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The stronger groups tended to settle in the more desirable areas where there was an abundance of water, natural resources (wood, clay, iron ore, coal), and natural protection (hills, sea coast, rivers, lakes).
And by the time the weaker finally arrived at a location to settle down, they were frequently so far removed from other groups that there was little contact, trade, or interaction.
For these reasons while civilizations were forming in Mesopotamia, India, China, and North Africa, groups that had roamed as far as North and South America and islands in the Pacific developed little further in cultural organization than the tribal unit and possessed a technology that was far less developed than in the larger civilizations. About the early civilizations, the Apostle Paul, in Romans 1-3, states that they were created with a clear knowledge of God, but having rejected and twisted what truth they did possess, they worshipped the creature rather than the Creator.
Sumer was a collection of over thirty city-states, each possessing its own patron deity, but sharing a common religion featuring the worship of Elil with a central religious center at Nippur. Other innovations of the Sumerians were the wooden wheel, the wooden plow, and the wooden oar for their ships. The Sumerians developed (or recovered from their spiritual memory derived from Noah) an elaborate belief system that included many gods who possessed human characteristics, a concept of personal sin, that they had been created to serve the gods, a class system of sorts between major and minor gods, and an elaborate flood story. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. The Sumerians were weakened due to the salinization of their wheat fields and were overcome by an invading group of people led by Sargon, the Great. An Akkadian legend says that Sargon was abandoned by his mother in a reed basket which she placed in a river. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire) required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. Although the Babylonians absorbed much of the Sumerian worldview, they also developed a complex religion based upon astrology. The Assyrians, located to the north of Babylon, revived and were able to fight off several other invading groups that came into the Fertile Crescent from Indo-Europe and Syria. The constant flow of invading peoples into the Fertile Crescent resulted in a blending of cultures, religions, and gene pools.
After over 400 years as slave in Egypt, Abrahama€™s descendants, under the leadership of Moses, left Egypt miraculously under Goda€™s guidance around the year 1250 B.C. During this period of time God delivered to the Hebrews the religious system known as Judaism. After the 40 years of wilderness living, which resulted from their disobedience evidenced in worshipping the golden calf fashioned by Aaron, the brother of Moses, the Hebrews entered Canaan.
The northern section, Israel, was invaded, captured, and sent into exile by Assyria in 732 B.
During their centuries of development, God raised up among the Hebrews the ancient prophets, who were raised up by God to give warnings to both Israel as well as to their pagan neighbors. They were chosen by God to be his covenant people, from among whom the Messiah was born of the virgin Mary.
The Philistines were descendants of a sea people who originated from around the Aegean Sea area to the east of Greece.
The Philistines were a literate people who originally spoke the language of people living in Crete, Cyprus, and the Aegean area.
This civilization eventually concluded that their ruler, the Pharaoh, was actually divinity in the flesh. Perhaps the most famous of its rulers was Cleopatra who was the lover of both Julius Caesar and of Marc Anthony of the Roman Empire. He restored Egyptian religious worship and traditions back to their state prior to the radical revisions introduced by Tutakamena€™s father, Pharaoh Akhanaten. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.
The early Minoan settlers of Crete and southern Greece were descendants of Egyptians who first migrated to the island of Crete.
They were the first to develop the skills necessary to build large stone columns for their many massive palaces, monuments, and temples. They were major importers and exporters of gold, silver, ivory, bronze, pottery, and animals from the continent of Africa to the south and developed extensive trade with Middle Asia, North Africa., and even East Asia. They were master canal builders and specialists in highly developed agriculture and irrigation systems. It is speculated that they were extensive travelers, and that skills needed to build the pyramids constructed by the Mayans in South America may have been brought by Egyptians traveling in their reed boats.
They hosted the descendants of Abraham for over 450 years, first as guests and family members of the house of Moses, and later as slaves. Together with the Hittites after the Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians pioneered a format for developing a long-lasting treaty between two powerful nations that numerous other subsequent civilizations followed. The Gospel of Christ was brought to the Egyptians by the Apostle Mark who was martyred during his ministry in Egypt.
The civilization that developed in the Indus River Valley rivals Egypt and Mesopotamia as the oldest known civilization. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™s population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The Harappa civilization developed when a large number of Aryan people descended into the Indus Valley from the northeast. A large, extensive sewage system to which all of the buildings in the cities were connected.
Agriculture was made possible by the annual flooding in the spring when the ice melted and in July and August during the rainy season.
The Longshan Culture built large fortified towns along the Yellow River, fortified by large earthen walls and ramparts. There are indications that the early Chinese who settled along the Yellow River believed in the same God as the Hebrews, the God who was revealed to them in creation and in the stories received from Noah and his sons.
The Sumerians, Amorites, Egyptians, Longshan, and Harappa were some of the earliest groups that formed civilizations.
The Indo-European language group spread from the Black Sea area into the Indus River Valley and into Euro-Asia. Civilizations emerged early and quickly after the Flood throughout the four major population areas of Europe, Euro-Asia, and Asia. The Nile River Valley was home to the great Egyptian civilization that reached its zenith during the reign of Ramses II, the probable pharaoh reigning during the time of Moses and the Exodus. An advanced Harappa civilization existed in the Indus Valley of India that conducted trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Respond correctly to at least 80% of the questions based upon the nine big ideas found in the first section above, Whata€™s Worth Knowing?
Be able to list several chief characteristics and features of each of the four major river civilizations. Create with your group ten test questions you believe all student should be able to answer after your groups presentation.
Identify on a blank map the four major areas of civilization along the four river valleys and the items below. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the storyA  of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.A  He also developed a library of several thousand clay tablets, built a vast network of roads, and established the first known postal system.
The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire)A  required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. From Moses was received the Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses.A  He also established the first representative government, a system of government, Peoplea€™s Law, that was carried across Europe into England by the Anglo-Saxons, and became foundational for the United States of America. After the death of Solomon, the nation of the Hebrews experienced civil war and separated into Israel in the north occupied by ten of the tribes, and Judah (from which the name a€?Jewa€? was derived) in the south occupied by two of the tribes. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.A  He was so revered by the nation (for three generations of Egyptians knew no other Pharaoh) that for generations after his death he was referred to as the Great Ancestor of the nation.
At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™sA  population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia.
The major power in the Harappa society was the priestly caste that presided over a polytheistic religious system. Soon she was completing marathons, and before too long she was flying around the globe to participate in some of the world's best-known sporting events. This year, 150 Chinese - 106 men and 44 women - registered for the April 24 London Marathon, a race that attracts 38,000 runners annually and is one of the six top marathons in the world. His company, which specializes in organizing running training camps and tours, is among a number of enterprises serving the growing legion of Chinese runners. Last year, just three Chinese people took part in the Jerusalem Marathon, including two who were local residents, according to Du. More than 700 Chinese also entered the Berlin Marathon, one of the top international events, in September, he adds. The Chinese presence at international marathons also is a point of pride as an emerging China makes its mark in many global spheres. That presence also means people from other nations have greater exposure to, and camaraderie with, sophisticated and health-conscious Chinese people. As for first impressions, "running is much better than (going abroad to) purchase goods", says Wang Xiaogang, 40, a Beijing running coach and freelance journalist, who has frequently taken part in overseas marathons.
Xie says she had one such positive experience after crossing the finish line at the Boston Marathon on a cold, rainy day in April last year. One of the most compelling stories at the April 18 Boston Marathon this year was that of Lauren Woods, the 34-year-old Boston police officer who was running the marathon in memory of Lu Lingzi, a 23-year-old Chinese student who was one of three people killed in the 2013 bombings at the marathon finish line.
Woods was one of those who tended to Lu, a marathon fan and spectator at the event, as she lay dying. The new Chinese marathoners who can afford to go globe-trotting are mostly within the social status and age groups that have led China's modernization and economic rise in recent decades. Chinese runners at this year's London Marathon included 30 from the mainland led by Tian Tongsheng, 63, one of the founders of Runnar, a company that organizes trips and assists marathoners.
Tian certainly breaks the traditional mold of aging in China, where the retirement age for men is 60. The first group, which may have advanced academic degrees, comprises some 65 to 70 percent of runners registered with his company.
The second group, which makes up 30 to 35 percent, is also well-off, but many of them did not go to college, he says.
Ninety percent of those who run outside China were born in the 1960s and '70s, putting them between the ages of 37 and 56, he adds. Oliver Wang, who is also CEO of Beijing-based Palace Travel and its US branch, which has runners as clients, too, describes the situation as part of a trend that started earlier in the West, in which the wealthy middle-aged started spending lots of money on fancy bicycles, for example, instead on sports cars. Du, of ZX-Tour Co, says one of the reasons for the explosion in travel is that people who have run the relatively new marathons in China are looking for a taste of better-run races abroad, as well as higher athletic levels. But in addition to that, what could be cooler than posting a selfie as you cross the finish line in Paris, Boston or Berlin, or wrap yourself in the national flag like an Olympian? Li Xibei, 30, an information technology worker from Central China who lives in New York City, raised funds to provide cleaner air to families in his homeland by running the North Pole Marathon this month. Using Crowdrise, a crowdfunding website, he raised $6,030 - 18 percent more than his target sum - for the Blue Sky Lab campaign run by Friends of Nature, one of the oldest environmental NGOs in China.
Li and a female compatriot, Fan Beibei, were among about 50 runners from 20 countries who braved temperatures as low as -40 C to complete the 42-km event, which was postponed several times due to cracks in the ice.
Li is also one of a small but growing group of Chinese who have completed marathons on every continent, including Antarctica. Despite the current enthusiasm, the Chinese have shown themselves to be somewhat fickle in terms of their motivation for traveling abroad.
First, China's rising prosperity and its people's concern for health and fitness are unlikely to fade.
Third, and perhaps most important, are the young runners who aspire to take on international marathons. The running bug bit Zhang Yiming, 20, a junior at Renmin University of China's School of International Relations in Beijing, in December 2014.
She runs 8 kilometers two to three times a week, which she says helps her deal with stress and keep calm.
Zhang says she plans to run two international marathons a year, with New York, Boston and Munich at the top of her wish list. At a historical study meeting of the ancient land and sea Silk Roads, the president told Communist Party of China Central Committee members, "The Belt and Road Initiative, though initiated by China, is not only about China. Xi proposed the initiative in 2013, envisioning a trade and infrastructure network that would connect Asia with Europe and Africa along the ancient land and sea routes.
Analysts say the initiative covers at least 4.4 billion people in more than 60 countries, or 63 percent of the global population. Xi stressed the function of the market in promoting the initiative as well as the government's role in overall coordination. He said that Chinese companies must be law-abiding and responsible entities in foreign countries while pursuing economic returns. Li Guoqiang, deputy director of the Institute of Chinese Borderland Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told China Daily that the purpose of the study was to learn from the experiences and mistakes of the ancient Silk Road and to open leaders' minds to innovative ways to implement the initiative. The president stressed that China cannot seek short-term successes and quick profits when promoting this initiative, said Li, who delivered a speech at the group study.
What interested the president most was to take good consideration of relations between interests, enterprises and local and central governments, Li said. Zha Xiaogang, a researcher at the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies, said taking care of other countries' interests as well as China's is crucial now that an increasing number of foreign countries have decided to cooperate in the initiative because they have come to understand China's visions and policies.
Zha said that Xi wants to balance the interests on three-levels: between China and the host country, between the different interest groups in the host country, and between China and other investors in the host country. Only by taking good care of all these interests can we make the initiative profitable and sustainable, Zha said.
Despite some setbacks in the past few years, Sino-Japanese relations are improving, though they are still fragile, the premier said. He also said Japan should appropriately manage sensitive elements that can substantially affect bilateral relations, and create a positive atmosphere to resume bilateral dialogues and the trilateral leaders' meeting of China, South Korea and Japan.
