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John Guthrie, is generally credited with having migrated to New England about the year 1700. Seymour Guthrie, himself says in his book, a€?A Brief History of a Branch of the Guthrie Family.a€?-- a€?The earliest traditional knowledge of the family is in 1680 in Edinburgh. A comparison of these statements shows that all save the last one gives 1700 as the approximate date of emigration.
This family has a tradition that there were seven Guthrie brothers in Scotland, that owing to religious persecutions they left there, some going to Ireland, others to America. We will now continue quoting this same source, but skip forward to page 169 and beyond, to follow the family of Robert Guthrie, one of the original immigrants from Scotland, who is believed to be a brother of the John Guthrie discussed above. We shall take Robert of Fallowfield and Nantmeal Townships, as the head of a hypothetical family, consisting of wife, _______ (Darlington) Guthrie, four sons--Adam, James, John, and William and perhaps as many daughters, names unknown.
Were not Adam and James grouped under Robert, they should be arranged under the seventeen forties and fifties; John and William at a decade or so later. He was the William Guthrie, we are quite sure, who married a daughter of Thomas Barnett, who was a neighbor to James and John Guthrie on Back Creek. Filed with these deeds is the following valuable family record, which gives the children of William, Sr.
The date of death of William Guthrie, Sr., is unknown, but it was of course prior to the first deed referred to above, which was dated Oct.
Robert Guthrie, (above) second child and eldest son of William Guthrie and wife, Elizabeth, is mentioned as having lands adjoining those inherited by James, his brother, from their father William. Land records were not well kept for the earliest settlers, but in the book: Scotch-Irish Migration to South Carolina, by Jean Stephenson, Shenandoah Publ. Several years after William settled in this valley, he was joined by another Scottish family that had just arrived from Pennsylvania, where they had stayed only long enough to fit out some wagons and move down the same trail to the Waxhaw, as did the Guthries. Our Robert was born 22 Oct 1756, and as mentioned above, we are not certain where his birth occurred, but it is believed to have been back in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Eventually, as the Revolutionary War came to South Carolina, Robert joined on the side of the American Patriots, and so did the three Jackson boys. While a transcript of the complete application for the widows pension of Mary Taylor Guthrie, can be read in the other part of this web-site, a brief recap of the basic information can be had in the Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution, by Bobby Gilmer Moss, Genealogical Pub.
The summary of his military history, given above, also includes the name of his wife and their marriage date. Not only was Andrew Jackson a close neighbor of the Guthries from their early childhood, but during the war, there was some excitement in the local community caused by another famous man. Robert and Mary (Taylor) Guthrie, were married on March 9, 1780, during the Revolutionary War and almost immediately Robert was called away to fight the British (June 25, 1780; and again the following spring, on April 24, 1781). By 1792, so many people had come into the Kentucky region that they were able to petition the US congress, and were granted statehood, as the 15th state of the Union. Immediately following the Revolutionary War thousands of Americans began flowing westward to claim new lands in the trans-Appalachian wilderness of Kentucky and Tennessee.
By 1799, many of the very earliest residents had spent all their means trying to defend their land titles, and had lost. In time, Robert and Mary made one last move, not far away, to a place near Paris, Henry Co., TN, where they lived out their remaining years. In about 1820, John and Elizabeth had heard of new lands opening up in a portion of what had previously been known as a€?Louisiana Territorya€? (from the purchase Thomas Jefferson made from Napoleon) but had just recently been made the newest state of the Union--Missouri. Stone was broken, lying flat on the ground in an overgrown area, about 300 feet SW of John Geerya€™s home. Our Guthrie family origin comes from Scotland.A  To begin with, we will insert a quotation from American Guthrie and Allied Families, compiled by Laurence R. A A A  With these statements pro and con before him, the reader is left to his own conclusions. A A A  Filed with these deeds is the following valuable family record, which gives the children of William, Sr. A A A  The date of death of William Guthrie, Sr., is unknown, but it was of course prior to the first deed referred to above, which was dated Oct. A A A  Robert Guthrie married March 9, 1780, in South Carolina, Mary Taylor, who was born Dec. William Guthrie moved his family from Pennsylvania to South Carolina.A  They eventually settled in the Waxhaw Valley. The summary of his military history, given above, also includes the name of his wife and their marriage date.A  Since this information was provided by his wife, we can assume that it is correct. On SEPTEMBER 9 we viewed the video a€?Heritage of Heresy,a€? which was produced by the Prairie Star UUA. The 2010 General Assembly of the Unitarian Universalist Association will be in Minneapolis.
If you have announcements, news, jokes, poems, or anything else youa€™d like to have in our November newsletter, please get it to Marie by October 31. We welcome everyone to our group, whatever your race, ethnic origin, religious perspective, sexual orientation, political philosophy, or economic condition. June 1944 This little book has been so neatly kept by our dear son Melvin before he was called into the service of his country (April 6, 1943) and had no further need for it as a cash and expense account, so I have decided to use it as a diary for our missionary work. Friday evening for Farmington to take a sister of theirs who had been visiting them for a week or two. An article in the Holbrook Tribune says he wears the Air Medal, the Three Oak Cluster, and European Theatre Ribbon. Among the mail this week was an announcement of Vern and Maxinea€™s baby (Stephen Leroy Nebeker, born Dec 6).
Imagine our surprise and joy to see Joe's nice car with Marva and the children, then our dear Navy boy, Maurice. Christmas 1945 It has been a long time since I wrote in this little book, (my main companion when I am alone) and a great many things have happened. Sometimes the children would want a tree, sometimes they wanted their stockings hung in a row on the mantel. We were not always quite so far behind, although Dad usually did make it in from the cattle ranch about dark on Christmas Eve, then would have to go after that to Bro.
7 June 1945 -- on the 40th wedding anniversary of Rhoda and Ira.a€?This was also the last time the entire family was ever together at one time.
