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Maxima Visions Production Company - Production in Texas:MAXIMA VISIONS FILMS BELIEVESNew in 2012! We are seeking now those residents in Middle Tennessee, those individuals who have such experience. In this segment, we will try to provide the information we have found for each of these children.
A search of the 1901 and 1911 Irish Census records did not produce any members of this Tinman family.
Also, in the 1860 record of the Battlehill Methodist Church there was a Conway Tinman (Battlehill: A Local History, A Church History, by Valerie Ruddell and William Newell, Ruddell Press, Portadown, 2000 -- p. The only known child of Sarah Lindsay Tinman was her daughter, Sarah Tinman who married William Hinton and was the a€?niecea€? that Alexander met while on his mission, as referred to above.
It is clear that they had another daughter, born about 1908, after Alexander returned home from his mission, and she was therefore not mentioned in his journal.
This is all that we have been able to find for Sarah Lindsaya€™s and her daughtera€™s families.
This Bible is now in the possession of Wilson Glass, Grandnephew of Fannie Livingston Lindsay.
With William being married in Jersey in 1859, he seems to have remained in the military for the next several years, and was probably still serving as a soldier at the time that his parents died--mother in 1865, and father in 1866.
Eventually William, Alice and Alex returned home where they took up farming on their old home site. In his role as a local farmer, and a leader in the Methodist Church at Battlehill, life continued until 20 Oct. In the 1901 Irish census, we find William and a€?Fannya€? Lindsay, both listed as aged 62 and Methodists living in Ballintaggart (Richhill, Armagh). In the 1911 Irish census we find the same William and Fanny (ages 73 & 72) still listed as Methodists and still in Ballintaggart (Aghory, Armagh).
Between these two dates, William was visited at their old home by his brother Alexander who made many references in his journal to their discussions, including a variety of religious conversations.
While the brothers loved each other, it seems apparent that Alexander took his LDS mission very seriously and wanted to convince William of the truthfulness of the restored gospel.
William seems to have had two happy marriages, but was not blessed with children in either one. She would have been about 25 years old when her father died in 1866, and so was old enough to be out on her own. There is a lot of missing information about her and her family, but the two census records give us a great deal of help in filling in some of the gaps. Shortly after their marriage they were posted to India, which was a part of the British Empire at that time and had a fairly large contingent of British soldiers stationed there. The family retuned from India about 1879, not long after Alexandera€™s departure for for New Zealand, and settled in County Armagh.
In the 1901 Irish census we find this family living at house 8 in Union Street in Portadown, Armagh where they were all listed as Methodists.
His journal contains a number of brief entries showing a warm conviviality and a joy to be reunited with his loved ones in his old home country. Shortly after this experience Alexander was transfered to England and was only able to communicate with his family by mail thereafter.
In the 1911 Irish census we find this family living in house 14 Union Street, Portadown, Armagh.
In addition to the above information, there is a note that Mary Ann had been married for only 9 years; had born 5 children, 3 of whom were still living.
We do not know of Elizabeth or William ever marrying, and we do not know what became of little Sarah, but it is possible that she had a family of her own with descendants somewhere today.
Our family records indicated that Mary Ann died about 1910, but it is apparent from the 1911 census that she was still alive at that time.
She was still a young woman at that time and one wonders what happened to end her life while just entering her prime.
The three death dates always match, and in each one he says she was 31 years old when she died. In the 1860 roll for the members of the Battlehill Methodist Church, Dorothy Lindsaya€™s name appears as a member of the group that was led by her father, John Lindsay.
Dorothy grew up in the Lindsay home in Ballintaggart on the Loughgall Road with her other siblings. Dorothya€™s marriage may have taken place while Alexander was away as a soldier in the British Army, but he married and returned to this area in time to know Dorothya€™s two little boys when they were very young. Early on, the Holmes family moved to the townland of Clonroot, which is immediately adjacent to, on the west side of, Battlehill, which is adjacent to, and on the west side of, Ballintaggart, so they were very close to the rest of the family. Upon his return to Ireland as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1904-5, Alexander Lindsay visited with his brother William, and his sister, Mary Ann, to get caught up on all the changes that had occurred while he was away in New Zealand, and in Oregon, over the past 26 years.