Kishida said Japan is willing to show mutual respect, strengthen political trust and manage disputes. Kishida is making his first official visit to China, from Friday to Sunday, since becoming foreign minister more than three years ago. Earlier on Saturday, Foreign Minister Wang Yi held talks with Kishida, before the visitor met with State Councilor Yang Jiechi and the premier in the afternoon. Gao Hong, director of the Institute of Japanese Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said Japan's actions are the key to improving bilateral relations, as the country has created issues that hamper China's fundamental interests and has broken its promises for cooperation instead of confrontation, especially in maritime rights. Soon she was completing marathons, and before too long she was flying around the globe to participate in the some of the world's best-known sporting events. That's a 417 percent increase from the 29 Chinese entrants - 22 men and seven women - last year, organizers say. His company, which specializes in organizing training camps and tours, is among a number of enterprises serving the growing legion of Chinese runners. As for first impressions, "running is much better than (going abroad to) have a baby or purchase goods", says Wang Xiaogang, 40, a Beijing running coach and freelance journalist, who has frequently taken part in overseas marathons. Oliver Wang, who is also CEO of Beijing-based Palace Travel and its US branch, which has runners as clients, too, describes the situation as part of a trend that started earlier in the West, in which the wealthy middle-aged started spending lots of money on fancy bicycles, for example, instead of on sports cars. Du says one of the reasons for the explosion in travel is that people who have run the relatively new marathons in China are looking for a taste of better-run races abroad, as well as higher athletic levels. But in addition to that, what could be cooler than posting a selfie as you cross the finish line in Paris, Boston or Berlin, or wrapped yourself in the national flag like an Olympian?
Li Xibei, 30, an information technology worker from Central China who lives in New York City, raised funds to provide cleaner air for families in his homeland by running the North Pole Marathon this month.
Yet despite the current enthusiasm, the Chinese have shown themselves to be somewhat fickle in terms of their motivation for traveling abroad.
Now, Ji Xiaoxiang and Yang Mohan, both 33 and graduates of Tongji University's Urban Planning School in Shanghai, have made that journey to the village. The boutique hostel Da Le Zhi Ye, which is minimalist and comfortable, is located in Deqing county in Zhejiang province. After spending several years designing urban developments, they say they were left disenchanted, as many projects did not become a reality. They eventually ended up in Biwu, a village in Deqing county in the eastern province of Zhejiang. The men rented the old house and spent their savings transforming it into a boutique hostel, Da Le Zhi Ye, the name of which comes from an ancient book, The Classic of Mountains and Rivers. Ji had never lived in the countryside before but now prides himself on successfully integrating with the local community. The hostel features huge windows, which let in copious amounts of natural light, and a small cafe that serves a decent Americano. There is a serenity that permeates the place that can't be found in a metropolis, and when night falls only the sounds of a nearby stream can be heard. Yang and Ji are among a small group of urban elites who have done the opposite of young people from the villages, who still think the only measure of success is to own an apartment and have a decent job in cities like Shanghai and Beijing. Ask any of the 274 million migrant workers in China about his or her reason for seeking work in the big cities and the most likely reason will be that farming, with its harsh conditions and meager income, is simply not worth it. In recent years, however, some people - mostly young and well-educated - have been going against the grain, heading from major cities to relatively remote regions, such as Deqing, to pursue their dreams. Statistics from the Deqing government show the county has generated thousands of job opportunities in the transportation and retail sectors since it opened to tourism about eight years ago.
Yu Wei, a Shanghai interior designer, and his wife decided to build their dream home in Deqing's Moganshan Mountains. Wang Zehao quit his job as a software engineer in Ningbo on the east coast and returned to his hometown in Deqing about four years ago. Marathon running, which in China includes many health-conscious, well-educated participants, is an important source of sportswear sales. Chinese sportswear brand Li-Ning - among the companies reinvigorated by China's passion for running and other sports - snapped three years of annual losses to swing back into profit in 2015, according to a recent Channel NewsAsia report. Nike's China earnings rose 43 percent in the quarter ending in February, with footwear growing fastest at 33 percent, the company reported.
German sportswear maker Adidas Group was No 2 with a 16 percent share in 2015, up from 15 percent in 2014.
Chinese brand Anta China Co Ltd also recorded strong growth to 9.9 percent, up from 9 percent in 2014, making it the third-largest player in the nation's sportswear industry. Performance footwear, perhaps the most important equipment in marathons, is predicted to continue as sales leader, Euromonitor says. The study found that 70 percent of those surveyed said they are more likely to buy the products of companies that sponsor races. When he arrived, on April 11, he says he discovered his fellow guests at the hotel were almost entirely Chinese.
The next day, he rose at 6 am and took a shuttle bus to the 60,000-seat Kim Il-sung Stadium to join more than 500 international runners at the starting line.
The route through downtown Pyongyang passes some major landmarks, including Kim Il-sung University and the city's Arch of Triumph.
He says there were no security checks at the starting line or portable toilets, and that the rules for runners' attire were unusual. In the end, Hu finished outside 3 hours 52 minutes, almost 16 minutes slower than his personal best but eight ahead of the event's closing mark, a relatively tough task for many amateur runners. Hu, who works for a media company in Beijing, says his lasting impression is of the local spectators. When political scientist Fang Ning decided to compete in a marathon during a sabbatical six years ago, most Chinese still considered the sport a novel concept, with its challenges of endurance and mental stamina. But the director of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' Institute of Political Science - the country's leading think tank - isn't taking part only to sharpen his perseverance and experience, but also for the joy of reaching milestones. He says he sees something more in the large numbers of Chinese participating both in the races staged by many cities in China and those who travel to Boston, London and other global cities to run. Fang was among a group of Chinese scholars in London to introduce English-language versions of their books about understanding China, covering topics such as political and economic systems, social welfare, energy and the environment. Fang says the people's increasing passion to challenge their limits is just part of the process, which he predicts will speed up when China reaches its goal of doubling its per capita income to about $12,000 by 2020. Fang says the growth of what he calls "individual choices" to satisfy the demands of the people will serve to maintain social stability. When the 42-year-old set a goal of running marathons on all seven continents in two years, he started out with one of the most challenging around. The founder and chairman of Hudongbaike, one of China's largest internet companies, took on the Antarctic Ice Marathon last year.
Pan, one of a limited number of Chinese to run a marathon in Antarctica, says the race - and long-distance running in general - holds many analogies and lessons pertinent to life. To become one of the 55 people from 22 countries who participated in the 11th Antarctic Ice Marathon in November, Pan had to make a 43-hour trip of nearly 25,000 kilometers from Beijing to Dallas, then to Santiago and Punta Arenas in Chile, and then to Union Glacier on the 80th parallel south, a common jumping-off point for polar trips.
Pan says he recalls Ngan warning them that, with temperatures reaching as low as -30 C, they had to guard against heat loss. Still, everyone completed their race, which included 47 runners in the full 42.195 km marathon and eight in the half-marathon. Pan says it even helps him in his business, which was launched in 2005 and includes the world's largest Chinese encyclopedia.
He says another benefit to running marathons is the people he meets, all of whom are driven.
He says it's true that Chinese participation in international marathons is evidence of the country's economic progress, with the number of wealthy and middle-class Chinese rising quickly.
However, Pan says he sees running as a personal journey, pure and simple, that has helped him comprehend things he had not understood before. With the running craze growing among health-conscious urban Chinese, fitness experts and trainers are warning amateurs to prepare before they strap on their running shoes to avoid health problems. Runners hit by sudden illness, and even death, during long-distance events continue to make the news periodically, raising concerns over participants skipping necessary training and health examinations. Despite growth of the sport, awareness of many Chinese amateurs lags about the imperative of using healthy running techniques while building up gradually to longer distances.
Wang says any runner who plans to participate in a full marathon, which is just over 42 kilometers, needs to build up endurance and stamina on a weekly basis, following strict exercise and diet routines to improve distance and pace gradually. Huang Tao, a sports therapist from Peking University Third Hospital, says unprepared runners are more likely to be hit by problems resulting from cardiovascular disease and joint injuries when they increase their pace and intensity. Meanwhile, competitive running requires proper training in good technique, including how to land with each step, how to bend the knees and how to keep your body straight, which runners should learn from professional trainers, says Sun Yingjie, a retired world champion long-distance runner. China and Russia sent strong signals to the United States on Friday, urging it not to deploy a new anti-missile system in the Republic of Korea. The US and ROK began talks on possible deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea conducted its fourth nuclear test in January. However, China firmly opposes the move, with analysts saying the system could be used to monitor Beijing's missile launches as far inland as Xi'an in the northwest of the country. Lavrov said countries involved "shouldn't use Pyongyang's acts as a pretext to increase their military presence on the Korean Peninsula. Wang said the possible deployment only "adds fuel to the fire of an already tense situation and even possibly wrecks the regional strategic balance". Last week, Sung Kim, the US special representative for DPRK policy, said China and Russia do not need to be concerned about THAAD.
He made the comments after "productive discussions" in Beijing with Wu Dawei, China's special representative on Korean peninsula affairs. Zuo Xiying, an international studies specialist at Renmin University of China's National Academy of Development and Strategy, denounced Kim's comments. Zuo said THAAD is called a "defense system" but its capacity passes way beyond the need to safeguard against missile threats from Pyongyang and its radar could be used to collect surveillance data far inland in both China and Russia. Lavrov also said on Friday that one of his most important tasks is to prepare for Russian President Vladimir Putin's visit to Beijing in June. ForeignMinisterWang Yi (right) points the way to Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov after a news conference at the Foreign Ministry in Beijing on Friday. Three years ago, when Liu Jingjing posted on Sina Weibo, China's version of Twitter, a white cartoon image of a chubby figure with a tuft of grass on its head, it is unlikely she imagined just how popular it would become. Liu, 21, a second-year student at an art college in Shanxi province, works for a Beijing company, 12 Buildings, as a part-time cartoonist. WeChat users have used Liu's previous series of emoticons of the same cartoon image with different facial expressions and body gestures more than 5 billion times in four months. Most of the cartoonists who design emoji are not paid for their use, but many hope that the financial rewards will begin to flow after their works gain exposure and they can start selling them to individual users in other forms such as books and to companies that use their cartoon images for marketing. Those who are passionate about emoji range from professional artists to part-time designers to amateur doodlers, all riding a wave of popularity that has washed over China's social networks and instant messaging platforms for several years. WeChat's department responsible for emoji says it has the works of 3,000 artists on file, and emoticons are now so commonly used that even the less popular ones can become widely known very quickly. The way in which 12 Buildings' cartoonists work is similar to that practiced in Japan's cartoon industry.
He created a human-like white cat that behaves in a mean but comic way and after turning it into an emoji, it has received wide recognition. To express crying there is a while cat that can laugh even as it sheds tears, cries as it lies in a pool of tears, cries while clapping its hands and cries as it covers its face with its paws. The emoji of his white cat has attracted many instant messaging app users in less than a year. Each of his series of white cat emojis has been targeted at different users, he says, for the romantically inclined, for those on diets and for those wanting to extend thanks to anyone giving them money in digital red envelopes.
Those who use his emoticons predominantly range from those in their teens to the middle-aged. Shi Donglin, originator of Freezing Gal, a cartoon image she created in college, says using emojis helps bring light relief at embarrassing moments during communication. Her cartoon figure, with dark skin and a ponytail, is based on her experience in college, she says, and is popular among college students. Unlike traditional cartoonists who generally have to create an image first, then sell comic stories to magazines or publishing houses and finally go online to win wider acceptance, Shi went straight to Weibo and was surprised at how much attention it gained in such a short time that she turned it into an emoji for messaging apps such as QQ and WeChat, thus giving it much wider currency. Apart from continuing to produce more emojis based on Freezing Gal, she has started to draw picture books to build on the character's image. Three million copies of Xu's picture books featuring Ali, which he created in high school, have been sold since 2009.