Friday evening for Farmington to take a sister of theirs who had been visiting them for a week or two.A  This lady, Mrs. Chicago and selecting FDR for a 4th term.A  He seems to be the only man for the place at present with the war on. A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia. In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe. According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith.
In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business.
They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East.
An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe.
Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans. The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan. Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns.
New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration. The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained.
And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory.
Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different.
However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased. The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries.
They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson.
From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade.
The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands.
At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king.
With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India.
Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy. One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia. One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world.
John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand. During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe.
Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established.
Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies. The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524.
In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France. By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War. The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean.
After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation. After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs. Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China). Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established.
Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age.
Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia. A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe. If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€??
Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts. The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot.
Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant. Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves.
Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language.
The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there.
Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a.
The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C. His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages.
A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas.
But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations.
But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings? On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain.
At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees. Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross. After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men. Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula. When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God.
Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control.
As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken. In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions. Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth.
Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America.
Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward.
De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City.
He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river.
Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain.
Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines. Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force. The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash. Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda.
De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas).
From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves.
As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery! For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate.
The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods.
A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade. The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain.
Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade. The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands. Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa.
Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands.
Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ. The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline. Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain.
Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline. The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean.
Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands?
What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century? What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way? What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner?
By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands.
Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed. Saint Rocco is staring impassively at me, pointing to a plague sore festering on his thigh. Nebbiolo is most commonly associated with Piedmont and the Langhe, land of Barolo and Barbaresco. Claiming ownership of the grape, Langhe winemakers were in for a big shock in 2006 when researchers from the University of Milan produced evidence that Nebbioloa€™s birthplace is not the Langhe, as had been widely thought, but either northern Piedmont (Alto Piemonte) or Valtellina. Nebbioloa€”called Chiavennasca in Valtellinaa€”has grown here for millennia, but the wine remains relatively unknown.
Maule also introduced narrow caterpillar tractors for pruning and helicopters for harvesting. Sfursat a€?is the maximum expression of Nebbiolo in Valtellina,a€? Maule says, and the 2009 and 1997 vintages of 5 Stelle he poured me over dinner were special indeed: at once intense and nuanced, with layers of red fruit, spice, and minerality. Though production is smalla€”50,000 bottlesa€”theya€™ve managed to make quite a name for themselves.
Tasting with Perego at the winery, Ia€™m even more smitten with Sassella Stella Retica ($40), a reserve (named after the edelweiss) that shows more concentrated woodsy fruit, and their scrumptious late-harvest Sassella Ultimi Raggi ($36). A A A  Nebbiolo is most commonly associated with Piedmont and the Langhe, land of Barolo and Barbaresco.
A A A  Claiming ownership of the grape, Langhe winemakers were in for a big shock in 2006 when researchers from the University of Milan produced evidence that Nebbioloa€™s birthplace is not the Langhe, as had been widely thought, but either northern Piedmont (Alto Piemonte) or Valtellina. A A A  Nebbioloa€”called Chiavennasca in Valtellinaa€”has grown here for millennia, but the wine remains relatively unknown. Diane Thodos is an artist and art critic and was a student of Donald Kuspit at the School of Visual Arts in New York City from 1987 to 1992. DK: I think ita€™s over for a lot of those people and one of the things I see happening is a return to tradition in a variety of ways (without mimicking it). DT: Regarding the postmodern problem I remember you once raised the question in class about why is it artists dona€™t allow themselves to go back to being influenced by a tradition.
DT: And at this point when you think of the incredible diversity that occurred (I remember you talking about the a€?Big Banga€? of Modernist creativity at the beginning of the last century around 1905 a€“ 24) we still have these rich aesthetic Modernist traditions that have barely scratched the surface of their possibilities in a sense.
DK: They probably do have emotions in their lives a€“ I dona€™t see how they couldna€™t a€“ but they split it off and deal with a€?official a€? issues of art. DT: You have often written about the exclusion of experiential depth in the great morass of conceptual art that dominates todaya€™s art world.
DK: Well, as you know certain groups a€“ for example October most notoriously - have attacked humanism quite explicitly. DT: Yes - referring to the title of the book written by Jacques Ellul The Technological Society.
DT: Yes - they are playing video games all the time, they are on the cell phone all the time, or constantly texting. DT: Like what Picabia was talking about when he had his Orphic ideas in painting and then transformed them into the Dadaist idea of the machine? DK: Most subtle, and the most complicated organ apparently ever created by nature from what I have read. I feel this writing reflects a historical a€?revisiona€? of Muncha€™s work that intends to desublimate the power of his work by making him into an everyday huckster.
DT: This brings me to the question a€“ do we have historical revisionism today thata€™s working as a means of not merely avoiding the presence of emotion in art, but being destructive of the importance of emotional sublimation in art? DK: What I would say has happened is the avant-garde a€“ avant gardism - has become institutionalized. DT: He was part of the Modernist movement even though he was complicit in horrible atrocities. DT: In the Leni Riefenstahl film Triumph of the Will it is interesting how rigidly the soldiers march in tight box formations. DT: And that hea€™s a hustler, that we are all the same, and that this is an everyday kind of thing. DT: Do you see shades of George Orwella€™s book 1984 when the Whitney Museum claims there is great diversity in art when there is just the opposite. DK: I am telling you he is getting the award this year - or why is Bruce Nauman in the Whitney Biennale? DT: Getting into a big subject here - on your suggestion I have read Jacques Ellula€™s book The Technological Society [first published in 1964] and was struck by his prophetic insight about the present.
DK: Not only do you get more and more efficient, is shuts out what you call the a€?dark areaa€? - it shuts out emotion, because emotion is inefficient.
DT: Ita€™s not like watching an Andre Tarkovsky film where you get this incredible Dostoyevskian poetic depth. DK: Ita€™s very interesting to see this a€“ the sets, the clothing, the environments they create - this Americana scene.
