Measurement of Obesity in AdultsObesity is determined by measuring body fat, not just body weight. Effects of Certain MedicationsSome prescription medications contribute to weight gain, usually by increasing appetite. Biological Effect of Childhood Obesity on Adult WeightAchieving a healthy weight becomes more difficult as children get older. Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic SyndromeType 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Sleep DisordersPeople who are obese and nap tend to fall asleep faster and sleep longer during the day. Now, let's take a look at one of the best exercises to help lose belly fat, and you could do this in. Reducing belly fat and getting a flat stomach is the product of a full-body workout routine and eating exercises frozen shoulder. Just two problem foods -- solid fats and added sugars -- count for about 800 of our daily calories. Instead of solid fats like butter or margarine, use olive, canola, and other oils that are good for your waistline and heart. Instead of baked goods and cereals with all white or refined grains, make at least half of your grains whole grains. Other healthy choices: nonfat or low-fat dairy foods, eggs, beans, and lots of fruits and vegetables. The outer shell, or "bran," of a kernel of wheat, rice, barley, or other grain is full of fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
You may have grown up being told to "clean your plate." The problem is that dinner plates in homes -- and restaurants – have gotten bigger. How many calories you should have depends on your age, your gender, and how active you are. If you use a mouse every day, it's easy to grab the right size of potato at a grocery store. Eat lean protein -- fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, and beans -- at every meal to help build muscle and lose weight.  But you may need less protein than you think.
Chips tend to be packed with the things we need to limit: unhealthy fat, refined grains, and sodium.
Read the label: Baked, multigrain, and vegetable chips -- like carrot and sweet potato -- have more nutrients and may have less fat.
If people do not balance energy input and output by eating right and exercising, fat can build up. People might be over the weight limit for normal standards, but if they are very muscular with low body fat, they are not obese. Anthropometry is the measurement of skin fold thickness in different areas, particularly around the triceps, shoulder blades, and hips. The odds of obesity persisting into adulthood range from 20% in 4 year olds to 80% in teenagers.
Most people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and weight loss may be the key to controlling the current epidemic of type 2 diabetes.
At night, however, it takes them longer to fall asleep, and they sleep less than people with normal weights. To start, learn about some of the worst food offenders and how to replace them with healthier choices. Trans fats should be avoided as much as possible and saturated fats should only contribute 10% of your calories. Instead, keep a mental image of a deck of cards, a poker chip, a baseball, a hockey puck, a CD, dice, and a lightbulb. But a restaurant potato is likely to be twice that big and loaded with toppings and extra calories.
Serve it with a rainbow of healthy vegetables -- like red peppers, bok choy, onion, and carrots -- stir-fried in a little peanut or canola oil. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. The common factor appears to be insulin resistance -- that is, the body can no longer respond properly to insulin. People who are obese are also at higher risk for carpal tunnel syndrome and other problems involving nerves in their wrists and hands.Reproductive and Hormonal ProblemsInfertility.
In an apparent vicious circle, studies have suggested that obesity not only interferes with sleep but that sleep problems may actually contribute to obesity.Sleep Apnea. It creeps up ever so slowly and before you know it, there it is staring you in biceps dumbbell exercises face.
We also load up on calories in chicken dishes (often breaded and fried), sodas, and energy and sports drinks. One serving of low-fat cheese is one-third the amount of nonfat or low-fat dairy you should have in a day.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Gaining some weight is common with age, and adding about 10 pounds to a normal base weight over time is not harmful.
This has the effect of increasing sugar levels in the blood, the hallmark of diabetes.Insulin resistance is also associated with high blood pressure and abnormalities in blood clotting. Abnormal amounts of body fat, either 10 - 15% too high or too low, can contribute to infertility in women.
Obesity, particularly the apple shape, is strongly associated with sleep apnea, which occurs when the upper throat relaxes and closes from time to time during sleep.
It's easier to be active when people around you are active.Choosing healthy snacks and drinks for your children can be a challenge. During the winter months you may be able to hide your belly behind sweaters and vests but come summer, what then? Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site.
To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children at the same age to each other. Some research indicates that obesity, in fact, is the one common element linking insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure.Metabolic Syndrome.
Obesity is especially related to certain infertility problems, such as uterine fibroids and menstrual irregularities. There are many to choose from.Put snacks in small plastic bags so they are easy to carry in a pocket or backpack. Unless you count fries and chips, fruits and vegetables don't even make a dent in our daily calorie count.
They generally contain more calories and unhealthy fats, and fewer nutritious ingredients, than homemade or restaurant meals.
Women gain fat predominantly in the stomach, hips, and thighs, while men tend to gain fat in the belly and waist.