While he was surely saddened to miss most of his siblings, he did get a chance to rekindle some relationships with the next generation, including his nephew, William Holmes. Shortly after this last visit with William Holmes, Alexander was transferred to England for the remainder of his mission. In the 1911 Irish census we find William still living alone in the 19th house enumerated in Clonroot, Kilmore Parish, Co.
Although William Holmes was still single in the 1911 census, he did eventually marry on 3 March 1920, in Ahorey, Co., Armagh, Ireland to Margaret Edgar, the daughter of Thomas Edgar.
As has been mentioned several times already, Alex was the youngest of eight children born to John Lindsay and Mary Donaghy.
After returning to Ireland, and probably with the discharge of William from the Army, Alexander then enlisted for his own tour. So, in the fall of 1878, with their baby just a few weeks old, Alex and Mary set sail on an old sailing vessel, which went south around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, and then eastward to New Zealand. They Lindsays homesteaded land in their new country and from time to time traded up for larger tracts until they eventually bought 640 acres of land near Towai, Bay of Islands, on the North Island. In 1897 missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints came to this area and eventually the Lindsays were taught the gospel and were baptized into this church.
After returning home to LaGrande, Alex and Mary had a wonderful life together watching their children grow up, marry and raise children of their own. From the eight children (four daughters and four sons) of John Lindsay and Mary Donaghy, they had about nineteen known grandchildren. In this segment, we will try to provide the information we have found for each of these children.A  Much of this information comes from Alexander Lindsaya€™s Journal which he kept when he returned to the place of his birth on a two years mission (1904-1906) for the LDS Church and will be referred to as a€?ALJa€? {The Alexander Lindsay Journals 1903-1906, transcribed by Larry E.
Sarah Lindsay--born 1837, was the oldest child of this family.A  She married Edward Tinman (date unknown but probably between 1860-64) {ALJ p. In the 1901 Irish census, we find William and a€?Fannya€? Lindsay, both listed as aged 62 and Methodists living in Ballintaggart (Richhill, Armagh).A A  In this census she said she too was born in Co.
William seems to have had two happy marriages, but was not blessed with children in either one.A  He passed away on 30 Dec.
Mary Ann Lindsay--was born in 1841 (no actual date specified).A  At age 19 her name was listed as one of the members of the Battlehill Methodist Church, of which her father, John Lindsay, was then the Group Leader [Battlehill Church History p. In the 1901 Irish census we find this family living at house 8 in Union Street in Portadown, Armagh where they were all listed as Methodists.A  Mary Ann was listed as being a widowed house keeper, aged 60 and the three children between ages 18-22 with the two girls as a€?Drawer in Factorya€? and the son was a weaver. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make? Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism.
However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law.
In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism.
And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany.
Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires.
Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders. Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments.
Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D.
In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic.
All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution.
Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern.
Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another. The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people.
All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people.
After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France.
Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X.
With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots. Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated.
Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down.
Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state. The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe.
Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government. Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe). In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492.
Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain.
By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory.
England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people.
Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king. Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign. With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began.
James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule.
When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England.
Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland.
In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens.
In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II.
After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell. He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship). His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England.
Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism.
He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act. James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England.
When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament. With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James.
The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne. In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights.
This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament. Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law? How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included?
Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U. Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal.
This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain.
After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte.


The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers.
Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power.
In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph.
At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival. Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power.
Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power.
Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe.
The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe.
In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558.
1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands.
1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing.
Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism. Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. Now, all of the production capabilities possible at our home office in Nashville Tennessee & Norfolk Virginia is possible in the great state of Texas.
We are seeking not only actors who have done major speaking roles, but also full production crews, from producers, directors, script and screen writers, Dpa€™s, lighting personnel, electric, set decorators, hair and make-up artist, editors, to those with experience in marketing and distribution.