DK: When people talk about Americanization they are talking about standardization with a vengeance. DT: Do you feel, in reference to Jacque Ellula€™s book The Technological Society, that technique as an absolute standardization of means also relates to how artists have become these sort of glorified commercial producers of brand name products: in other words formatting the product to streamline the marketing system?


DK: Yes a€“ but remember when there used to be the Soho Guggenheim that was at the corner of Prince Street and West Broadway? DK: I dona€™t think they do this anymore, but the shoes are brought out every morning and exhibited like precious objects. DT: Is marketing as you see it a€“ the way this American Capitalist marketing system operates a€“ part of the efficiency of technique in a sense? DK: Unless you want to have success for five minutes after getting out of the program - ita€™s shorter than 15 minutes these days. DT: Conceptualism wants to create ita€™s own self-fulfilling propaganda and have no dialectical relationship outside of that? DK: He just stuck with it and made this special amalgamation of expressionism and the figure a€“ but he had the strength of will to do that. DT: So you need the strength of will to separate yourself from the things that do not give you the diversity of experience you need? DK: And there is the argument that Harold Rosenberg made in relation to Arshile Gorky, that his apprenticeship was good a€“ Picasso to Miro a€“ and his work was quite different from theirs, derivative but an interesting derivation at that. DT: Getting back to the issue of exclusion and censorship I remember once you talked about a€“ and I think ita€™s absolutely true a€“ in the late 80a€™s how women were starting to enter the art world more and more but their work was very novelty oriented in the neo-conceptual art mode. DK: It has been a lucky experience that I have met women artists in their 60a€™s who have been working for years and who I think are making pretty profound art.
DT: That is a very important point because their schooling would have dated from a time when you could learn techniques.
DK: What these artists have is also a persistent curiosity about learning and are knowledgeable about many other things. DT: So ita€™s like the stream of life is the effective force that brings the art along, as witness to it. DT: When I was a student here in New York at School of Visual Arts from 1987 a€“ 1989, one thing that confused me tremendously was how trends occurred in the art world.
DT: I was in New York from 1987 a€“ 1992 starting with two years graduate school when you were my teacher.
DK: Whatever you may think of Thatcher, Saatchi understood the connection of art and advertising in a way that even Warhol didna€™t a€“ the connection of art and publicity. DK:A  And art openings have an atmosphere a little different than if we met in a boardroom or a restaurant where we would eat, chat, or make our deal. DT:A  Everything is getting extremely distended and abstracted from any meaningfulness in terms of what is sold and what the art actually is.
Now in America the art may have to do with some sense of Puritanism - a sense of shame about a€?letting it all hang outa€? unless of course you got a TV camera in front of you. DT:A  Knowable human content is easier to grasp that the sort of attenuation of abstraction into, if you will, more and more of a conceptual mode?
DT:A  He had draughtsmanship, he loved Soutine, and you could see the lushness of the color.
DT:A  I remember very clearly the day in class you described the difference between the erotic and the pornographic.
DT:A  And also about how the Christian religion downgraded the body and split the body from the spirit, demonizing Eros. DK:A  They talked about how there was uncertainty that was entering the art auctions.A  Whata€™s the relationship between this blob and one and a half million dollars? DK:A  From a New York perspective the money seems to veil the art a€“ to be the clothing of the art. DT:A  This is the a€?technological societya€? where the media is in collusion with the promotion of this art.
DK:A  Look at how thick it is with advertisements filled with current art images with nice color and all that a€“ so therea€™s marketing. DK:A  All I can say is I know and respect those who know the money side and they say the whole thing is a Ponzi scheme. DK:A  So you can look, leta€™s say, at our Hoover vacuum cleaner man and you can analyze that a€“ you can do a very interesting interpretation of what thata€™s all about. DT:A  Well now they will go see a kitsch skull by Damien Hirst and it will be just as sensational, which is really a sad thing.
DK:A  Well, there is a wonderful thing - there is this Bonham Gallery and they are selling meteoritesa€¦.
DK:A  I looked at this stuff and I said to myself this is a terrific expression of sculpturea€¦ha!
DT:A  What about what the artist Otto Dix experience in WWI expressed in his War Series prints? DT: Another question- you had Theodore Adorno as your teacher and a very strong background in philosophy.A  Can you comment on how this enriched your approach to critical interpretation in a nutshell? DT:A  So in the Frankfurt School Adornoa€™s approach had a lot to do with dialectical thinking in philosophy and psychoanalysis. DT:A  It certainly is a voice which I find is distinctly different from your art criticism.A  How did your interest in writing this poetry develop and what were the motivating forces that brought it out in you? DK:A  Also some new things have been published on an online magazine, Per Contra, run by a wonderful literary person named Miriam Kotzin.
DT:A  I am always intrigued that there are different parts of oneself that have different needs that somehow extend themselves into other forms and types of spaces.A  Was it the growing up with the Germanic tradition in poetry that began your motivation?A  Was it French Symbolist poetry? DT:A  It is remarkable to see that you can occupy different dimensions of space within writing. DT:A  I enjoy the freedom that the poetry gives a€“ the emotional breath about it, the atmospheric breadth it has. DT:A  Well, it takes sitting down and reading poetry too, and sometimes the spoken element is different from just reading the words.
DK:A  This may not be what the official system loves, you may never get a museum show, but it will have its validity.
DT:A  I have this internal environment that is absolutely jam pack filled with things that have to be created. Scotland, where they were of the best middle class and interested in the manufacture of iron. Guthriea€™s American Guthrie and Allied Families, and back track just a bit to add more information about the progress of this family, that was not contained in the above account, or that was quickly skimmed over.