By age 55, the average American has added nearly 40 pounds of fat during the course of adulthood. Some people are also just born with more fat cells.After adolescence, fat cells tend to increase in mass rather than quantity, so that adults who overeat and gain weight tend to have larger fat cells, not more of them. Metabolic syndrome (also called syndrome X) is a pre-diabetic condition that is significantly associated with heart disease and higher mortality rates from all causes. In men, obesity can contribute to reduced testosterone levels and erectile dysfunction.Effect on Pregnancy.
Sleep apnea is increasingly being viewed as a potentially serious health problem, which may lead to complications, such as heart disease and stroke.
Putting snacks in small bags also helps you give your child the right size portion.Avoid junk-food snacks like chips, candy, cake, cookies, and ice cream.


Most standard criteria have not recommended weight-loss surgery for diabetics whose BMI is less than 35.IntroductionA stable weight depends on a balance between the energy you get from food and the energy you use.
They may blame themselves for not having the will power to keep the weight off, and many regain more than they lost.Today, we know that biology is the reason some people cannot keep this weight off. This condition is made worse by the fact that muscle and bone mass decrease with age.Risk by Gender. This growth in mass may be responsible for the greater risk of persistent obesity among teenagers compared to small children who are overweight.
The syndrome consists of obesity marked by abdominal fat, unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance.CancerThe American Cancer Society's (ACS) cancer prevention guidelines stress the importance of keeping a healthy weight throughout life. Both will help you to lose weight and exercise has the added touch of firming and toning those muscles.
Most of us get too much, raising our chances of high blood pressure and heart and kidney disease.
Even among people who live in the same environment and eat the same foods, some become obese and others do not.
The ACS indicates that healthy weight is even more important than eating specific healthy foods, when it comes to cancer prevention.Obesity has been associated with a higher risk for cancer in general and specific cancers in particular.
These include high blood pressure, gestational diabetes (diabetes, usually temporary, that occurs during pregnancy), urinary tract infections, blood clots, prolonged labor, and higher fetal death rate in late stages of pregnancy. Some studies indicate that treating sleep apnea may help people lose abdominal fat.Emotional and Social ProblemsDepression.
Never allowing any unhealthy snacks or sweets may result in your child sneaking these foods. Your body generally uses this energy to keep your temperature steady and the muscles of your heart and intestine working. They are also used to help decide when surgery may be most appropriate.Calculating Body Mass Index. Several studies have reported an association between depression and obesity, particularly in obese women.
The key is balance.Praise and reward children when they make good food choices and do healthy activities. Thermogenesis accounts for about 10% of spent energy.When a person consumes more calories than the energy they use, the body stores the extra calories in fat cells (lipocytes). In some people, this system may not be working correctly.Think about the gas gauge in your car.
Infants of women who are obese are also at higher risk for neural tube birth defects, which affect the brain or spine, as well as other birth defects. Weight gain in the area around the waist (apple type) is more dangerous than weight gained around the hips and flank area (pear type).
Folic acid supplements, ordinarily effective in preventing these conditions, may not be as protective in overweight women. For instance, do not offer food if your children clean their rooms, and do not withhold food if your children do not do their homework.Do not punish, tease, or put down children who are not motivated in their weight-loss plan. You would want to put in more gas, even when the tank is already full.Some people may struggle to maintain a healthy weight because one or more of the signals that tells the brain when they have eaten enough does not work correctly.
Low income women and their families tend to have fewer fruits and vegetables and are actually taking in more calories a day than higher-income women. Some evidence also suggests an association between obesity and stillbirths.Effects on the LungsObesity, especially moderate or severe obesity, also puts people at risk for hypoxia, a condition in which there is not enough oxygen to meet the body's needs. Overweight people may also become depressed because of social problems and a poor self-image. In other words, the gas tank (stomach) may be full, but the brain (gas gauge) does not realize that.The Biological Pathway to AppetiteAppetite is determined by processes that occur both in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. However, obesity is increasing in young adults with college education as well as in other groups.Ethnic Groups. Infants, children, and teens need to learn to stop eating when they are full.The best thing parents can do to motivate their kids to lose weight is to lose weight themselves, if they need to. Eating patterns are controlled by areas in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands (in the brain).The body produces a number of molecules that increases or decreases appetite, including leptin.
Among ethnic groups in general, African-American women are more overweight than Caucasian women are, but African-American men are less obese than Caucasian men are.
One long-term study reported that overweight young women completed fewer years of school, were 20% less likely to be married, and had 10% higher rates of household poverty than their thinner peers. Parents should lead the way and follow the advice they give their children.Eating as a family is important -- having meals where everyone sits down and talks about their day. When energy input is equal to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. People with obesity, particularly if they also have type 2 diabetes, are at higher risk for a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, also called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obese young men were also less likely to be married, and their incomes were lower than their thinner peers. When you take in more calories than you use, the extra fat is stored in your lipocytes and you begin to accumulate fat.