10, 1905 --This morn after dressing I went to meet my Niece [this would be Sarah Tinman Hinton, who was then living in Belfast, and was the daughter of Sarah Lindsay Tinman] at the 9 Oa€™c train and her two children, bringing them home to breakfast, and then went on to M. 9, 1905 -- Accompanied by Elder Scott I paid my promised visit to my new found Niece [Sarah Tinman Hinton]. 14 May 1905 -- This morning my companion and I went out as far as Clonroot to pay our promised visit to Willie Holmes.
11 June 1905 -- Another Saboth [sic] day, going out as far as Clonroot, and I may say we all spent a very enjoyable time. Keelya€? and had this girl--born about 1906.A  Remember too that Alexander referred to his niece as Mrs.
Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe.
Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation. In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy.
It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights.
He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses.
The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain. They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king.
The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work).
But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear.
He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes.
The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection.
Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific. The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings. The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered. Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary. She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen. To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen.
Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do.
In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights. Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future.
Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I.
Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England.
James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband.
Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism.
With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence.
The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause.
In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France.
Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment.
In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health. The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact.
The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power. The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them. The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany. He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine.
Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism. England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
Please see home page and services page to see services that are now also available in Texas.NOW SEEKING ANYONE WITH MAJOR PRODUCTION EXPERIENCE & PROFESSIONAL ACTORS AND ACTRESSES IN TEXAS! We need to put together two complete production crews to enable us to always have at least one film in pre-production, one in production and one in post year round. 1920.A  His widow, Fannie, continued to reside in the old Lindsay home until her passing on 7 Aug.
207].A A  She may have known him in her earlier years and may have married when he was on leave from the Army, as we believe he was a soldier. Nugent, and her two daughters, Lizzie and Sarah.A  Sarah was already married by this date, and she was the a€?Mrs.
10, 1905 -- This morning found all the Elders ready for Con[ference].A  Roy went and met Sis.
This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away.
These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c.
Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs!
The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots!
Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean.
If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne.
Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17.
Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism.
Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV.
King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas.
Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740.


Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy.
After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918.
After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city. The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary.
The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. Nugentsa€™s [Mary Ann Lindsay Nugent--another sister of Alexandar Lindsay who was then living in Portadown], talked some time and then proceeded out as far as Wma€™s [Alexa€™s older brother, William Lindsay] calling in on the way to see Mr.
Little Eddie Hinton [age about 10] just alls in on me just now.A  Hea€™s on a visit to his Aunt Mrs. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow.
The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown.
In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic.
At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived.
Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government. Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors.
But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament. But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary. The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible.
His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes.
This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule.
However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army.
The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people.
Randall Maxwell, who brings his 35 years experience in Hollywood and Wilmington NC in the film industry to Nashville to direct this Nashville Operation. Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia.
Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII.
The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports. They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome. The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not.
The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth.
Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611). James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations.
The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans.
A A If you are one of those individuals who already have the professional experience necessary to produce quality films and television productions, now is the time to get your working resumes to us to be considered working for our company.
Tinman [Thomas Tinman--brother of Edward] and his daughter made me feel at home and asked me to call every time I could.
Hinton asking me to bring Eddy with me to Belfast tomorrow, so I got supper and went out into the country to tell the folks, and they treated me fine and asked me to call as often as I passed. Tinman [Thomas Tinman--brother of Edward] and his daughter made me feel at home and asked me to call every time I could.A  {ALJ p. Elder Lindsay of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints and I may say that we had a spiritual feast.A  The Lord has greatly blessed me in all ways for which I am truly grateful. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir. Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna! 1877, after living with her husband for 18 years, two months, and sixteen days, aged 36 yrs.
And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.
The prescription medications Kelli uses to relieve her insecurities change both twins lives forever.Over the course of several years, Kellis drug dependency grows.
Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611.
Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding.
Kelli comes close to dying several times from overdoses -- accidental and intentional -- leading to many stays in psychiatric facilities. You may want to scrawl down past the next several paragraphs, as they pertain to our professional training.