Jackson already had two sisters who lived in the Waxhaw valley with their families and this had always been their family destination when sailing to America.A  They found a place to claim as their own, but sadly, the father, Andrew, died shortly after their arrival, and just prior to the birth of his third son--Mar. James Adams during 1776 for a three-month tour against the Indians.A  In 1778, he was under Capt. 20 Worked most of the day putting up curtains and making other arrangements for housekeeping, also wrote some letters to the children. 22, June 1944 Wrote some more letters to let our friends know of our whereabouts and got them on their way in Friday's mail. 28 I have been laid up today with my foot which has bothered me ever since my accident. 4 Independence Day, but how different from what I have known since a little girl when I used to love so much to see the old red white and blue unfurled. 30 It was decided at the end of a hard day that I would get in the Wilkin's car and go on to conference. 12 Even if most of the people did go away (to an Indian celebration in Gallup) we had a nice meeting after all. 21 We left for home (Taylor) to attend Conference and the dedication of our new Chapel. 11 About noon we received a message that Gerald, and Zelda were in Taylor and wanted to know if we could come. 24 (After visiting Grant, Florene and family in Clarkdale and returning to Prescott) Christmas Eve.
12 Wash day, and what a merry time we have, poking, sizzling, then letting them drip dry.
14 Had a little Valentine party for some of the children and their mothers and served lunch. 1 March Have been working on a little blue & pink quilt to send to Melvin and Marie for the darling little stranger that is soon to bless their home.
25 How I wish I could have my dear little twins (Maurice & Marva) where I could spend their birthday with them. 15 May 1945 Have received word of the passing of our dearly beloved President Heber J. 4 July Not a note of music, not even a firecracker, Dad says, to remind us of Independence Day. 7 Next comes packing our duds, food and dishes and leaving for our camping grounds (for a Church Conference.) Oh, what a beautiful location we find, a perfect grove of oaks, cottonwoods and pines, with a little stream of sparkling cold water from a spring flowing languidly by, and a profusion of lovely wild flowers everywhere. 8 July 1945 What a beautiful forenoon session we had, good speaking, good singing, a sweet peaceful spirit was felt everywhere.
11 Ever since yesterday morning the radio news has been entirely centered around Japan. 12 For two weeks the Indians have been preparing for a dance, hauling wagon loads of green boughs to pile around for shelter for their camp. 14 Aug 1945 Today has been one of the most important perhaps among any that has come to our war-torn world. 15 All of our Indian friends met to celebrate at Obery Francisco's about three miles up on the mountain. 23 We have had quite a nice experience in our trip to the 1st Mesa, to the ancient Oraibi.
Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe.
Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan.
Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty). They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf. They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency. Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo). China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers.
The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers. Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy.
The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping.
They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948.
In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution.
Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish.
Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents. By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves. They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China. Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes.
Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D.
In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time.
It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants. At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean.
Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education.
Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest.
His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia. The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain. The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas.
He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor).
We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon. Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific. And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast.
A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci. Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he? Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture. In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman. Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white.
He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland.
Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind.
Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God.
In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences. Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English. Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank.
Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags. As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts. So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint. In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy. Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort.
On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade.
He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks.
Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse. It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world.
He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men.
They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific.
In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold. They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business. They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so.
What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa!
The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom. From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color.
Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah.
In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain. What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World?
In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal? Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs? Valtellina, a 68-mile valley on the Swiss-Italian border, remains the largest terraced vineyard area in Italy. The fact that Langhe Nebbiolo gets the glory is partly the result of Italya€™s political history. In 2007, Gambero Rosso named him Winemaker of the Year and his 5 Stelle Sfursat di Valtellina ($70)a€”an Amarone-style Nebbiolo made from semi-dried grapes, which Nino Negri was the first to commercialize in 1983a€”the Best Red Wine of Italy. Nino Negri sources its grapes from all five subzones: Inferno, Sassella, Grumello, Vagella, and Maroggia. Founded in the 1860s, it was making 6-million bottles in 1973a€”the year Guido Pelizzatti Perego died. Guidoa€™s granddaughter, Isabella Pelizzatti Perego, relates the history as wea€™re standing on a terrace in Grumello surveying whata€™s left.
I first tasted their Rosso di Valtellina ($35) at a frienda€™s behest, who got tipped off by the savvy folks at Chamber Street Wines. Since 2007, all fermentation happens in wood, and maceration is longa€”from 15 days for the Rosso to 40 or 50 days for the reserves. Perego recites the dismal numbers: a€?Vineyard territory was at 5,000 hectares at the end of 1900s. After several torturous switchbacks on the paved road, I turn onto a weathered lane thata€™s no wider than a donkey cart.
Wea€™re traipsing around a prized viticultural subzonea€”one of five in the Valtellina Superiore DOCG. A The Rijka€™s museum exhibit of Damien Hirsta€™s Skull is also an attempt to destroy the authentic art that was already there in the museum.
A Originally he had set up his print shop Studio 17 in Paris where a lot of the avant-garde artists there came to print. A I was very confused about how it operated - what was its modus operandi.A  By that time in the late 1980a€™s anti-art already had a very strong hold within the art world.
A I needed someone who could give me some real answers.A  I recall you had once criticized certain art of the 1980a€™s as being the equivalent of junk bonds.
The problem, maybe, today because of both the society of the spectacle and because of the anti-art tendency anti- aesthetic tendency, is that ita€™s become confused. A Art is the certain moment when you reach an idea of the transvaluation of values, and the thing acquired a certain value.A  Now, whatever else is going on, say, with Mr.
Ita€™s a dialectical integration of opposites and it carries forward into psychoanalytic thinking which is where a lot of Adornoa€™s ideas come from a€“ conflict theory. Francisco and boys were here, wanted gas stamps to take them to see their brother & son who is over the mountain. 1945 Marva was taken to the hospital where a little boy baby was born at 3:30 PM (Richard Lee Kinatedar). Wakefield, filled a mission to these same people as early as 1877, in connection with Ira Hatch, for whom L. A But he promised me on his returnA back to the United States I would be the first media personality to interview him in New York City.A  I never will forget how confident he was that he would return victorious. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East. Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China. It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain.