Nevertheless, studies consistently show that overweight males (both boys and men) are not as severely emotionally affected as females of any age.
It is associated with obesity and is difficult to treat.About 30% of people who are obese are binge eaters who typically consume 5,000 - 15,000 calories in one sitting Bulimia is binge eating followed by purging in order to lose weight. NASH occurs in about half of people with diabetes, and 20 - 50% of obese people, depending on how severe their obesity is.
Women and girls tend to blame themselves for being heavy, while males tend to blame being overweight on outside factors.Health Consequences of Childhood OverweightChildren and adolescents who are overweight have poorer health than other children. Studies are reporting unhealthy cholesterol levels and high blood pressure in overweight children and adolescents. If they are old enough, they can help prepare meals.A study in Australia, published in February 2011, found that teaching parents healthy life style skills can lead to a sustained weight reduction in moderately-obese children aged 6 - 12 years. Still, leptin's role in obesity is unclear.Specific Genetic FactorsOur bodies are set to maintain weight within a certain range. Office workers, drivers, and people who sit for long periods are at higher risk for obesity.Ex-Smokers. Of great concern is the dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes in young people, which is largely due to the increase in overweight children.Weight gain in children is also linked to asthma, gallbladder problems, sleep apnea, and liver abnormalities.
A study published by researchers at Yale University supported this find, showing that a family lifestyle intervention produces sustained weight loss.Support Groups and Behavioral ApproachesCommercial and Nonprofit Support Programs for Weight Loss.
Nicotine increases the metabolic rate, and quitting, even without eating more, can cause weight gain. Overweight girls are more likely to enter puberty early, according to a new study, and subsequently be at higher risk for breast cancer.
It is not clear yet how many of these childhood problems persist in people who achieve normal weight as adults. If a person has the genetic makeup for obesity and they eat a lot of high-calorie foods and do not exercise, it is almost certain they will become obese.
Staying overweight into adulthood certainly carries health risks.Lifestyle Changes and Psychosocial TreatmentsFor most people, changing behavior takes time.
It will likely be harder for such a person to stay at a healthy weight than someone who does not have the genes for obesity.Obesity is not caused by just one gene. It is important to note that weight control is not a valid reason to smoke.People with Disabilities.
There are few well-conducted studies on these programs.Approach short-term specific goals regarding exercise and eating as something to learn rather than perform. Also, plan ahead when eating out or going to another home for food.Cognitive Behavioral Approaches. Those with disabilities in the lower part of the body, such as the legs, are at highest risk.People with Chronic Mental illnesses.


Most support programs use some form of cognitive-behavioral methods to change the daily patterns associated with eating.
However, scientists have not yet discovered the exact genes that contribute to obesity.Genetics also determines the number of fat cells a person has. People who have a chronic mental illness are at high risk for obesity and diabetes, most likely due to their lifestyle. They are very useful for preventing relapse after initial weight loss.The patient reviews a personal diary with a therapist or group to set realistic goals and identify patterns that the patient can change.
Some people are simply born with more.Learned Behaviors and HabitsThe way we eat when we are children may strongly affect our eating behaviors as adults. A child who is overweight or obese is more likely to be overweight or obese as an adult.Obese children are now developing health problems that used to be seen only in adults.
They affect what we eat, when we eat, and how much we eat.Children are very good at listening to their body's signals of hunger and fullness. When these problems begin in childhood, they often become more severe when the child becomes an adult.Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey shows that 17% of children and adolescents (aged 2 - 19) are obese.
Also write down what else you were doing and how you were feeling, such as being hungry, stressed, tired, or bored. Even if people work out a lot, they will gain weight if they take in more calories than they burn up.Another way to look at this is that a 30- to 50-year-old woman who does not exercise needs about 1,800 calories a day to maintain her normal weight.
The number of obese children and adolescents has more than tripled since the 1980s.No single factor or behavior causes obesity. For example, maybe you were at work and were bored, and so you got a snack from a vending machine down the hall from your desk.At the end of the week, review your journal and look at your eating habits. A 30- to 50-year-old man who does not exercise needs about 2,200 calories to maintain his normal weight.
However, at some point a well-meaning parent may tell them they have to finish everything on their plate. Obesity is caused by the many factors described above, including a person's habits, lifestyle, and environment. This forces them to ignore their fullness and to eat everything that is served to them.As adults, these same people may say that they feel guilty if they do not eat everything on their plate. Try not to overwhelm yourself with too many goals.Also, congratulate yourself for the healthy habits you do have.