His emoji of the red fox was one of the first cartoon images launched on QQ in 2012 and WeChat in 2015.
Wang of 12 Buildings says that although it is hard in an era of short attention spans to give longevity to cartoon characters, Internet exposure creates chances for young cartoonists to work with big brands that earlier would never have employed domestic cartoonists to design images for them.
The chubby white creature with a tuft of grass on its head has been drafted to work with the US multinational consumer goods company Procter & Gamble, and Freezing Gal is now being used in advertising the Chinese smartphone brand Xiaomi, popular with students. The United States is not qualified to make "carping comments on China" as it has not signed on to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Foreign Ministry said on Friday. The comment came as top diplomats from China and Russia urged countries outside the South China Sea region not to stir up tension there.
On Thursday, US Deputy Secretary of State Antony Blinken told a House of Representatives hearing that China "can't have it both ways," by being a party to the convention but rejecting its provisions, including "the binding nature of any arbitration decision", Reuters reported.
Blinken was challenging China's rejection of arbitration by a tribunal at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, which was set up in 2014 following a unilateral request by the Philippines.
Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying told a regular news conference on Friday that the US has not signed on to the convention. Instead, Washington had introduced its so-called Freedom of Navigation Program in 1979 ahead of the convention's introduction in 1982, Hua said.
Hua also said that it is "a secret known to all" that the US subscribes to international law when it is favorable, and ignores the law when it is not. She said more than 30 countries, in addition to China, have filed declarations in accordance with the convention to exclude disputes about maritime delimitation from compulsory arbitration and other compulsory dispute settlement procedures.
Ruan Zongze, vice-president of the China Institute of International Studies, said that behind the current maritime tension lies the "zero-sum thinking" and US alignment with allies that seek greater engagement in the South China Sea issue. Meanwhile, China and Russia have "achieved important consensus on the South China Sea issue", according to a release by the Chinese Foreign Ministry on Friday. They agreed that the disputes in the South China Sea "should be peacefully resolved on the basis of historical facts and international law, and through consultation and negotiation by countries directly concerned", the release said. The novel, based on the county annals of Chen's hometown White Deer Plain in Shaanxi, tells of historical changes to the land over 50 years from the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Since it was first published, it has set a record as a contemporary literary work, with about 2 million copies sold in China, according to People's Literature Publishing House. In 2010, the novel was adapted into a film of the same name directed by Wang Quan'an and starring Zhang Fengyi, Zhang Yuqi and Duan Yihong.
The book was also listed in a must-read selection by the Ministry of Education for university students. In 1979, Chen became a member of the Chinese Writers Association and served as the association's vice-chairman between 2001 and 2006.
Feng Jicai, another highly accomplished writer, said in a message of condolence: "Chen scaled the highest peak of Chinese contemporary literature. Chen Xiaoming, professor of Chinese language and literature at Peking University, describes White Deer Plain as "integrated, broad, simple, solid and vigorous", regarding it as "a masterpiece that closely combines Chinese cultural tradition and the features of regional culture in northeastern China". Chang Zhenjia, 72, an editor at People's Literature Publishing House for more than 30 years, read the first edition of White Deer Plain and published the first review of the novel. Xu Han has published three picture books since 2009 about Ali, a little red fox wearing shorts.
The red fox has millions of fans in China, mostly female, apparently drawn by the warm, fairytale-like stories of Ali and his animal friends. Xu's fourth book, Carrousel Garden, was published in March, and he says a full-feature movie starring Ali will be released next year.
The path to fame of Xu with his red fox is one typical for a successful cartoonist in China: from picture book to short film to emoticons and emoji online or via instant messaging apps to a Taobao shop and physical shops across the country that sell Ali-the-fox merchandise, and finally to the big screen. It is common for cartoonists to produce characters that become widely known quickly online, but many fizzle out within a year or two.
In 2009, Xu set up Beijing Dream Castle Culture Company with a partner and published the picture book Ali's Dream Castle. It was not until Ali became the first emoji of cartoon images on WeChat last year that his popularity began to cover all age groups, Xu says. During the Spring Festival in February, downloads of emoticons of the red fox celebrating the traditional festival topped the list of emojis sent by users to wish their friends or relatives a happy New Year. In making a film, telling a good story is the big challenge, he says, which takes Xu to a story of his own: how his red fox came about.
In the picture book that came out in March he recounts tales of Ali confronting characters from Western fairy tales such as the Little Prince, Pinocchio and the Ugly Duckling. China has never had an established cartoonist or cartoon image that has been recognised outside the country, and Xu says he hopes Ali will go some way to rectifying that.
But the animation and cartoon industry in China lags behind its counterparts in the West and in Japan, which has produced many comic books that have influenced countless Chinese cartoonists and aficionados of comics, he says. Even if many Chinese cartoonists can gain exposure for their works through the internet and the mobile web, he says, building up an image for a cartoon character is difficult. Carlson Hotels has 1,400 properties under operation and development in 115 countries and territories.
Company officials declined to provide terms of the deal that was announced on Wednesday, but Bloomberg News, citing unnamed sources, reported it could be worth $2 billion. The family-owned Carlson Hotel Group said HNA's tourism and hospitality arm, HNA Tourism Group, is also acquiring its 51.3 percent majority stake in the Rezidor Hotel Group AB, Carlson's Brussels-based master licensee for Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and may begin a takeover offer for all of Rezidor, the companies said. Carlson, founded by Curt Nelson in 1938, said it chose HNA Tourism over other suitors because the breadth of HNA's operations and its Asia ties made it the best fit. Berg will remain as chief of the company, which will keep its headquarters in the Minneapolis suburb of Minnetonka. HNA Hospitality Group chairman and CEO Bai Haibo said in a statement the acquisition aimed to "establish our presence in the US market and expand our footprint in hospitality internationally". In 2015, HNA acquired a 15 percent stake in the Red Lion Hotels Corp, an owner of mid-scale and full-service US hotels, for an undisclosed sum. Chinese tourists spent $215 billion outside of the Chinese mainland in 2015, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council, 53 percent increase over the $140 billion in 2014. The HNA-Carlson deal comes weeks after Anbang Insurance Group Co bid $14 billion for US-based Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc, but it walked away from the deal, enabling Marriott International Inc to go ahead with a takeover.
In February, HNA also was a bidder for London City Airport, but lost to a group led by Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan Board. Pollsters GlobeScan questioned more than 20,000 people in 18 countries and found that for the first time in 15 years of tracking more than half (51 percent) see themselves more as citizens of the world than of their own country, with 43 percent identifying nationally. The trend is driven by strong rises in emerging economies over the past year, the survey found, including China (71 percent, up 14 points from 2015), India (67 percent up 13 points), Peru (70 percent, up 27 points) and Nigeria (73 percent, up 13 points). By contrast, the trend in the wealthier nations appears to have been heading the other way since the financial crash of 2008, dropping to below 40 percent on average in 2011 and climbing to 42 percent this year. In the US, 43 percent of respondents saw themselves more as a global citizen rather than a US citizen. Without defining a "global citizen", "we measured how far people consider themselves integrated into world society", Lionel Bellier, the associate director of Globescan who authored the report, told The Christian Science Monitor. One of the challenges of polling attitudes on identity is that the very term "global citizenship" is a difficult concept to define, and the pollsters left it up to those taking part to interpret it for themselves.
President Xi Jinping, speaking on the South China Sea issue on Thursday, said China upholds the peaceful resolution of disputes through friendly consultation and negotiation with the countries directly involved.
The president said that for some time developments in the South China Sea have attracted extensive attention. China "unswervingly safeguards its own sovereignty and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea," the president said. Xi made the remarks in Beijing as he addressed the fifth foreign ministers' meeting of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia. Observers said Xi's remarks come at a time when the US is worsening the situation in the South China Sea by boosting its military presence there, and after the US and the Philippines embarked on joint military drills recently.
Su Xiaohui, a researcher of international strategies at the China Institute of International Studies, said Xi's remarks on the South China Sea illustrate two of China's key strategic goals - championing State sovereignty and safeguarding regional stability. Xi is also sending a message that "China does not accept any attempt to ruin the big picture", and such attempts include the international arbitration sought unilaterally by the Philippines against China, Su said. The "countries outside the region" mentioned by Xi include the US, which is partly responsible for tension in the South China Sea, Su added. Zhang Junshe, a senior researcher at the PLA Naval Military Studies Research Institute, said that the US has recently "grouped" with countries such as the Philippines to "muddy the waters" by staging joint military drills in the South China Sea.
In Singapore on Thursday, China and countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations agreed to "properly control and manage differences", according to a Foreign Ministry release.
The consensus was made as Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Liu Zhenmin and Singapore's Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs Chee Wee Kiong co-chaired the 22nd China-ASEAN Senior Officials' Consultation. This year marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of dialogue relations between China and ASEAN.
All parties agreed that China and ASEAN countries should use the anniversary as an opportunity to "strengthen strategic communication, deepen mutually beneficial cooperation, and properly control and manage differences", the release said. China will never allow the Korean Peninsula to have war or chaos, because it will be no good for anyone. As a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, China implements the relevant council resolutions in an all-out and integral manner. China proactively participates in the Istanbul Process on Afghanistan, supports the country's peaceful reconstruction, and supports the inclusive political resolution process under the guideline of "led by Afghan people, owned by Afghan people". China stands for and will continue to help promote a peaceful settlement of the Syrian issue and the Palestine-Israel issue through political negotiation.
China has played a constructive role in reaching the comprehensive agreement on the Iran nuclear issue and will continue to press ahead with the implementation through joint efforts with all sides.
An area of subsidence-hit waste ground that was formerly a coal mine has been transformed into a venue for the recently opened Tangshan International Horticultural Exposition. More than a century of coal extraction had left the site, now known as South Lake Park, strewed with countless pits, according to Yao Shan-yong, deputy director of the coal-mining technology department at Kailuan Group Limited Liability Corporation, which operated the mine. These pits were used to dump rubble and construction waste in the aftermath of a disastrous magnitude-7.8 earthquake in 1976 that leveled 97 percent of Tangshan's buildings and killed more than 200,000 people.
Zhang Wenming, head of South Lake Park's Administrative Committee, said the area became an eyesore known as "waste mountain".
This started to change in the 1990s, when subsidence had eased enough for low-rise buildings to be built and some small-scale voluntary tree planting to take place.
The park's Longshan and Fenghuangtai mountains were both former spoil tips that have been treated and greened, Hong said. The International Park covers 9.1 hectares, with 10 pavilions dedicated to the horticulture and flowers of the US, the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands, Hungary, South Korea, and Japan. Flowers on display include roses from the US and the UK, daisies from Italy, geraniums from Hungary, irises from France, lily of the valley from Sweden, cornflowers from Germany, tulips from the Netherlands, hibiscuses from South Korea and chrysanthemums from Japan. The Domestic Park covers 14.6 hectares and is divided into eight themed gardens, each representing a different area of China.
In addition to a Royal Garden, styled after those enjoyed by Chinese emperors' of yesteryear, there is a Hebei Garden, a Southern Chinese Garden with water features, a Western Chinese Garden with the traditional stilted buildings of Chongqing, a Lingnan Garden to represent the gardening styles of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, a Modern Garden, Taiwan Garden and Bonsai Garden.
Styled to look like it is built from coal, the pavilion symbolizes host city Tangshan's mining heritage.
Inside, there are more than 1,000 different kinds of tropical plants including the African baobab tree, with its thick trunk and large fruit, the parasitic flowering rafflesia that can reach an enormous size, and the tropical upas tree that is known in Hainan as the "Poison Arrow Tree". The 2016 Tangshan International Horticultural Exposition is a World Horticultural Exposition approved by the International Association of Horticultural Producers. It began on April 29 and ends on Oct 16, featuring representatives from more than 50 countries and regions. Low carbon horticulture is a major focus of the exhibition, with displays covering fruit and vegetable gardening, ornamental horticulture, garden architecture, and nurseries. The exposition will take place at South Lake (Nanhu) Park, south of Tangshan in Hebei province.