European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia.
Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans.
Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates. Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants. This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia.
Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line.
Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium. In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec. In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson. Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D. So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed. Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge. It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal. The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward.
He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic.
Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks.
There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble.
He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient.
He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world.
I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida.
Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was. A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right.
This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses. Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost. They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it.
And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him. Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees.
The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade.
They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage.
As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled.
Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away.
Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises. The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church. Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea. The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer. Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans.


The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents.
Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch.
Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. Whata€™s caught my attention is the unique landscape behind him: row upon row of terraces that rise up a steep mountain, all sprouting grapevine hieroglyphs. On its slopes are 1,500 miles of drystone wall, built from shards hacked off the mountain and alluvial stones hauled up from the valley floor. The architects of Italya€™s unification in 1861 were from Piedmont, and they happened to be big champions of Barolo and winemakers themselves.
The bottom fell out of the Swiss market, their most important, after Switzerland eliminated favored-nation tariff exceptions for Valtellina products. So any move it makes has deep ripple effects.) In the cellar, he reduced maceration times and replaced huge vats with French barrique, taking a page from Barolo modernists Elio Altare, Domenico Clerico, and Paolo Scavino. As much as the technological advances Nino Negri introduced, the Sfursat DOCG helped save Valtellina.
Each has its own characteristics, and some of Negria€™s Valtellina Superiore wines play up the specific zone, such as Inferno ($25) and Le Tense Sassella ($38). Here, the earth was pushed up in an explosion that formed the Alps, so therea€™s silex and quartz in the soil, whereas Piedmont is all alluvial,a€? having been under sea.
Though his son Arturo had worked by his side, the other heirs wanted the money, not the business, so they sold everythinga€”the brand, the wine in the cellar, the landa€”except for some vineyards. The top wines mature in oak for four years (the DOCG requires only two), then rest for three years in bottle. Yes, this goes the length of Sassella, Ia€™m told by a woman walking her doga€”and yes, ita€™s for two-way traffic.
He fled France because of the invading German army during World War II.A  He had been producing pamphlets in his print shop on how to blow up German tanks. A Many came to Studio 17 to have contact with members of the European avant-garde who they revered. A I believe anyone could study there as long as you were a serious printmaker and you followed his instruction making the experimental test plate.A  At the time Hayter did not have a high profile status the way DeKooning and Pollock did.
A A In todaya€™s art world do you see the work of Jeff Koons and those like him being similar to toxic assets - both financially and spiritually - to use a current terminology? Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans. At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580. Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith.
He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli.
Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus. However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants.
Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials.
They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea.
And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore.
As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology. Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person.
Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout.
In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies.
He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message.
That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land.
In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power. He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father.
The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. In 1563, when this fresco was painted, those terraces would already have been hundreds of years old, ancient engineering marvels even then and a distinguishing feature of this alpine landscape. Italya€™s first Prime Minister, Count Camillo Cavour, sought to create a piemontese equivalent of Burgundy, while the King of Piedmont fell so hard for Barolo that he bought a couple of Langhe castles with vineyards to keep his cellars stocked. In the vineyard, he upended tradition by replanting vine rows in an east-west orientation, parallel to the slope. Therea€™s simply no escaping the fact that working on these steep, narrow terraces is backbreaking. As a result, he continues, a€?our wine is not fat, round, robust, but just the opposite: nervous, angular, in need of the calm and tranquility of several yearsa€™ refinement in wood to soften. Thata€™s a lot of years, but ita€™s just what the doctor ordered to calm Nebbioloa€™s racy nervatura.
I inch along, alternately terrorized by the heights (the guardrail seems no more secure than a satin ribbon) and enraptured by the terracesa€™ harsh beauty. Hugh Coffee and Colonel Kershaw and was in the battles at Rocky Mount and Sumtera€™s Surprise. Francisco says if we leave he will give his three sons, belonging to the Church, back to the Catholics. The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines).
The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada. Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes. But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way? At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord.
Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church.
Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. This introduced shade into the viticultural toolkit; by keeping or removing leaf canopy, the amount of direct sun hitting the grapes could be precisely controlled. Since developers couldna€™t build houses on this steep stony slope, Arturo was able to buy this parcel back and start anew in 1983 with his 11 hectares of vineyards. Though ita€™s the Alps, the sun scorches and heat radiates off the granite outcroppings and stone walls. Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road. Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands.
This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration? I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa.
She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. They barely even know it in Milan,a€? which is rather scandalous, given that Milan is just two hours down the highway, on the far side of Lake Como.
The results were troubling: cellars full of wine that didna€™t sell, growers giving up property, vineyard acreage shrinking, terraces crumbling. Though this landscape seems so solida€”drystone on mountain, granite on granitea€”ita€™s actually a fragile place. 1842; after which he married a 4th time, Jane Pittman, who was about 17 years younger than the aging John, and she outlived him. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe. Ferlinghetti when, at ninety years of age, he read at City Lights Books in San Francisco, and signed that very edition of the magazine for me, inspiring me all over again.A A On this website, you'll not only find photos, videos and more that have to do with my life as an author, but other things that are important to me, too. But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills. From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia.
A I enjoy hearing from people who've read my work, attended one of my workshops or conferences, or whom I've met at one event or another.A  I'm always interested in people who live somewhere I don't or think differently than I do. 16, 1767--who was also named Andrew Jackson, in honor of his deceased father, and who grew up to later become the President of the United States. Elizabeth Hamstreet, mother of five little children, and whose husband is in the army, called on me and brought me some flowers. So if we have to invest a lot to make ourselves better known, we dona€™t have enough wine to serve.a€? A dilemma indeed. As unlikely as cactus would seem at this latitude, they have other Mediterranean companions: palms, agaves, capers, rosemary. I spend some time every day if I can on social networking sites, because the world and the people in it are all interesting. The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. A My second week at the course I got in early and became bored while waiting for my homeboys.