The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law.
We then bid them good bye coming on with their invitation ringing in our ears to be sure and come again which we promised to do if possible. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank.
Darla struggles to convince the doctors her twins irrational behavior started only after they began pumping her full of powerful anti-psychotic drugs. The same applies to anyone interested in securing us for any of your professional production needs. 1848 date for her birth, which means that she would have been just past her 33 birthday at the time of her death on 14 Feb. Hewitt and family good bye, we started on our return to Portadown Accompanied part of the way by Mr.
Not that you must come to work for us, as after training you will be more than qualified with professional training, as you will have actually worked on at least four real feature films in your chosen discipline that you can put on your resume, that you can practically chose the production company you want to work for anywhere in the US or abroad. Willie Holmes my Sister Dolliea€™s Son, arriving here about 11 Oa€™c pretty tired but highly elated at the successful termination of my first meeting with the people of Conroot. You may choose the discipline of acting, producing, directing, script & screen writing, editing, business of film making, basic film production, camera operator, director of photography, animation, any discipline within the collaborative art of film making. These are conservative figures and take no considerations for attaching a star to this film in making the film a success. This is a two year certificate program with the top 50% of our graduating class being offered a two year paid internship with our production company, giving you a working resume in your chosen discipline where you can continue working for Maxima Vision Films or choose practically any other production company within the US or abroad. However, we feel the very story is strong enough on its own merit to assure success of distribution of this film, especially considering the number of qualitydistribution outlets available to film makers today.
We feel certain with the budget of this film being so low, and the quality of story being so good, there is no reason we cannot at least double an investors return on their investment, but quite likely to earn a substantial return.We cannot guarantee the financial success of this venture.
These workshops also get you working immediately with our professionals who are making movies each and every day. These workshops can be either taken over weekends, camps, taken one day a week at 3 hour classes, or two days at 1 hour and half, both of which you will also be involved in a three hour workshop on the weekend at our production facilities.
Frankly, the overriding qualification for prospective investors in this or similar projects is that they must be fully accredited, and able to lose all or part of their investment, incurring no significant financial damage as a result of loss. That said, we can guarantee thatMaxima Visions Films and Productions has developed and sold compelling stories with universal relevance, and has assembled a team of production professionals who are completely dedicated to, and competent in,delivery of a high quality product.As entertainment appetites and accessibility grows, the industry is begging for high quality product to fill the ever-increasing demands. Given current worldwide economic conditions, the entertainment industry stands virtually alone as a growth industry. If you are an aspiring actor, you need to at the very least know how to prepare for a casting interview, as you only have one shot in this business to get it right!A Do you know how much work goes into the production of a film or television production? This is an absolute in this business & like preparing you for a casting interview, these are all a part and included in any of our camps, workshops and classes.If you are an aspiring actor?
Maxwell is going to be spending so much time here, to do a large amount of productions here in Texas, as opposed to traveling to either the east or west coast. Remember, a demo reel is just what the name implies, it is a demo of your acting abilities.
At your own school or church, we can even make available a after school program for the cost of basically any other after school program, but you are learning what you are passionate about, making movies. Randall Maxwell will act as the Executive producer on any of these projects.This particular investment group has chosen to use the same success formula Dr. Each of these programs will ultimately produce a short student film that you may use on your resume for your chosen discipline, entered into competition with other Christian schools and churches in our upcoming 2015 film festival. Maxwell used back in his secular film production days, which is basically, production by the numbers. What this means is simple; with the number of quality venues of distribution now available if one can keep a production fewer than 3 million dollars, one is practically assured to at least break even on a film, if the story has any merit what so ever. This means, they especially like projects where they spread their risk, that they simply match dollar for dollar of the projects budget.
We are not interested in the number of times you have had an extra spot in a film, or even a speaking role in a student film at some film school. We do already have two projects which this investment group has expressed interest in producing in Texas. As mentioned, we are as committed to quality product, films that will help to shape our culture positively, as we are to hiring as much local talents as possible.