The park covers 19.7 square kilometers and features plants, trees, grasses, flowers, and pavilions that people can visit and walk around. Tangshan is the fifth Chinese city to host the exposition after Kunming, Shenyang, Xi'an, and Qingdao. The expo is open every day, 9 am-5 pm until Oct 16 at South Lake Park, near the intersection of Xueyuan South Street and Nan-xin West Street, Lu'nan district, Tangshan, Hebei. We are busier than before due to the increasing number of vehicles on the roads since people from all around the country have started to visit the exposition.
Design work started in 2013 when the South Lake Park had already undergone years of ecological construction. My old classmates are having a reunion during the May Day holiday and we will go visit the exposition together because we are interested to see how the park has changed. Artists perform Peking opera in a garden that resembles an ancient Chinese emperors' palace at the expo park. It is a multipurpose utensil that can utilize the heat of the open fire so efficiently that you can steam, boil, braise, stew, deep-fry and of course, stir-fry.
When adding cooking wine, the experienced chef will pour it down the inner surface so the heat of the wok will sear off the alcohol while retaining the flavors of the wine.
We have Teflon-coated frying pans these days, but nothing beats a well-seasoned iron wok in the kitchen. I have been told to cook a kilogram of chives in my wok, slowly, until the herbs are totally brown and crisp. Certainly, the Teflon-coated frying pans would never allow you to experience that special flavor we call wok hei - the spirit of the wok. It is that special tingle to the taste buds that combines the aroma of hot oil and the best flavors of the ingredients brought out by rapid cooking over high heat. That is why I cringe when I see the inexperienced attempt stir-frying, especially since many Westerners think of it as a healthy option to their accustomed cooking methods. My method of seasoning is to render fat in the wok, so on that same trip to Chinatown, remember to drop by the butcher's for some pork fat. First of all, a classic Chinese stir-fry is often 80 percent vegetables and about 20 percent finely sliced meat for flavoring. Whatever the combination, the stir-fry always starts with aromatics such as ginger, garlic, shallots or leeks.
The oil is first added to the heated wok, and by the time you can see a slight haze rising, it is time to add the ginger slices, minced garlic or chopped onions. If you are cooking greens, remember to add the hard stem ends first, and the softer leaves next. Because stir-frying is such quick cooking, make sure your vegetables are cut so that they can cook in more or less the same time.
Meat is more like a flavoring, but it, too, must be prepared so it takes the shortest time to cook. Yet a team of conservationists say they are excited by the results of a recent wildlife survey in the far southwest of the country. Footage captured on motion-activated cameras set up last summer in northeast Mengla county, Yunnan province, has provided a large collection of fresh data on 23 rare species, including what is thought to be Williamson's mouse-deer and Asian black bear. Before the survey, which was supported by the Lancang Watershed Conservation Fund, Feng says there were only one or two reliable recordings of the large Indian civet. In fact, scientists are not sure whether mouse-deer in China are Williamson's mouse-deer or an entirely different, or even new, species, he adds. Records for the Asiatic golden cat and dhole, both of which are endangered, were also scarce before the survey, Feng says. He explains that the area was a state-owned forest farm until it was designated as a nature reserve last year.
The discovery of so many rare animals, including a few carnivores, reveals the biodiversity in the Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, says Yang Hongpei, director of scientific research for the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, which carried out the survey with the alliance.
The comparatively unspoiled ecosystem shows the area's high value for scientific research and conservation, he adds. Because of pressures from economic development, especially expansion of crops such as tea and rubber trees, tropical forests in Xishuangbanna have shrunk and become fragmented. Barcelona's biennale international food and drinks expo, Alimentaria, saw a record number of Chinese exhibitors this year, forming the second-largest foreign contingent behind Italy. The event, which was held from April 25 to April 28, is the sector's third-largest international trade show.
More than 100 Chinese food and agricultural companies take part in the Alimentaria Exhibition in Barcelona this year. This year, it featured more than 1,000 foreign companies, 25 percent of the total exhibitors. Most Chinese exhibitors were at international pavilions in a new section introduced this year to complement the show's traditional restaurant, wine, meat and dairy products sectors.
Taian Optimum Foods Technology Co, a agrifood business from the eastern province of Shandong that exports frozen and fresh organic vegetables, was among the firms making their debut at the expo.
Li Hu, its chairman, says the big draw was that the Spanish market is open to overseas companies and that there are no specific restrictions on food industry imports. Li visited supermarkets and major food markets in Barcelona and says he found that the availability of Chinese agrifood products is small.
He cites garlic as an example, saying the average price in Spain is 8 euros a kilogram, while in China it is the equivalent of 1.30 euros. Zhang Guojing is a representative of Green Farmer Food Group, a company producing Chinese seasonings in Hebei province. Alejandro Alcon Esparte, a chef who owns four restaurants in Barcelona, says Chinese food products are becoming popular in his country as people seek diversity. Sun Lu, president of Medallion, a company that makes fruit cups and jelly, says: "It's the first time for us to exhibit at the fair. In addition to the exhibitors, a record 62 Chinese buyers also traveled to this year's event.
He says China is a key market for the Spanish food and drinks industry when it comes to promoting and diversifying exports because of its "industry volume and double-digit growth over the past 10 years".
Some 55 percent of food companies with a foreign presence export on a regular basis and have exported for at least four consecutive years, the institute says. Mauricio Garcia Quevedo, managing director of the Spanish Federation of Food and Drinks Industries, says the pace of exports of Spanish food and drink products allows them to forecast that in 2020 foreign sales will represent a large proportion of the total production output of the industry, taking Spain from Europe's sixth-largest export economy up to fourth in the next four years. Hu, 63, can trace his ancestry back more than 20 generations in an ancient village in East China's Jiangxi province. Guo says houses in Jinxi have retained their old forms because locals have great respect for their ancestors. She has helped with a conference called Digital Heritage Around China to raise awareness and money for the preservation of ancient villages.
In Youdian village, there are 72 traditional stone buildings with walls that are several meters high. Now, all these villages face a common problem - people are leaving and the houses are decaying.
For the few residents of the village, they recognize that their houses must be preserved as a kind of cultural heritage after the local government offered them money to help with repairs.
Huang says the local government also wants to bring in private funds to protect the ancient villages. For instance, Guo's team and the organizer of Digital Heritage Around China have promised to help fix decaying houses.
These villages that rely mainly on agriculture can't provide adequate job opportunities like big cities do.
A young man who Guo met this year told her that he realized the value of the houses in his village when he saw how ancient properties are protected in other countries.
For the 400th anniversary celebrations of the Bard's death, a flurry of activities in publishing, theater and films is taking place across China, bringing him closer to the Chinese public.
Tickets sold out for the filmed stage production of Hamlet, featuring Benedict Cumberbatch in the title role, and which had limited screenings in select Chinese cities. Other Shakespearean plays in the National Theatre Live series, such as Nicholas Hytner's Othello and Sam Mendes' King Lear, will surely be welcome additions to the lineup of the Bard's offerings. Even Coriolanus, a relatively obscure Shakespearean work by Chinese standards, wowed audiences, partly because it stars Tom Hiddleston of Thor fame and partly because a Chinese stage adaptation has put a local spin on it, Sinicizing the title to General Kou Liulan.
Data is not available on how many of the Bard's plays have graced the Chinese stage, but perennial favorites such as Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet obviously have been presented more often than others. The Beijing-based Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press has just come out with a new, complete version, supported by the British Council. The bilingual format uses an English-language edition originally authorized by the Royal Shakespeare Company, and Chinese translations by eminent scholars including Xu Yuanchong.
In recent months, the RSC has also launched its own initiative to translate a new Chinese version specially tailored for the stage. Another sorely needed Chinese translation for the purpose of title projection, which should adhere to the Bard's mantra that "brevity is the soul of wit", would help greatly with touring productions in the original tongue, but that has not made it to the agendas of translators or sponsors so far.
The most influential version to date is the one by Zhu Shenghao (1911-44), who completed work on 31 of the plays under the direst of circumstances, including poor health and the Japanese invasion of China. His genius in capturing the essence of the Bard's work could be the single most important factor in making Shakespeare accessible to one-fifth of the world's population.
Liang Shiqiu (1902-87) is so far the only Chinese who has translated every piece credited to Shakespeare. Fang Ping (1921-2008) was responsible for much of the first complete version that replicated the verse form. Considering the difficulty of translating the Bard's lines, not to mention the ambiguity of some words, there will be no shortage of Chinese translators taking on this daunting task. But there is still no ideal equivalent for "To be or not to be", which is arguably the best-known Shakespearean quote in China.
In October, while giving a speech in London, President Xi Jinping recounted his exposure as a youth to the Bard, saying how he was attracted by the emotions in A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth. Dama, middle-aged Chinese women known for their bulk buying of gold and ubiquitous love of square dancing, have a new obsession: pop stars, particularly male singers young enough to be their sons. While waiting with flowers and cakes for their idols at airports and chasing them down with cameras like paparazzi, these women - nicknamed "mama fans"A  - can be even more adventurous than teenage groupies. Often, the younger a pop star is, the more likely he or she will attract a large number of mama fans.
On the 15th birthday of Jackson Yi, a member of TFboys, one of the most popular boy bands in China, a mama fan in the United States rented a plane to fly over Seattle, New York City and Los Angeles pulling a banner that wished him a happy birthday. Another mama fan in the southern Chinese city of Xiamen rented a LED board near the ferry wharf to display a similar message, while others brought advertising space on buses, at subway stations and in crowded places in major cities.
Moms for Jackson, a fan club in China, even launched a campaign to raise funds to open a school named after the signer for children from low-income families. The spending power of dama has already turned the world's gold market on its ear, and they have put up an almost militant defense of synchronized dancing in public squares, yet their obsession with pop idols is arguably their most outlandish obsession yet. Su Yun, a middle school teacher in Changsha, capital of Hunan province, is a secret fan of the TFboys. However, one day, curiosity got the better of Su and she sat with her daughter to watch a performance and an interview with the band. Yet as a respectable teacher, Su was not sure whether she should go to fan meetings with her daughter. In the video, her in-laws did not approve of her "childish" decision, but she insisted, saying that her life as a full-time housewife was rejuvenated after she became a fan and found time for her own interests. Being a member of those fan clubs means mothers have to "work together" with younger fans: the teenagers take care of online activities, like getting the latest single to the top of the charts, while mama fans take care of offline activities like organizing meetings or thinking about promotions and philanthropic projects. The exhibition integrates jewels, photographs and videos, telling stories involving divas like Ingrid Bergman, Elizabeth Taylor and Audrey Hepburn. Modern actresses like Jennifer Aniston, Scarlett Johansson, Angelina Jolie and Anne Hathaway are also featured in the exhibition. The exhibition highlights include a silver cigarette box, which Elizabeth Taylor and her then lover Richard Burton commissioned as a wedding present for Joseph Mankiewicz, the director of Cleopatra, where the couple met. It also displays a "David di Donatello" plaque in gold from 1956, when Bulgari began making trophies for the Italian film awards. Founded in Rome in 1937, Cinecitta was once the most famous movie production studio in Italy. Cinecitta brought to Rome a lot of movie stars, many of whom frequented the Bulgari shop in Via Condotti and became personal friends with the designer. While in the past, the divas only wore their own jewelry, this is not the case now, says Boscaini. The brand's heritage collection now has about 760 pieces of iconic jewelry, which have been sourced from auctions, dealers and through personal networking. Bulgari's archive has tens of thousands of sketches, which continue to inspire the brand's design today. The brand is now planning two other exhibitions - one to be held in Melbourne about women who wore Bulgari and the other in Madrid about Rome, the city that inspired its creativity. Chinese actress Hsu Chi (above and center in top picture) attends the ongoing Cinecitta and Beyondi??Bulgari Jeweler to the Stars exhibition in the Beijing SKP mall. During the anniversary promotion of the Beijing SKP mall - China's top-performing luxury department store - on April 16, Roger Dubuis led the luxury watch segment, scooping up sales of 14 million yuan ($2.16 million) in a single day.