Oh, well, the relationship didn't work, but I did get to see some beautiful places.Photo taken of me by a local (unknown) photographer when I was 23 years oldA Once, I was on the northern border of Greece with my twelve-year-old son during a time when it was a war zone.
We were there because I needed to attend a very important book convention in Salonika, and didn't want to leave my son behind. The next week, a hijacker from one of the warring factions killed a young Greek passenger on the same route we'd taken only the week before. A My teammates and coaches were often challenged by my "Just give me the ball and get the hell out of my way" attitude. A I was not the best athlete on the field or on the court, but I thought I was.A When the game was on the line I wanted the ball in my hands. To see some really adorable ones who posed for me while reading one of my books, check out the FUN AND FREEBIES PAGEA Dancing at my engagement party.
It's fine if you think your mom's is better, but still --- this is not a boast ---- my tiramisu and salsa puttanesca are legendary. A A It was a hot evening and the constant in and out of the woods was not a pleasant undertaking. What I thought would be a nine-hole outing turned into eighteen holes and a White House visit and a Presidential appointment in 1969. General William Rogers, Hattie, President Nixon and HBA Petey and I would become great friends and in 1965 we would meet again.
A  A I keep in touch with many of my former pupils, some from as far back as thirty years ago. A The United Planning Organization a self-help community organization was hiring "Neighborhood Workers." A They hired three, me, Petey and H. A Two years later Rap would be named Chairman of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. A I would become a Roving Leader (Youth Gang Task Force) for the DC Recreation Department and Petey would find his new home in radio at WOL. A Three UPO "Neighborhood Workers" would go on to establish their own independent idenities. A Petey would win 2 Emmy Awards and in 2007 there was a feeble attempt to do his life story on the big screen. He is now in jail serving a life sentence for the murder of a black Deputy Sherrif in Fulton County, Georgia. Brian McIntyre.A  He was sitting almost alone and there was no one waiting in line (compared to today's media circus). A  I looked down and notice that all the white media were seated on one side of half-court and all the blacks were seated on the other side of the half-court line. He stepped in front of me and said "I got it."A It would be the start of the 4th quarter that Mark returned to the press table table and apologize for his unprofessional actions.
A There were other mistakes like someone thought a black Judy Holland was VP material---far from it.
A It took a minute but in the meantime, he was making an effort to bring about change in his own way. A But according veteran (32 years) sports writer Bill Rhoden of the New York Times, progress in sports media pressrooms around the country are on a slow boat to China.A His recent appearance on the widely acclaimed television news show Meet the Press, he said, "the NBA, NFL and MLB are still dragging their feet. Media pressrooms at Deadline are still the last plantations.A A Pioneering broadcaster and former NBA CBS basketball analyst Sonny Hill and now a sports talk show host on WIP Radio in Philadelphia said, "I am not surprised by Rhoden's statement, very little has changed in media pressrooms.
A One of the problems there is no networking among blacks who have moved it up the ladder." A That is an understatement. A  The copy rights for Inside Sports is own by News Week Magazine and it is own by the Washington Post. A A First, there was a a problem with the PR Men from hell, Brian Sereno and Matt Williams. A A It was brought to my attention that Sereno was disrespecting the ladies of The Roundball Report. A The meeting was set before a Wizard's game in the press louge but Scott Hall was the lead man. A He listened and we disagreed on some points but when we walked away from the table we were on the same page.
A The community and everyone in it was a friend, the old and the young, the black and the white and the healthy and the lame.
A I was honored to speak at his retirement held at the arena just before the Bullets moved to Washington and changed their name to the Wizards.A Denny Gordon was in ticket sales and it seem like he knew everyone who brought a ticket. A He was made the scapegoat after being sold out by his assisstant coach Bernie Bickerstaff and others.
A The meeting revolved around a charity all-star game scheduled for the Bahamas, the island home of NBA star Mycal Thompson. A Magic Johnson was one of All-Stars participating.A Representatives from the NBA included VP Ron Thorne, Legal Counsel Gary Bettman and head of security Horace Balmer. A A Gary Bettman is the Commissioner of the NHL, Thorne is somewhere lurking in the NBA, Balmer has since retired and Magic is a role model for Black America? A A The short lived existence of basketball legend Michael Jordan as a Wizard's player and Executive in the front office. A After the story broke he and several teammates made light of it during introductions of a game.
A He was eventually suspended for most of the 2009a€“10 season.A The thing that I find disturbing about this Donald Sterling charade is that folks are acting like they were surprised by his rants against blacks. A A I also notice the same "Old faces and voices" are called on to respond to the racist acts by men like Sterling---when they are a part of the problem . A He and Sterling were good friends because "Birds of a feather flock together." A  Check Magic's history out and you will discover the two have a lot in common. A Magic's claim to be a minority owner of the LA Dodgers is another sham (token black face). James Brown (CBS Sports) another mis-guilded brother claiming to be a minority baseball owner and an expert on racism.
A He did finally admit on the late George Michael Show (Sports Machine) "I have no say in making baseball decisions as a minority owner." A His role as a minority owner is to be paraded out on Opening Day as the black face to read the starting line-ups. A A This is the same Michael Wilbon that I had at least two recent conversations about the use of the N word as a term of endearment.
A I have to give him credit, he will at least talk to me face to face and not behind my back. A I tried to explain that his rationale that his grandfather's use the word as a term of endearment does not make it right today. A I told him he should not go on national television saying it is okay to use the N word among friends and family.
A It gives bigots like Donald Sterling the Green Light to do the same among his friends and family. A Plus, Michael told me he was not going to appear on the ESPN Show Outside the Lines because the white host had no horse in the race!