We are absolutely committed to producing such quality that in the near future that anyone who has any interest in producing a redemptive story idea, there is only one logical solution as to what company one is to come to for producing such a product, and that is Maxima Vision Films.
We feel after viewing how serious we are about those talents we hire above, you will realize how serious we are in producing for you the most professional production money can buy.
During this scen her demmons rebel, crying out to her, it is them who are her friends, it is this pastor who is trying to manipulate her and take advantage of her.
URGENT NEEDSAs already mentioned, in order for Maxima Visions Films to go past pre-production and go into actual production of films here in Texas, we have need of finding the talents needed to have at least two feature films going at any particular time.
A A Come now to get involved in our celebration of our opening up our home office in Nashville, Tennessee. If one has read our home page, you will find we also have serious interest in developing a film school as well, and we might just find that Texas is the ideal place to have such a school.
Get involved now with a company who is committed to harnessing the power of the mediums of film and television to help shape our culture positively verses negatively, as Hollywood has for decades.
Please see below the talents we are seeking immediately, and as you read through, please also consider if you would also like teaching on a collegiate level in our film school. You may also call our Executive Producer at (757) 636-8163 to discuss your experience and any ideas you may have with him.
At present, we are seriously seeking those who have a very similar look to the photos below, as we are seeking to do trailers for each of the above films immediately and need those who look like the photos below.
For Sister Surrendered we need almost an identical match, as the actor who we are seeking is a twin sister to Darla above.
In Rachels Grace we need a close look alike for Rachel at present age, and her as a child, a teen, then a 20 something. Maxwell is also available in Texas to work as either a producer or consultant on any feature film production. He is also available to do most any kind of crew work, from script writing, producing, directing, and assisting in any phase of a film or television production.Dr. Maxwell is also available to assist in teaching any area of film making;Are you interested in getting into film or television productions? Maxwell is certified and qualified to teach or tutor in many areas, especially Script Writing for film and televisionand producing, and directing. We offer either group workshops or private lessons.Do you have a story idea that you think is hot for the time and need help in the development of the story into a feature film script or television script, and finally have it made into a feature film or television production? MaxwellI would sincerely love to help any young person aspiring to break into the entertainment industry in any way I can.
Before being called to the ministry back in 1999, I had spent most all of my adult life, 20+ years in the secular film industry. I have witnessed firsthand what a corrupt industry it can be, so, I would love to be able to coach a young person in ways to avoid some of the costly mistakes I made when I was young.Back in 1999 when first called to ministry, I had actually thought I would never again be involved in the film industry, as I could not see how ministry and the film industry could co-exist, because of the very nature of the industry.
Had it not been for my desire to return to school so that I could teach on a collegiate level what I had done all my life, I would have never come to the conclusion I have today, that we can actually use this medium to shape our culture positively. I came to realize that Satan has certainly used this most powerful medium to shape our culture to fit his agenda, so why couldnt we. I had wanted to teach, so I did not have to take funds out of this ministry I had been called to live on.While back in school seeking my degree I came to realize more and more, just how much power this medium has to impact. I began to realize what more powerful medium could there be to at least share Gods message, to at least plant a seed to get a viewer to at least begin to seek truth, in hopes that they may find the real love Christ my Lord has for a hurting world. I hope to lead young film makers down the right paths, many of which I missed along the road during my secular days in film making. I hope to make such an impression that will inspire young people to realize that if they truly have some talent within the entertainment industry, that they at least owe it to our Lord to do it with all their heart for His ultimate glory!Talent & Model Management CompanyUn-Like so many other agencies! First and foremost, because our Talent and Model Management Company is actually married to our own production company, we will always strive to use as much of our own talents in our own productions as is possible to still keep the integrity of the production its self. By using our own talent for our own productions, this gives our talents actual work, which they can add to their resume. This of course makes an individual talent more marketable for us to sell to other production companies. It has a domino effect.We are now taking resumes, head shots, and portfolio shots from any aspiring actors or models that are aspiring to get involved in the entertainment industry. Maxwell is here on assignment with the ministry he has been called, we feel that the ideal would be to find a property that both Maxima Visions Films and Hope Retreats International, which is Dr. AS a part of the program for troubled youth, there is an element of a work program, thus making as many students as needed to help around the studios as far as assistant, general house- keeping and maintenance of the areas, keeping cost down.