Though a lot of established luxury brands are closing stores, this relatively nascent brand with five boutiques in China and 21 worldwide is still targeting new locations. Having opened a flagship store in Geneva last July and its first US boutique in New York last November, the label opened a store in the Beijing SKP mall last September and in Shanghai's West Nanjing Road this month. Swiss luxury group Richemont, which earlier owned 60 percent of Roger Dubuis, said in January that it had bought the remaining 40 percent, without disclosing the price.
While some analysts say the move indicates the increasingly difficult situation faced by niche brands, Pontroue says he views it as more of an opportunity. Pontroue says that it is much more challenging now to operate a small brand when the big luxury groups have a majority of the business, but he adds that Roger Dubuis has managed to secure the support of a big group while maintaining its own character of being flexible and energized. Roger Dubuis is mostly known for its extravagant watches priced from 150,000 yuan to nearly 10 million. Meanwhile, the brand used Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie 2016, the trade fair of the luxury watch industry, to promote its ultra-feminine Velvet collection, making women's watches its focus this year. As of now, women's watches account for 30 percent of the brand's business, but are expected to reach 40 per cent within the next two years, says Pontroue. Luxury watchmaker Blancpain is featured as the sole watch brand in the sequel of the hit movie Finding Mr Right, which stars Chinese actress Tang Wei and actor Wu Xiubo (pictured).
Japanese fashion labels Sacai and Fragment Design have worked together on a capsule collection of T-shirts and hoodies that feature "Sacai (not sacai)" on them. Luxury watchmaker IWC Schaffhausen recently hosted a gala dinner "For the Love of Cinema" in Beijing, celebrating the fourth year of its partnering with the Beijing International Film Festival.
The University of International Business and Economics recently held a forum on the luxury consumption trends in China.
Luxury Research Center at the university, which looks at the latest developments in the industry. The annual Latin American & Caribbean Music Festival returns to Beijing from Saturday to Tuesday, offering fans multiple performances by reggae, rock and folk artists and a cast of all-star DJs to keep the party going throughout the May Day holiday. As an important part of the annual Meet in Beijing Arts Festival, which turns 16 this year and continues through May 30, the music festival has attracted nearly 300,000 fans so far, according to China Arts and Entertainment Group, the event organizer and one of the country's first performing arts groups to engage in cultural-exchange programs. This year, 16 bands from 15 Caribbean countries will perform at different live-house venues, such as the Bud inside 798 Art Zone, Yugong Yishan and Modernsky Lab. The headliners including award-winning reggae singer and producer Everton Blender, Mexican pop-rock group Moderatto and Brazilian instrumental quintet Dibigode.
The Antiguan band El-A-Kru, and Rupee, a musician from Barbados, will bring the sounds of soca, which is a music style that originated from Trinidad and Tobago in the 1970s and has absorbed influences from funk, soul and Indian music. Since this is the China-Latin America and Caribbean 2016 Year of Culture Exchange, more Caribbean culture is being celebrated in Beijing. Besides music, audiences will have a chance to learn more about Caribbean world by watching 12 movies of Caribbean countries during the inaugural Caribbean Film Festival, which will be held from May 6-8 at the Cervantes Institute. One of the movies is Finding Samuel Lowe - From Harlem to China, a documentary from Jamaica that revolves around media entrepreneur Paula Williams Madison and her two brothers' humble beginnings in Harlem with their Chinese-Jamaican mother.
Other movies on the list include Trailblazers: The Mychal Thompson Story, which follows the story of retired Bahamian-American basketball legend Mychal Thompson, who is now a talk-show host, and Chinese Girl, a documentary from Trinidad and Tobago, which portrays 12 Caribbean-Chinese women from all walks of life. The Beijing culinary scene will get a taste of the region with the three-day Caribbean Food & Cultural Festival running from Saturday to Monday at Beijing's Marriott Hotel Northeast. Caribbean chefs, including Paul Griffith and Michelin-starred chef Michael Hinds, will showcase the best of the region's cuisine.
The airline, now in the Chinese market for a decade, has been collaborating with the Meet in Beijing Arts Festival for six years. The Windsbacher Knabenchor, a 70-member boy choir from Windsbach, Germany, returns to China.
The Finnish a cappella group Club for Five will perform programs including renditions of Sarah Vaughan's Don't Be on the Outside, David Bowie's Life On Mars, and Madonna's Vogue. The Northern Kunqu Opera Troupe will tour Shanghai with four of its signature productions in May and June: Confucius Visit the Kingdom of Wei and The Peony Pavilion featuring young actors, A Dream of Red Mansions in two parts, and a concert of highlights. The popularity he gained following his performances on reality TV show China Star, aired by Dragon TV since November, has made him very uncomfortable.
Yang now receives many performance invitations, and he will join in the upcoming Changjiang International Music Festival, which will be held on Saturday and Sunday in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province.
In their 40-minute performance, they will perform some of Yang's songs from China Star, as well as new works from an upcoming album they recorded together.
As for the new album, which will come out later this year, Yang says he has been discussing it with Cui for years and it's Cui who insists on releasing it. The Beijing native started learning classical music in 1972, and his first instrument was the flute. As Yang recalls, it was a time when young people started listening to Western pop and rock music. Soon, they were playing music together and in 1984, along with three traditional Chinese folk musicians, including renowned jazz musician Liu Yuan, who played the suona (double-reeded horn) then, they formed a band called Qi He Ban, one of the earliest rock bands in China. While performing in the band, each member developed his own interest in different music directions. Upon his return to China in the early 1990s, Yang was invited to perform blues harp and to compose for singers, TV series and movies. Dudek specializes in the reduction and control of atmospheric pollutants through the use of markets to control emissions from stationary and mobile sources. In the past he has been involved with important campaigns such as the creation of tradeable production entitlements for chlorofluorocarbons in compliance with the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of some substances that are responsible for depletion of the gas cover around the Earth. Since the 1990s, Dudek and his organization cooperated with the then China's National Environmental Protection Agency and successfully carried out a trial emission trading system in seven locations in China. His organization has had close partnerships with other central government agencies, such as the National Development and Reform Commission, and regional governments. During the 2010 Shanghai Expo, the EDF developed rechargeable subway cards to bring the concept of carbon emission trading to ordinary Chinese. By buying the card, people spent money to erase carbon footprints they made visiting the expo.
During his visits to China in the past few years, Dudek has been to practically every province, trying out all kinds of transportation.
He describes his life in China as "going from one hotel to another and waking up in a different bed every morning". He says he has witnessed positive changes in China's environmental protection programs, in terms of the government's involvement, laws and policies, within a relatively short span of time.
For example, the National Environmental Protection Agency of the 1990s was changed to the State Environmental Protection Administration, and then to a full-fledged Ministry of Environmental Protection. Dudek, who pays close attention to environmental news about China, says he has observed a growing awareness of the environment among average Chinese.
But Dudek points out that it is a big challenge to achieve satisfying results for environmental protection in such a huge and diverse country, where great differences between regions exist.
In the US, he says people faced similar challenges, but in the end they succeeded, thanks to such programs. China plans to launch a national emission trading system in 2017, part of a joint presidential statement issued by China and the United States in September 2015. Dudek hopes it can finally break down the traditional mindset of competition between regions and help them communicate better.
Dudek stresses it's no longer enough for the government to just give out regulations, and it's important to design policies that will create incentives so that enterprises learn to respect the environment more.
In 2007, he was appointed as one of the 23 members of China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development, an advisory body to the Chinese government on the environment and sustainable development issues. Recognized for his work in China, Dudek was awarded the Friendship Award, the highest honor given by the Chinese government to foreigners for their contributions in social and economic development, in 2004. According to Dudek, his long-term commitment to China naturally has extended to his family. To everyone's surprise, the Grammy-winning pianist invited a 14-year-old Chinese boy to play four hands with him.
The pianist has written more than 20 original compositions, including To Kurt, one of his favorite works dedicated to a good friend, and Hope, a song he took a year to write. Born in Beijing, Dai began training in classical piano after he walked into a music shop with his parents and pointed to the biggest instrument he could see - a piano - at age 4. Dai Bin invited Chinese pianist Kong Hongwei, who formed one of the country's pioneering jazz bands, Golden Buddha, to teach his son for more than five years. Zhang Youdai, a longtime promoter of jazz music, was in the audience when Dai Liang won the first prize at Switzerland's Parmigiani Montreux Jazz Solo Piano Competition in 2015, the first Chinese musician to do so. Other than that, young Chinese musicians today are better exposed to music scenes in different countries as they travel more, even study music abroad in larger numbers and have more options for training in China. With two more years left for Dai Liang at Juilliard before going to university, he says he is open to all kinds of music and that he plays in chamber concerts, too. Besides playing music, he enjoys spending time with friends and going to concerts and theaters in New York. Dai Liang, also known as A Bu, a 16-year-old student at New York's Juilliard School, is seen by some as a rising star in China's jazz music scene. Helene Hanff's 84, Charing Cross Road has touched many readers over the years with its storyline - a 20-year correspondence between the American author and a London bookseller. Xue's new film, Book of Love, which is a sequel to the 2013 Chinese hit Finding Mr Right, is inspired by Hanff. The film, which opened the recent Beijing International Film Festival, will be released on the Chinese mainland on Friday.
Finding Mr Right, the Chinese equivalent of the American romance Sleepless in Seattle (1993), is the top-grossing romance of all time in Chinese film history. The first film's commercial success has not only sparked a boom in similar-genre Chinese films in recent years, it has also lured a number of affluent Chinese to purchase houses in Seattle, according to media reports.
Many directors avoid making films similar to the ones they've previously made, and Xue likewise has resisted picking up her new film's plot from where the last one ends.
While in the first film, a pregnant woman traveling from Beijing to Seattle falls in love with a divorced father, the sequel tells the tale of a casino worker in Macao and a property agent in Los Angeles. Unlike many romance dramas that let their protagonists meet early in the movie, Book of Love makes them meet toward the end.
The director recently appeared for an event to promote the film at Beijing's Tsinghua University. She describes the film as a "heartwarming" story that revolves around the question of how to maintain emotional ties in today's fast-paced societies. In addition to the couple's somewhat old-school platonic love, the film interweaves dialogues with many ancient Chinese poems, such as the popular lines written by Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907) poets Li Bai and Wang Changling.
Xue explains that the poems are a key measure for the elderly Chinese immigrants to protect their cultural roots. Xue also says the correspondence in the film is to remind viewers of the beauty of handwritten letters, rare items in the era of the internet.
Alongside Macao and Los Angeles, the film has scenes in London, Las Vegas, Vancouver, Hong Kong, Beijing and Southwest China's Sichuan province. Book of Love is produced by Edko Films, a company that made China's all-time highest-grossing Monster Hunt, on a budget that's bigger than the 2013 movie's. Other than Tang and Wu, the cast includes veteran Hong Kong actor Paul Chun and Chinese mainland actors Wang Zhiwen and Lu Yi. In 2015, the country's box-office takings touched 44.1 billion yuan ($7 billion), up 48 percent year-on-year. At the annual China International Cartoon and Animation Festival, which is running through May 2 in Hangzhou, capital of East China's Zhejiang province, filmmakers discussed ways to lift the struggling genre.
From January to March, animation films earned 3 billion yuan in box-office revenues, according to festival official Zhu Yuqing. Huang Qunfei, executive vice-president of Huaxia Film Distribution Co, one of two companies in China that are authorized to distribute foreign films, says: "More major studios and internet behemoths such as Enlight Media, Huayi Brothers, Tencent and Alibaba have tapped into the animation industry.