A A I wish that Magic, James, Michael and the rest of the media experts would defer to black men like Hank Aaron, Dr.
A But they wear the battle scars and have been on the front lines of the civil rights movement in real life and in the sports arenas of America. A In other words, they have been there and done that.A I guess that is wishful thinking, especially when everyone wants to be an expert on television.
A In the meantime, they don't know their asses from a hole in the ground but the beat goes on and on. A Auerbach would go a step further in the 1966-67 NBA season, when he stepped A down after winning nine titles in 11 years, and made Bill Russell player-coach. A A trailblazers, RED AND DOTIE AUERBACHi»? ON INSIDE SPORTSA Russell would eventually be the first black to win an NBA championship.
A There are far too many crying "Foul" and playing the victims in this charade, to include some NBA owners.A Let me start with my homeboy, the great Elgin Baylor who was the Clippers GM for over 2 decades. His teams were perennial losers on the court and in attendance, but he picked up his check every two weeks and kept his mouth shut. A A In his deposition, Elgin spoke about what he called Sterling's 'plantation mentality,' alleging the owner in the late 1990s rejected a coaching candidate, Jim Brewer, because of race. A Talking about an organization needing a change of name and a face-lift---meet Leon Jenkins.A Jenkins seen above at a press conference trying to explain why the li»?ocal branch was honoring Sterling during the 100th Anniversary of the organization next month. A A He explained the previous award had been approved by the man he replaced and he just went along to get along. A A Sterling won't be the first to sleep black and think white when it comes to sex, politics and money. Slave owners lived by the credo and in modern day history there was the late Senator Strom Thurmond.
A Nike NBA rep John Phillips and I met with VP Rod Thorn, League Counsel Gary Bettman and Head of League Security, Horace Balmer. A The meeting centered around whether Magic Johnson, Mycal Thompson and a group of NBA All-Stars would be allowed to travel to the Bahamas for a charity basketball game without league approval. The game had been played in the Bahamas the previous year without incident or controversy.A It was obvious that there was a power-play being made by the league office to cancel the game. Thorn open the meeting by asking who was going to be responsible if one of the players was hurt during the game?
A Magic suggested that the topic of conversation just might be centered around an injury to a player. I tried to explain that playing the game was no different then one of the players participating in a pick-up game on a New York City playground in the off season. A What is this some kind of plantation?"A The room went silent and Horace Balmer the only other black in the room just shook his head and seem to be lost for words. A Thorn called off the discussion and promised to get back to us but he never did.A In the meantime, Magic Johnson disappeared and changed his number.
A Mycal was a class act but his hands were tied when Magic decided to do his Houdini act.A Gary Bettman now runs the NHL, Ron Thorn is still in the NBA somewhere calling the shots, Horace Balmer has since retired and Magic is the face (black) in the middle of the Donald Sterling charade.
A When all is said and done, the real victim despite all of her baggage is the girlfriend (The Whistle Blower) V. A NBA Commissioner Adam Silver during his annoucement as it related to the punishment of Donald Sterling apologize to black NBA pioneers Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and Magic Johnson.
A He reminds me of the controversial Celebrity Chef Paula Deen who alledgely use The N word to describe her love for black folks. A  How should we expect her to know if she has never walked in our shoes ?A  When it is a part of your DNA it is difficult to rid yourself of the gene.A  A One morning I was watching Ms. This award was longed overdue and I wonder why it took the NAACP so long to finally recognized Mr.
Belafonte in accepting the award asked, "Where are today's black leaders?A  Our children's blood is still running in our streets---there is work still to be done.
The coalition stated it will urge President Obama to mention an urban jobs plan in his state of the Union speech on February 12th----Good luck! Ben Carson of John Hopkins University Hospital.A  His prayer and message was centered around health care, the economy, American debt, and tax reform, thus taking dead aim at President Obama's platform for the nation. Carson spend 25 minutes talking about the nation's ills and solutions with the President sitting less than 5 feet from him.A  When all was said and done, President Obama was not looking so Presidential!
Carson set the record straight from the very beginning.A  He made it clear he was not taking any wooden nickels. In 2010, he became that series' youngest driver and the first black driver to win a race at Greenville-Pickens Speedway. A close friend of mine that has been partially paralyzed by strokes, pays for aids to "help". If they show up, they usually just sit and do nothing, root through her jewelry and personal effects, and some have been caught stealing jewelry. One was there when she collapsed with another stroke, and instead of calling for help, she called her boyfriend and left, leaving her patient to manage on her own. It runs M - F from 10am - Noon and starting on Monday July 22 will repeat from 4pm - 6pm each day.
My opinions about Tiger Woods or any other issue are mine and I could give a damn about what Feinstein or anybody else things about them. In their prime at theA Washington Post, they were among the best sports writers in the country. A I was up close and personal with the sports department.A Kindred and Chad were talented writers but you could not trust them, Cornheiser and Feintstein's talent, they easily blended in with the landscape of the paper. A Feinstein called Wilbon the biggest ass kisser in sports media, if that is true he had great teacher in Cornheiser. A When Solomon tried to kick Cornheiser to the curve (fire him) in the 80s he was able to move to the Style section of the paper.
A One black female Washington Post columnist wrote a book titled "Plantation on the Potomac." A She was describing her employer. A Hopefully, they were asked to participate and were of the same mindset as Wilbon not comfortable with Mr. A Goodell makes more than any player in the NFL and he never has to make a tackle or catch a pass.A The owners recent pay out to the players for injuries suffered on their watch was peanuts compared to the billions they make year in and year out. A When he refused a request by his mother to cease using the word and a similar plea by poet Myra Angelo. Martin Luther Kinga€™s 1963 march on Washington and 46 years since his assassination in Memphis, Tenn. With the high-scoring Macauley, elite passer Cousy, and new prodigy Sharman, Auerbach had a core that provided high-octane fast-break basketball.
In the next years until 1956, the Celtics would make the playoffs every year, but never won the title.