We are also looking into working with the manufacturers of log homes and module homes, so as to use our facilities as model homes to use to market other homes in the area, thus bring in another source of income for the joint project.
The ministry is of course a non-profit venture as well, thus this could be used as an advantage in a joint venture to be able to write off most all losses.We have particular interest in both the production company and film school working as one identity. Secondly; A student intern makes for less expensive labor cost while benefiting the student at the same time, as the student can then put this on their professional resume as real work done. To steal some of the thunder from the school page to demonstrate here the advantages of a student coming to our school verses a tradition college, we will add some of those benefits here.The greatest danger most of us face is not that our aim is too high and we miss it, but that our aim is too low and we reach it. Many universities and film schools do a very good job in training their students in the art of film making, but then it is completely up to you to go out into this competitive world of film making to find your own job.
First words that come out of your prospective employers mouth is; What experience do you have? Well, if you are like most, you have never done any actual work on a real film set, other than the few simple student films you did with your class mates in college. Upon fulfilling that agreement you may be given a new contract or you may choose to go elsewhere, but at least now you will be going with a very real, producer, director, screen writer, actor or editors resume, and not just a resume stating all the things you did in film school.Because of the very nature of our school, we are only seeking the serious minded film makers, those who are willing to pay the price for excellence. In fact, our tuition is less than practically any other film school, and if you are serious and you are in at least your top 50% of your graduating class and you do receive the two year contract, your education actually cost you nothing, as the amount of money you make on your contract for two years will pay you back your tuition and you will have actually earned money for getting educated.Unfortunately, many who go to college to receive a degree in film making spend so much more time in studying every other subject that is required to get a degree, so little time is ever available to truly learn the craft of film making. This is not a school for those who have hopes of teaching film and television.By combining the school to the production company has many advantages to the production company as well. Many production companies during times when they themselves are not doing a production, the cost is the same and continues even in down time. With the school attached, there is always production going on.Finally, the source of income coming from tuition is a continuous source of income, even in down time in productions.
The production company can also make these students available to other production companies who lease our facilities.
Not necessarily because we feel this is the ideal place to produce feature films, but because there is a much needed service needed here is our main reason for being here. That service is, what our Executive Producer is here to accomplish.This whole area is in much need for a Christ centered resident recovery program for troubled youth. Though this program is a much needed service and a perfect way for the Christian community to get involved in sharing the real love Christ our Lord has for a hurting world in a very practical way, if their church does not have a desire to get involved, they do not either. Unfortunately, so many of this Christian community are so involved in their own Churchs denominational agenda, and keeping their own Churchs mortgage paid, they do not have the time to devote to making this happen.In fact, all across America today, the average church spends 90% of their income in just paying their mortgage and administration cost, leaving very little for outside ministry. This is the ministry who will end up paying a large portion of the expenses to support this youth retreat.
The vision of our parent mission leads and guides everything that we do, both at Hope Retreats and Maxima Visions films. Maxwell, Maxima Visions Films, and our investment group are so committed to making a success here in Texas.
Please readOur most pressing news as of September 2015, something I hope all readers might read before searching other pages on this site.
Maxwell will be deciding upon and after this illness passed we will take a look at producing these scripts into feature films or television productions. Maxwell is spending this time taking care of his wife, and not in production, he has plenty of time to read scripts. Now, all the services offered at our other production facilities will be available to serve Tennessee. At present we have two major investment groups, one of which has already committed funding four feature films or television productions every year over the next five years. A Ask any professional in the film or television industry how difficult it is to obtain the funding for a feature film or television production. No one in Nashville is even producing a film per year, let alone cranking out four feature films or television productions each and every year, not until now.



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