Most of China's major film studios are seeking cooperation with foreign partners, and the results have been encouraging so far. Sun Duck, an action comedy about an alliance of armed ducks fighting an evil force, has been jointly produced by China, Russia and the United States. Another Sino-French production, Olympia, which narrates a porcelain figurine's "adventures", is expected to be out in January 2018. Historical figures from 18th-century France and ancient China were chosen to create the characters by a Chinese team of animators, Maia Tubiana, the film's French executive producer, says. Domestic films, accounting for 80 percent of all new titles to be released in the next two years, are getting some attention as well. While trade analysts are hoping that Chinese animation films make more money, they question the promotion of sequels to controversial films.
The Autorobots, for example, which has been involved in a plagiarism row since its release last summer, is likely to have a sequel by 2017. While this may spread gloom across the fictional land guarded by Iron Man, Captain America and their superhero friends, it is exciting news for fans: It has sparked the biggest fight in Marvel history, which spans nearly eight decades. The 13th film in Marvel's cinematic universe, Captain America: Civil War - the third installment of the franchise - will hit Chinese mainland and North American theaters simultaneously on May 6. On a recent tour to promote the movie in Beijing, Joe Russo, one of the sibling directors, tells China Daily the tale is now a "family conflict". Picking up from the 2015 Marvel smash hit Avengers: Age of Ultron, or Avengers 2, the new movie expands on the divide in Avengers 2 between supporters of Iron Man and Captain America. As concerns grow that the superheroes' unlimited powers may threaten humanity, the authorities want to regulate and direct their actions, which puts the superheroes in two camps. The captain, played by Chris Evans, insists on maintaining free movement without government intervention, and he is backed by Falcon, Scarlet Witch, Winter Soldier, Hawkeye and the latest entrant, Ant Man.
But, surprisingly, Iron Man, reprised by Robert Downey Jr, supports the government's oversight and accountability plan. Those who pick his side include Black Widow, The Vision, War Machine, the new Spider Man and Black Panther, appearing on the big screen for the first time. DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute. Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa. Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition. This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No. The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic. A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family.
The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm.
Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones.
Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise.
Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps. Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects. In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail. Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers.
The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians. Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant. In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names. In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether. In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S. We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro. On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea. But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest. It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java.
The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north.
The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify.
The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses. In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest.
The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map. The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers. The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties.
In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous.
In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy. The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century. The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind. Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles. Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon.
Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti.
We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235). Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers. A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors. It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking. Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands.
No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains.
On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world. As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head.
The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features. The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia. In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf. On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti. Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria. Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita. West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century.
The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants.
Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese. On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro.
In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar.
In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction.
The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile. A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth. That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa.
On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver. Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing. The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals. The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights.
A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables. Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one? He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature.
As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content.
These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time.
Initially they were propelled to distance themselves from each other by major language differences.
Because they settled in these areas and because they settled first, they had more time and resources to develop civilizations. One thing that is usually required for a culture to develop is interaction with other culture groups. Hence, the imperialistic armies of Europe with canons, ships, and guns met tribesmen in parts of Africa armed with spear and bows and arrow. The Sumerians were a people who perhaps migrated from the Caspian Sea area into the Fertile Crescent, the fertile area lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian priests would climb these tall towers thinking that at the top they might encounter the gods who would descend from the sky to meet with them. Little is known about this period or people, but there are written records that indicate that there were kings who ruled Sumer during the antedeluvian period (period of time between Creation and the Flood).
They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area. Sargon established the powerful and vast empire of Akkad that ruled over most of the Fertile Crescent. Therefore, Hammurabi developed an extensive set of laws to govern the culture and the economy. They observed the movement of the stars through astronomy in an attempt to understand the behavior and will of the gods.
People in the area became known as a€?Mesopotamiansa€? rather than Amorites, Sumerian, Assyrians, or Babylonians. The growth of population created problems with sewage, garbage, overcrowding in urban centers, decreasing drinking water supplies, disease, and the constant threat of a new people group arriving to take advantage of the fertile soil -- even though salinization continued to be a constant problem.
In a revelation from Elohim, Abraham was promised an inherited land that would remain the possession of his descendants.
During a period of 40 years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan Moses received from God the Ten Commandments while communing with God on the top of Mount Sinai. Under the leadership of Joshua, the Hebrews systematically defeated all the people groups living in the land of Canaan and possessed the land promised to them by God. They gradually adopted the language of the Canaanites and blended their religion with that of the Canaanites and featured the worship of the god Baal. Therefore they could not corrupt the divine blood line through marriage with common people. The i??entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. For one brief period, however, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaten, promoted a form of monotheism. Cleopatra was a descendant of General Ptolemy who was given governance over Egypt by Alexander the Great of Greece. When Ashkenaten became Pharaoh he banished the gods of Egypt, banished their priests, emptied their temples, and forbade their worship or sacrifices made to them. He (1) ended the worship of Aten, contrary to his fathera€™s policy, and (2) restored the worship of Amun. His wife petitioned the king of the Hittites, asking to be given as a wife to one of his sons.
He was known as a war pharaoh, leading campaigns against the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, Nubians, and other neighboring nations. They founded the Minoan civilization and their capitol city of Knossos on the island of Crete. They fell victim to the plagues brought by God against the Pharaoha€™s (likely Rameses II) stubbornness to refuse to allow over one million Hebrew slaves to leave Egypt peacefully.
The Indus River civilization, known as the Harappa civilization, was located in present-day Pakistan, appearing about 1500 B.C. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean i??area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The priests were both religious and military leaders and ruled from walled citadels in the major cities.
The Chinese today consider this river basin to be the cradle of Chinese civilization and refer to the river as a€?the mother river.a€? It has an east-i??west extension of about 3,000 miles from the Kulun Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and a north-south extension of 684 miles.
It is probable that they moved into the Yellow River area after the Tower of Babel event and retained the knowledge of God received from Noah and his offspring. It had elaborate drainage and sewage systems superior to those in many parts of modern India today. They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.A  Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, three-sided wedge) used wedge-shaped markings made with bamboo pens on soft clay.
The entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The former real estate company owner from Shanghai hiked, climbed mountains and played badminton, and her friends did, too.]]> Forget shopping. The young graduate student in mathematics and statistics was to have received her degree from Boston University last year.
He has finished the World Marathon Majors - Tokyo, Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York.
They include entrepreneurs and those from smaller cities who have worked hard to pull themselves up by their bootstraps but are now concerned about their health. In 2014, the Chinese Athletics Association registered 51 marathon events and 900,000 runners nationwide. The program purchases materials and teaches students from low-income families in Beijing to assemble do-it-yourself air filters. Armed guards stood watch during the race to protect runners from the threat of polar bears. Healthy and stable ties between China and Japan are in the interest of both countries and people, and they contribute to regional and global stability and prosperity, Li told Kishida on Saturday. China is willing to increase the political trust with the neighbor and promote their bilateral relations back to a normal track of development, he said. He said Japan will expand cooperation with China in various fields to accumulate positive factors that could boost relations. He is the first Japanese foreign minister to visit China since Shinzo Abe was reelected as Japanese prime minister in 2012.
He was one of the over-60s runners to finish the World Marathon Majors - Tokyo, Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York. Determined to find a new challenge, they traveled extensively in search of something that aligned with their skills.
Minimalist but comfortable, it also has a terrace where guests can relax and admire the starry skies.
The income gap is the predominant factor that influences millions of farmers, especially young people, to abandon their hoes and head to greener pastures in the cities, with many of them ending up on construction sites and assembly lines. He believes the slow village life can be made more colorful and energetic to attract a greater number of visitors from the city, which would in turn provide business for villagers. With a retail value share of 21 percent in 2015, Nike (China) Inc retains the leading position in sportswear.
Adidas recorded 18 percent growth in sales in China last year, driven by the "performance and style" products, its annual report says.
Survey data shows that core runners spend an average of 4,594 yuan, far more than 2,333 yuan of potential runners. The package cost about 5,000 yuan ($770; 680 euros) and included a roundtrip to Pyongyang on Air Koryo, hotel accommodation and entry to the marathon. Photography was allowed during the race, according to Hu, but people were told to show "respect" to portraits and statues of state leaders. For example, entrants were told beforehand not to use compression wear under their suits because "it is adverse to the tastes of the Korean people", although he says that the dress code was not strictly enforced. He says they were much more active and enthusiastic than he expected, in particular the women and children inside the stadium and along the marathon route. It has helped him better understand China's dramatic social changes, which have been propelled by rising economic clout over the past few decades. The scholar wears sports shoes and a casual jacket as he prepares to take a long walk along the River Thames after speaking with China Daily in central London. In his case, he says running has made him sleep better, so he doesn't have to stay in bed as long.
As the Chinese people become better off, according to Fang, more and more people will participate in cultural activities and performances, which China's leadership has said should receive more attention.
China's political, economic and social systems are helping empower people with such "freedom of choice". The race is billed as the only event held inside the Antarctic Circle on the continent's mainland. During the trip, Patrick Ngan, a runner from Hong Kong who had been in the North Pole Marathon, briefed them on the conditions they may encounter. Among the worst-case scenarios, they could end up with frostbitten toes or even get lost and lose consciousness. Flags were placed every few meters to keep them on track, crews that included doctors patrolled the racecourse, and radar was used to detect cracks in the ice.
He couldn't find his way in all the bright whiteness around, and I was quite worried when we ran out of each other's sight," Pan says. But running longer distances in races like marathons isn't for everyone," says Wang, who is also a freelance writer for multiple running and health magazines. During the Yangling International Marathon in Shaanxi province on April 10, an amateur runner surnamed Lu fell to the ground suddenly while approaching the finish line and died at a hospital of a heart attack.
They have to do health checks before taking part in races, while monitoring their body's reactions throughout the course using tech gadgets or consulting medical support crews," Huang says. It's time for everybody to learn how to run the right way," says Sun, who operates her own running club. It is "a complete defense system" to protect the US and ROK "against missile threats from Pyongyang". Lavrov discussed the visit with President Xi Jinping and Wang during their meeting on Thursday and Xi told him that China hopes for new agreements with Russia during the visit. So popular in fact that millions of people use it each day, making it one of the most popular emojis on China's instant messaging services.
A recent series of 16 emoticons Liu has designed for the social instant messaging app WeChat, based on that chubby character with grass on its head, was unveiled on March 12 and was downloaded by 4 million users that day. It means that almost half the Chinese population are using Liu's emoticons while messaging their friends.
It seems that designing emoji of cartoon images has become a must-do for some cartoonists who want to gain wide public recognition in China. All were born in the Internet era, so, Wang says, "they're very sensitive to new things online. The cartoonist designs the image and others help manage it, so they can update stories or bring new series of emojis online very quickly. Zhong Wei, 32, a full-time cartoonist in Shenyang, Liaoning province, draws cartoon images and since 2014 has published two picture books. Before the cat was created, he drew cartoon images of a human-like bear, a man with a chicken head and a little boy for a children's book.
Three series of the cat emojis have been downloaded a total of about 200 million times since they were launched in August, and Zhong now has about 500,000 followers on Weibo. The obsession of Chinese with emoji has its roots in the kawaii (cute) and otaku (those who are social outcasts because of their obsession with something, often comics) cultures of Japan, he says. The problem Xu talks of worries many other cartoonists, especially those who are looking to make a name for themselves by creating cartoon emojis. He was 73 and his masterpieces included White Deer Plain, which won him China's top literature prize. He started writing prose in 1965 and completed White Deer Plain in 1992, for which he won the Mao Dun Literature Prize in 1997, one of the most prestigious literature prizes in China.
Three million copies have been sold, and in many online bookshops the books are the bestseller in its category.
