulation necrosis, there is a prominent inflammatory response and vascular reactivity that reduces blood flow. Zone of hyperaemia is the outermost area of the burn injury and is characterised by intense yet reversible vasodilatation and increased blood flow.
Thermal injuries trigger an intense local and systemic inflammatory response, with increased capillary permeability causing fluids and proteins to leak from the vascular space.
Initial first aid should consist of cool running water (2-15A°C), applied for a 20 minute duration. The application of cool running water has been shown to significantly reduce soft tissue damage, hastens wound re-epithelialisation and reduces scaring. Ice should be avoided although effective at relieving pain, can cause a thermal burn in itself to the already damaged epithelial cells. All alternative therapies should be avoided as effectiveness has not been demonstrated in the literature.
In Australia most prehospital provider service have adopted the use of BurnaidA®A dressings — a hydrocolloid type dressing that contains tea tree oil. It is amazing that these product are being used so frequently with very little evidence to support their use. Burns are at high risk of infection as breakdown of the epidermis denudes the body of a strong protective barrier against micro-organisms. All burns that are contaminated, or have been deroofed or debrided, should be throughly irrigated. Choosing between tap water or saline as the irrigating fluid does not alter outcome or infection risk, although the goal of trying to maintain a sterile envronment means most providers prefer to use saline.


This is a controversy that cannot be killed — should you leave blisters alone, aspirate them or de-roof them??? There is limited evidence available to guide clinical practice, which is largely based on expert opinion. Many specialists now recommend de-roofing and debriding the blister, so the underlying wound bed can be assessed and managed accordingly, and so that any non-adherent de-vitalised tissue is debrided. Although there are many dressings available on the market to treat burns, there is little evidence to support the use of one over the other.
With appropriate wound management partial thickness burns should take around 10-12 days to heal.
The majority of superficial burns do not require a dressing, and should heal nicely with good first aid and A the application of emollient creams (e.g.
Silver has been shown have excellent antimicrobial effects and starts killing bacteria within 30mins of application and last up to 3 days as long as the dressing is kept wet. The dressing has a silver and a blue side — the blue side is placed onto the wound after the silver has to be activated with water for injection (do not use saline as it deactivates the silver).
Silver Sulphadiazine (SSD) creams have been commonly used in the past for the treatment of burns, however their effectiveness has been questioned. There is little evidence to suggest that SSD creams reduce bacterial infections in burns and local hypersensitivity reactions are common. Appropriate first aid and ongoing sterile dressing changes decrease the risk of wound infection.
If signs of infection are present, wound swabs should be taken to guide appropriate antibiotic use. Follow up will depend on the patient’s location, access to a specialised burns clinic and the frequency of dressing changes required. Remember the burn will look worse 2-3 days after it occurs, so early follow up 48-72 hours after the injury should be arranged. Burns taking longer than 12-14days should be referred to the burns unit for assessment and to prevent scar formation. Not referring minor burns that are taking long time to heal, placing the patient at risk of scarring and psychosocial impairment. Burns will always look worse the next day, early follow up will detect changes in the severity of the burn. If I may take a few moments of your time to let you know of a tried and tested aid for burns victims, which is now available in Australia.
To the editor, you mentioned that cold water can be effective for minor burns even if immediate treatment does not occur, if there is a minor burn from hot water from a tap, aka a few seconds at say 130-150 degrees Fahrenheit and cold water is applied 20 minutes later, is that effective, often times folks touch hot water and do not feel the need to use cold water, or in many cases, cold water was not available, aka for instance if you go to a food service establishment and the sink water is hot not warm due to a plumbing issue.
Formulated fror use on burns of any severity, unique, water soluble formulation builds a protective barrier to defend against contaminants and irritants that delay healing.
Patented Water-Jel combines a scientifically formulated gel and a special carrier material.
Non-adherent burn dressings are saturated with a sterile, water0soluble gel that cools, protects and prevents infaction.
Our simple, all-purpose burn kit is suitable for any type of work environment from the executive office to the construction site.
Emergency burn kits assembled by Water-Jel Technologies, the leading authority on emergency burn care.


As a result this completely mixes the air fuel mixture together to produce a more uniform homogeneous intake charge than direct injection, high swirl intake ports, close chamber heads and higher compression. This is because, A) the increase in power produced by the faster burn and higher combustion pressure of the hot intake charge is much greater than the loss produced by less dense hot air and B) the combination of parts and systems shown below allow the hot intake charge to produce more power and prevent pre-ignition (pinging). This further reduces the pressure (increases vacuum) in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust stroke which pulls even more air into the engine. It showed that of the 227 patients, 45% sustained a scald, 19% a flame burn, 16% a contact burn, and 7.8% had a chemical burn. This should be performed as soon as possible but may be effective up to 3 hours after the burn occurred. However current evidence has shown no antibacterial effects against common burn pathogens and allergic contact dermatitis is a common adverse effect. They did not reduce scarring or inflammation in a porcine model althoughA  they are effective at cooling burns. Types of dressing available are hydrocolloid, silicon nylon, antimicrobial, polyurethane film and biosynthetic dressings. Professor David Sharpe was a consultant on call at Bradford Royal Infirmary on the weekend of the fire and led a team of surgeons from all parts of the country to help the injured supporters. Our Team, headed by Mike Cadogan & Chris Nickson, consists (mostly) of emergency physicians and intensivists based in Australia and New Zealand. Cool & Soothe is made to provide a cool, moist barrier on minor burn wounds and help soothe the pain. First aid was applied on arrival by placing the burn under under cold running water for 20 minutes.
Of concern, 61% of the referred patients had not received appropriate first aid prior to referral. Do BurnshieldA® dressings reduce the analgesia requirements and length of stay of for emergency patients.A Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal. It was during the treatment of the supporters that a piece of medical equipment demonstrated its great effectiveness; with it going on to be used by many hospitals throughout the UK for many years ever since. Just place dressings on the burn and immediately it halps lower skin temperature and ease pain. Each kit contains one pair of scissors, one pair of disposable latex gloves, 2" roller gauze, one 4" x 4" burn dressing and 5 packets of burn gel.
Nanoncrystalline silver: a systematic review of randomised trials conducted on burned patients and an evidence-based assessment of potential advantages over older silver formulations.
Minor burn injuries in adults presenting to regional burns unit in Western Australia: A prospective descriptive study. Each dressing is packaged in heat-seal foil pouches or air tight canisters that are easy to store, easy to transport.




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