These 1-minute workouts help people stay focused, and they add 16 minutes of exercise to an 8-hour workday.It is better to take the stairs instead of the elevator to add some exercise to the workday.
Many people have a very hard time breaking these habits.The foods we eat when we are children may influence our food likes and dislikes for life. Being raised on processed foods that are high in fat, salt, and sugar may make it difficult to start eating natural foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, when we become adults. Exercise improves psychological well-being and replaces sedentary habits that usually lead to snacking. Setting goals to correct flaws is the best way to make new healthful habits permanent.Think about what triggers, or prompts, may be responsible for some of your eating habits. Is there something in your environment, such as a vending machine down the hall, which makes you eat when you are not hungry or choose an unhealthy snack?
Moreover, exercise improves overall health even with modest weight loss.Be aware, however, that the pounds won't melt off magically.
Also, more people today work desk jobs compared to jobs in the past that had activity built into them.Devices such as remote controls, mobile telephones, escalators, elevators, and computers all make life easier for us. Does the way you feel make you want to eat?Look at your journal and circle the common triggers. In addition, if a person exercises but doesn't diet, any actual pounds lost may be minimal. But fewer trips up and down stairs and fewer walks down the hall at work to talk with a co-worker mean that we are storing more calories instead of burning them off.Researchers have found that labor-saving devices had reduced a person's energy use by over 100 calories a day.
The average American now eats 100 - 200 more calories a day more than they did 10 years ago.
Less activity and more calories can lead to a weight gain of 12 - 25 pounds every year.Long hours in front of a TV or computer may be the most hazardous pattern of behavior. This state of elevated metabolism can last for as little as a few minutes after light exercise to as long as several hours after prolonged or heavy exercise.Of the standard aerobic machines, the treadmill burns the most calories. In one study, TV watching produced a lower metabolic rate than sewing, playing board games, reading, writing, and driving a car. Eating when you are feeling worried, tense, or bored also leads to overeating.Plan your meals. In fact, frequent exercise sessions as short as 10 minutes in duration (about four times a day) may be the most successful exercise program for obese people.Resistance or strength training is excellent for replacing fat with muscles. It should be performed two or three times a week.As people slim down, their initial level of physical activity becomes easier and they burn fewer calories for the same amount of work. If you must have tempting, unhealthy foods in your house for other family members, put them out of sight on a high shelf or at the back of the cupboard.Avoid skipping meals. The rate of weight loss slows down, sometimes discouragingly so, after an initial dramatic head start using diet and exercise combinations. Eat breakfast like a king or queen, lunch like a prince or princess, and dinner like a pauper.It may take a while before people can turn their unhealthy habits into new, healthy ones.
People should be aware of this phenomenon and keep adding to their daily exercise program.Changes in fat and muscle distribution may differ between men and women as they exercise.
Men tend to lose abdominal fat (which lowers their risk for heart disease faster than reducing general body fat). People should not give up.Managing Overweight ChildrenChildhood obesity is best treated by a non-drug, multidisciplinary approach, including diet, behavior modification, and exercise.
Exercise, however, does not appear to have the same effect on weight distribution in women. Children should be screened for obesity at age 6, and referred to weight management programs if needed at that time. In one interesting study, women in aerobic and strength training programs lost fat in their arms and trunk, but did not gain muscle tissue in these regions.Warning Note. Moderate-to-intense programs have the highest rate of success with children and adolescents. Because obesity is one of the risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, anyone who is overweight must discuss their exercise program with a doctor before starting. These programs include counseling and behavior modifications.Most children spend about 3 hours a day watching TV. Sudden demanding exercise, in such cases, can be very dangerous.Dietary ManagementAbout 50 - 70 million Americans go on diets each year.
What works for one person may not work for another.Before beginning a diet, look at your own eating and activity patterns.
Set goals that are realistic for you, goals that you can reach and maintain.A good diet is one you can follow for years.
Some examples are walking briskly, playing chase or tag, playing basketball, or playing most organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing).Younger children have shorter attention spans than older children.
That means eating a variety of foods, including fruits and vegetables, healthy carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.The diet should not be boring or keep you on the same food for long periods of time.
While a weight-loss diet may take away foods you enjoy eating, you should still enjoy eating.Weight loss should be gradual.
The standard dietary recommendations for losing weight are:As a rough rule of thumb, one pound of body fat is the result of eating about 3,500 calories. A person could lose a pound a week by reducing daily caloric intake by about 500 calories a day.To determine your daily calories requirements, multiply the number of pounds of ideal weight by 12 - 15 calories.



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