From then on, he kept drawing short stories that he passed on to adults who appreciated fairy tales. It operates seven brands of hotels across the Americas, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, ranging from middle market to upper mid-scale and luxury.
As hundreds of millions of Chinese tourists come to the Americas and Europe, we think there's an opportunity that they can help in securing reservations for those folks, arranging flights on their airline, providing tours and staying in the Carlson-branded hotels," Carlson Hospitality Group CEO David Berg said in an interview with the Star-Tribune of Minneapolis. The number of Chinese tourists traveling internationally has more than doubled to 120 million people over the last five years, according to data from the China National Tourist Office and the tourism council. In that same month, HNA bought airport luggage handler Swissport International Ltd for $2.81 billion.
We are, after all, witnessing the biggest movements of people since the World War II, the report said. It is also because the world as a whole is becoming more prosperous, and air travel is becoming more affordable to the rising middle classes.
China hopes all the parties involved exercise restraint, avoid provocation and put the nuclear issue back on a track of dialogue and negotiations at an early date.
Tangshan, as the first prefecture-level city to host the horticultural exposition, really made great efforts for the transformation.
Food is the indestructible bond that holds the whole social fabric together and it is also one of the last strong visages of community and culture.
It is a cooking style that combines science and economics, and generations of chefs have fine-tuned it to an elevated art.
The sloped sides are perfect for pushing aside fritters when deep-frying so that they can gently finish browning in the residual heat. The shape of the sides allows the hot oil to gather at the bottom so you can deep-fry without using too much oil.
Soy sauce and vinegar, too, acquire depth of flavor after being heated on the sides before they join the rest of the ingredients at the bottom of the pan.
I know some chefs who only briefly rinse their pans clean with a straw brush without ever allowing a drop of detergent to come into contact with them. There are many ways to season the wok, and every housewife will tell you her method is the best.
Another expert tells me to render pork fat in the wok until it acquires a deep, dark sheen. It is the crunch of vegetables that are clearly cooked but still with plenty of tactile appeal. The best place to get one is in Chinatown, where the shopkeepers may even stock woks that are already seasoned. Cut the fat into cubes and slowly cook in your new wok until you get a nice simmering pan of oil.
These aromatics infuse the hot oil, and as the fragrance rises, you can choose to discard or keep them. As soon as the vegetables are done, return the meat to the wok, season and dish up immediately. Have your oil and sauces by the stove, your meat cut and marinated, and all your vegetables prepared to toss into the wok.
Cut meat against the grain for tenderness and massage your sliced meat in a little cornstarch dampened with water or stock. Some species that were once widely distributed have rarely been spotted for years, including the large Indian civet, Asiatic golden cat and dhole, or Asiatic wild dog. They came from a survey by the alliance last year in Medog, in the Tibet autonomous region. Once widely distributed in South China, its population has declined sharply since the 1950s.
According to Feng, the animal is usually seen in southern Mengla, in fragmented forests along the Nanla River at altitudes below 600 meters.
It may mean an unknown population exists in Mengla," he says, adding that the finding warrants further research.
The group was invited as part of a Alimentaria program that invites 800 key buyers from 78 countries and was made up of importers and major operators involved in distribution and the hotel, restaurant and cafe sector.
Antoni Valls, managing director of Alimentaria Exhibitions, says the fair began to invite Chinese buyers four years ago. Last year, 16,575 of the total 132,277 Spanish exporters shipped agrifood between January and November, according to the Spanish Institute for Foreign Trade. All the buildings of Hu's village in Jinxi county date back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). All these villages have traditional houses, some built also in styles of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
It's rare to see ancient houses that are mostly in their original forms in such large numbers in China," says Guo Daiheng, an expert on Chinese traditional architecture. Some are transformed into tourist attractions, and the local residents are replaced by businesspeople. They may leave for the cities or build new houses near their village," says Guo, whose team has been in the area for two months now with the sole aim of studying the houses and protecting them. The village's most famous ancestor was Hu Guifang, a senior official in the Ming Dynasty, who was in charge of construction, transportation and agriculture. They have ancestral temples, schools and houses with similar layouts that include ponds, and long and narrow stone alleys.
Just to stabilize it and fix its wooden windows can cost about 30,000 yuan ($4,600; 4,100 euros).
But Guo says repairing the houses is relatively easy compared with convincing young villagers to return home from the cities. However, Guo says she sees hope when she meets young people making plans for their hometowns. Never before have Chinese lovers of Shakespeare had so many ways of approaching his immortal works. But his version is less literary and more verbatim, thus suitable for textual research for non-English speakers. According to Lu Gusun, a professor of English language at Fudan University in Shanghai, as many as three Chinese versions of Hamlet appeared before 1949, and more have seen the light of day since.
This year's celebrations are doubly meaningful because China's great dramatist, Tang Xianzu, died in the same year as Shakespeare, and comparative studies of the two are now in vogue. Young people tend to picture these stars as their boyfriend or girlfriend, but mama fans see themselves as proxy mothers to these starlets.
In a marketing sense, this is no bad thing: these women have money and can afford to buy albums and concert tickets.
In June, Karry Wang, another member of the band, made social media history when his birthday message was reposted more than 42 million times on Sina Weibo, the Twitter-like platform. To her surprise, she found the boys' tones and language reminded her of the best students in her class - only they were cuter. Then she got to know Dai Haixia, a housewife with two children and a big fan of TFboys, who told her of her experience traveling from Beijing to Chongqing to visit the boy band for a documentary on Youku, the video-streaming website. Former members Lu Han, Kris Wu and Lay Zhang, now in their 20s, all have their own mama fan clubs. It should make Chinese proud," says a 40-year-old mama fan who organized a fan meeting to talk about Kris Wu of EXO-M. Even when the design is different, you can recognize some common elements in the style," says Boscaini. You can't compare us with brands which already have thousands of stores," CEO Jean-Marc Pontroue tells China Daily during a recent trip to Beijing. It makes about 4,500 watches annually, all with the Geneva Seal that certifies origin and standards.
South Korea, Japan and China are among the company's fastest growing markets, while Switzerland and the United States remain its biggest, says Pontroue. Wu wore the Blancpain Villeret 8 Day Complete Calendar and the Blancpain Fifty Fathoms Flyback Chronograph in the movie, which will be out on Friday. They embark on a journey, from Toronto to Jamaica to China, seeking their heritage while searching for their long-lost grandfather, Samuel Lowe.
The company operates more than 1,750 flights every week between China and Latin America via hubs at Los Angeles, Chicago, New York and Charlotte.
Based on George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, with lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, the story revolves around Eliza Doolittle, a cockney flower girl who takes speech lessons from professor Henry Higgins, a phoneticist, so that she may pass as a lady. Beijing Tianqiao Performing Arts Center, 9 Tianqiao Nandajie (South street), Xicheng district. Founded in Helsinki in 2001, the group is composed of five members, including soprano Maija Sariola, tenor Jouni Kannisto and baritone Juha Viitala, and has released seven albums and toured Europe and Asia. When I have dinner with friends, I have to sit in a room, rather than the public space," he says.
He said "yes" to that because it's a chance to collaborate with an old friend, the established Chinese rock singer-songwriter Cui Jian, on the second day of the festival.
In the early 1980s, he joined the Beijing Symphony Orchestra and became the principal flutist. When Yang was told that Cui also played the trumpet, he urged Cui to apply to the Beijing Symphony Orchestra. Unlike Cui, who released his song Nothing to My Name in 1986, which won him lots of fans and the title of the "godfather" of rock music in China, Yang switched his focus to country music and blues. His favorite routine is to play his guitar extemporaneously in the morning, then enjoy food and walks around his house in the outskirts of Beijing.
And, at a time when China's top leadership is talking about an ecological civilization, his idea resonates here.
In 1979, he earned a PhD in agricultural economics from University of California, and worked in the US Department of Agriculture, among other places before joining EDF as a senior economist in 1986, to "bridge the gap between theory and practice". It's a kind of validation that it is something important for China's future," says Dudek, who thinks himself as a representative of all the people making the same efforts. To express his excitement of working with the great pianist, he wrote a piece of music on returning to Beijing, titled Meet Mr Chick Corea.
Before he turned 10, he had already enrolled into the primary school of the Central Conservatory of Music in the city. I want to spread my music to the whole world and let people feel the happiness that comes with listening to music. The two experience many ups and downs in their respective lives and gain courage from the letters they write to each other. I hope the dialogues don't make young audiences feel alienated, because that's not the intention," she says. You can hardly find those from just talking or sending messages on phone apps or over social media," she adds.
She says the Chinese version of 84, Charing Cross Road is likely to be reprinted in the thousands as part of the film's promotion. The black-and-white Uproar in the Studio is said to have been made by two brothers in Shanghai.
Event organizers also said that some 60 animation films will be out by the end of the year.
The film, expected to be released in 2018, revolves on insects' endeavors and is the 200-million-yuan sequel to Minuscule: Valley of Lost Ants, a 2014 hit.
The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates. Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings. Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino. It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude.
Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232). It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies. Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters. There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders.
The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere. By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details. The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed. Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told. The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible.
After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447. In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam.
In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?).
The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean].
This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River. The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched.
In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day. In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto. In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias. Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem. In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built.


Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk. By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur. Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas. The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details. These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands.
Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head. In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows.
It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country. Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner.
A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus.
In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages.
For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map. Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion.
Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca. There is nothing so uncomfortable as being around people who dona€™t speak your language, and nothing more comfortable than finding others who do! Those who were constantly on the move and being chased from place to place by the stronger had less opportunity to develop a civilization or to benefit from natural resources.
The Spanish conquistadors, while few in number, were able to subjugate an entire Latin American continent due to their superior technology. They cultivated fields of wheat, groves of date palms, developed herds of cattle, manufactured pottery and woven baskets, and developed a wide-ranging trade system using their sea-worthy boats.
He ruled by means of a powerful military nobility that lived off of a vast taxation network extracted by those whom they subjugated.
As with the Vikings much later in history, the sea people were ruthless, relentless in their attacks, and arrived at unexpected times. The history of the Hebrews after the Exodus from Egypt is a story of constant conflict with the Philistines, including the story of Samson and Delilah, and the numerous battles between the Hebrews and Philistines under the Hebrew king, David. The Nile provided a fertile valley carved out of hot, sandy desert that was able to sustain a large civilization extending along the narrow river valley from the Mediterranean in the north to Ethiopia in the south.
A variety of causes have been suggested for his early death, and for many years it was suspected that he was murdered. He abandoned the new royal city built by his father at Akhanaten and moved the capitol back to the traditional capitol at Thebes.The royal celebrations and sacrifices to Amun were restored, winning him great favor with many of the people. He was also the most prolific builder of monuments honoring his rule, as well as pyramids for the burial of his many children.
The priests were intermediaries between the people and the numerous gods and goddesses discovered on clay seals and figurines. This period is also credited with the development of the Chinese five-tone music scale, the five-stringed zither, and pan-pipes. Persia is supplying rockets to Hezbollah, American troops are in Babylonia, and Assyria questions whether it wants to be part of the new Iraq. Well-off, fitness-focused Chinese are now more interested in snapping sweaty selfies at international marathons, report Matt Prichard, Yan Dongjie and Yu Yilei in Beijing and Wang Mingjie in London. At the same time, expanding prosperity has meant Chinese runners have gone from being rare at international marathons to having a noticeable presence. People from different countries did the same, and we stood close to each other to keep warm. Before this year's London event, he had completed 73 marathons, including 16 last year, half of which were international races. That mushroomed to 134 marathons and 1.5 million runners last year, according to Wang Dawei, vice-president of the CAA, which now has a marathon department. She ran her first half-marathon in April 2015 and has been participating in races around China since then. Prior to this year's London event, he had completed 73 marathons, including 16 last year, half of which were international races. However, this sometimes causes problems, like people not respecting contractual agreements," he says. Runners wore special suits, with layers to keep them warm but not too sweaty, eye protection and nonskid boots.