Brown was desperate to turn around his struggling and financially strapped franchise, which was reeling from a 22a€“46 record.[5]A The still young but already seasoned Auerbach was made coach. A Nike NBA rep John Phillips and I met with VP Rod Thorn, League Counsel Gary Bettman and Head of League Security, Horace Balmer.A The meeting centered around whether Magic Johnson, Mycal Thompson and a group of NBA All-Stars would be allowed to travel to the Bahamas for a charity basketball game without league approval. A He was right on point.A To this day I think Magic had a previous discussion with the league office.
James Gholson, Red Auerbach, Biff Carter, Jessie Chase, Morgan Wooten, Everett Cookie Payne Sr., Frank Bolden, Dr. Leo Hill, Roper McNair, Earl Alfred, Maxwell Honemond, Tilman Sease, William Roundtree, Charlie Baltimore, Jaky Mathews, Ferdinand Day, Nick Turner, Walter Brooks, Ted McIntye, and my saviors, Dave Brown and Bighouse Gaines.A  They knew their Xs and Os, but more important, they were there for our highs and lows.A  Where have all those flowers gone?
We never could have made it without them.I have given up on the Pigskin Club, but keeping hope alive for the DC Recreation Department and the Roving Leader Program.
BELL 12-25-1940---8-1-2013A A GOOD COP WHO BROKE THE CODE OF SILENCE IN THE WASHINGTON, DC POLICE DEPARTMENT.
A The real Serpico is seen leaving the Bronx Courthouse alone after testifying before the Knapp Commission on wide spread police corruption in the department. A In the old days police A would carry a "drop knife---an inexpensive weapon cops would bring along on patrol to drop onto or next to suspect that they had taken out so that they could say that he had threaten them.
A Today you don't even need to do that; all that you have to do is justify the use of deadly force if you are a police officer is to say that you feared for your life, for whatever reason. If the victim dies, that just means there will one less witness around to contradict the test-lie. A In the case of Officer Michael Slager of the North Charleston police, it appears he was being extra-carefulto cover his tracks.
A Probably he could have gotten away with simply declaring, as he did in the radioed report, that Walter Scott "took my taser," and that would have probably have sufficed to exonerate him. A But Slager having shot Scott eight times in the back--as everyone can see in the now famous video--perhaps felt that he needed a little help explaining what he was up to.
A So apparently dropped his Taser next to Scott's body, which would obviously help to make the case that Scott "Took my taster."A If you think that what happen in North Charleston is a unique case, its not. A Only recently, in another case, a policewoman in Pennsylvania first Tasered a black man then shot him twice in the back as he lay face down in the snow.
A Unless honesty is rewarded more often then corruption, the police will lose credibility altogether. A I wrote a letter to President Bill Clinton in 1994 addressing this very issue, saying that honest cops have never been rewarded, and maybe there ought to be a medal for them, he wrote back but nothing change.
A If enough testi-lying is uncovered, then who is going to believe the police even when they are telling the truth? A A Until now the shoot first fear of my life mantra has eliminated any cause for concern in the taking of life by police. A When a civilian committs a crime, every nuance is looked at, the better to "throw the book at" the suspect. A The other day I got a letter from a journalist in Argentina who was complaining about police and judicial corruption there. A I wrote back to him, there are good cops, even where you live, but if the good cops don't want to be painted with the same broad brush as the bad cops, they need to come forward and expose the guys who are doing bad things. A Take New York City detective who was caught on camera recently abusing an Uber driver with threats and foul language, A This was truly disgusting behavior. Yet predictably enough the detective union leader, Michael Palladino, was out there making excuses for him, suggesting that, well, it was only one incident, and everyone has a bad day. A Afterward Police Commissioner William Bratton announced he was removing the detective's shield and placing him temporarily on desk duty while an investigation is conducted . A But this man needs to be demoted to uniform at the very least, or "back in the bag" as we use to say. A Imagine what he is capable of doing under the cover of darkness if he can talk to someone like that in broad daylight.
A There are plenty legitimate incidents where police believe, correctly, that their lives are in danger. A I was in a few of those situations myself during the course of my career.A But unless the police forces and society as a whole take action we're not going to be able to distinguish between the legititimate claims and made-up testimony. A A long time ago Norman Rockwell painted a famous picture of a friendly neighborhood cop bending down to help a little boy. A For example; I could name someone who is a great athlete but a lousy human being or I could name someone who is a great human being but not a great athlete. A Heading the list is Muhammad Ali (The Greatest), Red Auerbach (NBA), Dave Bing (NBA), Lenny Moore (NFL), Bert R.
Sugar (Boxing), Lee Jones (NBA), Roy Jefferson (NFL) and Harold McLinton (NFL), finding pro athletes like them today are far, few and in-between. A And that is a sad commentary when you think about the hundreds of men and women I have interviewed on Inside Sports and worked with as a youth advocate (Kids In Trouble). Moore, LB Dave Robinson (2013 NFL Hall of Fame inductee) and WR Roy Jefferson host KIT toy party.
A Sam Jones (NBA), Lenny Moore (NFL) and Roy Jefferson (NFL) participate in KIT clothing drive for needy children at Union Station.
A Bert Sugar (Boxing) receives KIT Life Time Achievement Award and Dave Bing (NBA) pays tribute to KIT Saturday Program All-Stars.I had the opportunity to hear an interview on Sirius A XM Radio (channel 126) on the Maggie Linton Show recently, her guest was NFL Washington Pro football player, wide receiver Peirre Garcon. A I have not been very impressed with todaya€™s pro athletes and their give back commitment to their family, friends and community. A He has three older sisters making him the youngest and the only one born in the United States.His father died when he was 4 years old leaving his mother to raise him and his 3 sisters alone. A My background is similar to Peirrea€™s, my mother had to raise 4 boys alone with an assist from Grandma Bell.



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