Eight similar deaths during long-distance running events have been reported in China over the past two years. For example, one story tells of Ali's father bidding him farewell as he embarks on a journey.
In 2012, HNA purchased the 165-room Cassa Hotel in midtown Manhattan from Assa Properties for $130 million. Yet another says to use a new wok only for deep-frying until the iron is "totally moisturized". Allow to cool, safely pour away the oil, and then wipe the wok clean with clean kitchen or paper towels. This is especially advisable if you are cooking them with root vegetables that take a longer time in the pan such as lotus roots, bamboo shoots, carrots or radishes. The animal has disappeared from most habitats because of hunting, either for its meat or as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine.
However, sales saw the biggest increase in non-EU markets, including a 61 percent increase in China, the data show. He speaks to them about the history of their house and narrates stories about their common ancestors. There are about 11,000 houses built during one of the two dynasties in the county, according to the local government. With China's modernization, ancient villages are disappearing at a fast pace as residents replace old houses with modern buildings. Well-known ancestors of today's villagers were influential scholars, writers, poets and powerful officials in Imperial China. But the average annual income of villagers who work in the rice fields is about 10,000 yuan, says Hu. They also make excellent promoters, and with the confidence of age can scream and holler at live shows loud enough to put younger counterparts to shame. Italian luxury jewelry house Bulgari proves this with an ongoing jewelry exhibition in the Beijing SKP mall. To see beautiful divas perform with Bulgari jewelry is a way to nurture this kind of dream," Lucia Boscaini, Bulgari's brand and heritage curator, tells China Daily.
The age of Dolce Vita, which celebrates self-indulgence and extravagance, also became a source of inspiration for Bulgari jewelry. The brand launched its limited-edition Portofino Hand-Wound Eight Days Edition "Beijing International Film Festival 2016" watch for the film festival this year. During this tour, they will perform songs including Hey Jude, Letzte Rose and some Chinese pieces.
Yang's distinctive music, in a style of vocal storytelling or even murmuring while playing the guitar, catapulted the 60-year-old to folk and rock stardom.
If a song contains too much decoration, such as special effects and computer programming, it's not a confident song.
Yang asked Wen to teach him the instrument and during that time Wen introduced Yang to Cui, who also played the guitar.
In 1989, Yang quit the Beijing Symphony Orchestra and went to France to further his music study by learning the flute and blues harp. The couple also tries to keep their children aware of Chinese culture and events in the country. Lee, the trio will play Dai's original compositions as well as his arrangement of Chinese song Butterflies Fly in Pairs by Cantonese composer Chen Peixun. I love playing standard jazz, but that is only a part of my musical influence," says Dai Liang. However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old. The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre.
It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer. A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg. But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context? Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c. Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident. Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible. From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted. All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name. West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming.
Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes.
According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra.
The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century. In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men.
Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores. A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus. Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia.
In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges. Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth. In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen.
On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward. Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner. Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant.
Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo. There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims. The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river. The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249). A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog.
This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr.
The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented. It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries. There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood.
One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain. But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted.
What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern. Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space.
Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions.
Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time. And Christian missionaries from Europe and the United States armed with computers, flashlights, and modern medicines, encountered stone age tribesmen in the islands of the Pacific as late at the end of the 20th century. They developed a system that divided a circle into units of sixty, from which we today get our minute composed of sixty seconds and a system of counting based upon the unit of ten.
Two of the consequences were (1) a confusion of languages, and (2) a huge flood that lasted for seven days and seven nights.
But they were described as being primarily a nomadic people who were never conquered, refused to live in houses, and moved frequently from place to place.
One of their number who had gained prominence in Egypt, Joseph, was able through his position to ensure their safe move into Egypt.
Eventually they were controlled by the Egyptians who at times extended their control northward to Syria. This was not a monotheism that resulted from special revelation granted by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but developed from his angry response to all those who belittled him when he was a boy.
But more recent examination of his mummified remains indicate that he had severe scoliosis, a broken leg that had become infected, and probably died from several genetic diseases, caused by the fact that his mother was one of his fathera€™s sisters.
He fathered at least 80 sons and 60 daughters, all with the purpose of leaving behind a royal line and a successor to the throne. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.
Knowledge of the Aryans comes primarily from a series of stories called vedas passed down orally in India.
Fertility was seemingly a major emphasis of the Harappa religion and was the cause of the veneration of sacred animals, especially bulls.
The vast area of fertile soil and extensive forests was fueled by tremendous amounts of soil that annually washed down from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean. Recent studies now propose that it was a change in the path and frequency of typhoons that brought the decline of the Harappa civilization. It merges with the Yangtze River as it nears the Pacific Ocean to form a vast and fertile plain. Oracle bones were simply that: bones on which cracks in the bones were deciphered by oracles who added written pictographs for interpretation. He also developed vast wheat and barley fields, groves of date palms, and under his leadership Babylon became a central power in Mesopotamia. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.A  Large granaries were built to hold surplus wheat and barley.
It's why we get together," says the entrepreneur, who quit running a real estate company to start Save U Sports Development Co, which helps clients with equipment and advice.
An average of 100 villages are vanishing each day in China, scholar Feng Jicai remarked during last year in Beijing. Specially created for China, the exhibition called Cinecitta and Beyond - Bulgari Jeweler to the Stars celebrates the brand's connection with the movie world, showcasing more than 30 pieces of iconic jewelry from the 1930s until today. I always say that I am not a musician because there are many great musicians whose talent makes me jealous. The song is part of his second album by the same name that will be released later in the year. To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold. In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him. This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi.
The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head. Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog. This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself. Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur. Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group. If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok. A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows.
A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree. Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo.
Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats. The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St. Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction.
This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries.
Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance. It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India. King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand. Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi.
On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum. Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins.
The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times. Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers. The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains.
Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula. The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted.
In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet. It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward.
Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise.
The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously.
In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion.
The weaker tended to move out farther, and the stronger tended to settle down more quickly and claim their space. Ur was a community of moon-worshippers and from among them God called out Abraham and his family to become the father of all who have faith (Romans 4). They practiced taxation, conquest of neighboring peoples, slavery, and developed an early monarchial form of government.
A Sumerian king, Ziusudra, survived the flood in a large boat, in which he preserved the seeds of plants and life.
There they were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians, and they remained slave for over 400 years. The southern section, Judah, with its capitol, Jerusalem, was invaded, captured, and exiled by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.
Eventually, however, the sea people were able to settle along the Mediterranean coastline of the land of Canaan and were known as the Philistines.
They possessed a written language, but deciphering the script used is still in its early stages. Estimates now available from satellite imagery shows a ridge of fertile soil up to 20 feet deep, 10 miles wide and 100 miles long that straddles the Indus River. The pattern of the annual typhoons gradually moved increasingly eastward and the people followed the rainfall in scattered, smaller groups. Because only 10% of the Chinese land is productive for food, the Yellow River basin was crucial in the development and survival of the Chinese people.
Today everything is guided by business rules and fashion rules so it's completely different. In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part.
Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination.
What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise. Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea. Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art.
The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term.
As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well. Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara. Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns.
Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events.
Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity.
When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins. Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark.
From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made.
Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars.
They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation.
Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region.
He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated.
In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis. This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map. The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China. Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer. About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia. A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta. Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter. Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth.
It was with Abraham that God made his redeeming covenant that resulted in the coming of Jesus into the world as Savior. But the Hebrews for the most part lived under a series of male and female Hebrews judges, and then a series of kings. Because they were viewed as gods in the flesh, they strove to keep the royal bloodline pure through marriage between brothers and sisters.
In addition to the rich alluvial soil, water was plentiful from typhoons that annually dumped immense amounts of rainfall on the area.
In addition, the fact that the Harappaa€™s bronze tools and weapons were inferior in design and quality to those manufactured in Egypt and Mesopotamia may also have resulted in invasions as the cities declined in population. The river gained its name from the color of the mud and silt that flows from the Kulun Mountains. On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion. The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is.
In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance. Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography.
These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish. Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables. Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat.
The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird. According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land. Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots.
Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves.
Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned. The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India. In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character. And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods. South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy. The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass.
They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks.
In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea.
The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes. On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai.
Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese. One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down.
It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo. In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441.
If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions.
Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia.
The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong. Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. Cadmium Yellow, for instance, is made from the compound of cadmium zinc sulfide, and calcined iron oxide is the chemical name for Burnt Sienna. Sumer was located near to where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers merge and flow into the Persian Gulf. Both the veneration of bulls and the use of the lotus position were later developed further in Hinduism and Buddhism in India.
Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols. Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south). A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality. One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map. A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule. The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice. In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan.
Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest.
It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones.
In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch.
These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili. As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features.
This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay.
A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes. On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus.
The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China. This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History.
In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men. A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations. A way to determine whether a tube of paint contains a genuine color is to look for the ASTM designation (usually on the back of the tube, and occasionally on the face). She was the daughter of Akhenaten and his favorite wife, Nefertiti The result was two daughters who both died in infancy. Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249). For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia. The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels. The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life. Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens. That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness. This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent.
The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map. Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details. Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured.
Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes. On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts. The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located.
Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi. It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. If there is a single ASTM number, the paint is made from a genuine pigment of a single substance.
Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer.
By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely. The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map. If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map. Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile).
This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron.
It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy.
In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy.
The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found. Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist. This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map. There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean.
Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast. The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and .
With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara). If you find more than one ASTM number, it means several different pigments were combined to make the paint and it is not a genuine color.A An ASTM designation starts with the letter "P" for pigment, followed by a letter or set of letters for the color group, such as "Y" for yellow or "Br" meaning brown, and then a one to three digit number for the specific color.
Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™.
Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds.
The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages. In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented.
Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet. The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ. The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him. In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael.
Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine. On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins.
In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door.
In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti. The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist.
The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence. These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia. Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke. The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm. It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks.
Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt. The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages.
It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map. This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification. Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name. The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees. However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west. Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava.
On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation.
Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog. Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India.
The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying. It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent.
The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia.
Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China. As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia.
Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat. Kings Blue, for instance, is just Zinc White (PW1) or Titanium White (PW6) plus Cobalt (PB36) or French Ultramarine Blue (PB29), yet it saves the landscape painter much time by not having to mix it on the palette each time she needs a sky color.A Some convenience colors are intended to replace an obsolete but useful pigment. The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa. The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island.
As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian. There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler.
It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India.
For instance, the production of genuine Indian Yellow is now barred by law, so today producers create alternatives from mixtures of other colors.A imitationLike a convenience color, an a€?imitationa€? is a mixture, one that allows the manufacturer to offer an inexpensive alternative to a costly color. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles.
Also like a convenience color, properly labeled imitations are identified with two or more ASTM numbers. According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia. From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent. The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East. A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation. The coldest blue is French Ultramarine, followed by Cobalt, Cerulean, Manganese, and the warmest, Prussian and Phthalocyanine.
Phthalocyanine may be labeled Phthalo, Thalo, Monstral, or Winsor)i»?The darkest blues are Prussian, then Phthalocyanine. Both colors are so potent that even a tiny amount has a powerful impact upon other colors in mixtures.
Even though they are transparent, due to their intensity they effectively hide what they are painted over unless worked out into an extremely thin veneer.
Rich, vibrant blacks can be made with them when combined with a strong red like Alizarin Crimson, Cadmium Red Deep, or Indian Red.
By adding white to these blackish mixtures, the blacks become handsome violet, pinkish, or greenish grays. The most sparkling greens come from Prussian or Phthalo Blue plus yellow paint, particularly when it is a lemony yellow.i»?.




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