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2) Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) - From what is now Lebanon, wanted to rejuvenate the Ottoman caliphate.
He made no statements opposing Islamic supremacism, but he is called a Reformera„? for denying the way things are like so many today. 3) Muhammad a€?Inayat Allah Khan (1888- 1963) - Born in Punjab, founded the Khaksar Movement, a Muslim separatist group.
The astonishing similaritiesa€”or shall we say the unintentional similarity between two great mindsa€”between Hitlera€™s great book and the teachings of my Tazkirah and Isharat embolden me, because the fifteen years of a€?strugglea€? of the author of a€?My Strugglea€? [Mein Kampf] have now actually led his nation back to success.
Mashriqi emphasized repeatedly in his pamphlets and published articles that the verity of Islam could be gauged by the rate of the earliest Muslim conquests in the glorious first decades after Muhammada€™s death - Mashriqia€™s estimate is a€?36,000 castles in 9 years, or 12 per daya€?. 4) Hajj Amin al-Husseini (~1896 - 1974) - Studied Islamic law briefly at Al-Azhar University in Cairo and at the Dar al-Da'wa wa-l-Irshad under Rashid Rida, who remained his mentor till Ridaa€™s death in 1935.2 3 Perhaps more a politician than a sharia scholar, he is on this page because of his authority and longtime influence as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem beginning in 1921. 5) Sheikh Muhammad Mahawif - was Grand Mufti of Egypt, in 1948 issued a fatwa declaring jihad in Palestine obligatory for all Muslims.
6) Sheikh Hasan Maa€™moun - Grand Mufti of Egypt in 1956 issued a fatwa, signed by the leading members of the Fatwa Committee of Al Azhar, and the major representatives of all four Sunni schools of jurisprudence. There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and hadith urging Muslims to value war and to fight. 10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010.
BBC said Tantawi a€?is acknowledged as the highest spiritual authority for nearly a billion Sunni Muslimsa€?.
He devotes a chapter to the various ways Allah punished the Jews, among them changing their form. 1996 - 30 years later was appointed Grand Imam at Al-Azhar U., then met in Cairo with the Chief Rabbi of Israel. President of many influential orgs, founder and president of the International Association of Muslim Scholars which issues many fatwas.
During the Arab Springa„? in February 2011, after Mubarak's fall his return to Egypt for the 1st time since he was banned 30 years before drew the largest crowd since the uprising began - over 2 million.
He said he worked with and was influenced by Hasan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, where he is a longtime spiritual advisor, and in 1976 and 2004 turned down offers to be the Brotherhooda€™s highest-ranking General Leader. Report on Goma€™a: a€?A fatwa issued by Egypta€™s top religious authority, which forbids the display of statues has art-lovers fearing it could be used by Islamic extremists as an excuse to destroy Egypta€™s historical heritage. 15) Sheikh Gamal Qutb - The one-time Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar on K- 4:24, and sex with slave girls. 19) Sheikh 'Ali Abu Al-Hassan - Al-Azhar University Fatwa Committee Chairman on suicide bombing in 2003. 21) Sheikh Hassan Khalid (1921 - 1989) - Sunni jurist, elected Grand Mufti of Lebanon in 1966 where he presided over Islamic courts for 23 years.
Tibi said, "First, both sides should acknowledge candidly that although they might use identical terms these mean different things to each of them. Muslims frequently claim that a€?Islam means peace.a€? The word Islam comes from the same three-letter Arabic root as the word a€?salaam,a€? peace.
23) Majid Khaduri (1909-2007) - Iraqi jurist, Ph.D International law University of Chicago in 1938, member of the Iraqi delegation to the founding of the United Nations in 1945.
25) Hatem al-Haj - Egyptian, leading American Muslim jurist, MD, PhD, fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the author of this revealing 2008 Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America paper, which says the duty of Muslims is not to respect the laws of the country where they live, but rather do everything in their power to make the laws of Allah supreme.
Warraq says the main arguments of his book are few, since more than fifty percent of it is taken up by quotations from the Koran, from scholars like Ibn Taymiyya, from the Hadith, from Koranic commentators like Ibn Kathir, and from the four main Sunni schools of Law.
Defensive Jihad: This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and compulsory for all individuals. 28) Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (1939 - ) - Shiite jurist, Supreme Leader of Iran, he was #2 in a 2009 book co authored by Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims. 30) Sheikh Ahmed Kuftaro (1912-2004) - Grand Mufti of Syria, after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, yes to suicide attacks against Americans there. Grand Ayatollah Sistani (1930 -) - Shiite jurist and marja, the a€?highest authority for 17-20 million Iraqi Shia€™a, also as a moral and religious authority to Usuli Twelver Shia€™a worldwidea€?.
32) Saudi Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh (1940- ) - Saudi Grand Mufti, the leading religious figure of Saudi-based Salafi Muslims. 33) Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Lehadan, Chief Justice of the Saudi Supreme Judiciary Council, and a member of Council of Senior Clerics, the highest religious body in the country, appointed by the King. 34) Saudi Sheikh Wajdi Hamza Al-Ghazawi - preacher started a popular new website "Al Minbar. 35) Saudi Sheik Muhammad al-Munajjid (1962 - ) - well-known Islamic scholar, lecturer, author, Wahhabi cleric. 36) Saudi Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Sudayyis - imam of Islam's most holy mosque, Al-Haram in Mecca, holds one of the most prestigious posts in Sunni Islam. The Saudis boasted of having spent $74 billion a€?educatinga€? the West that Islam is a Peaceful Tolerant Religiona„?. 43) Mazen al-Sarsawi - popular Egyptian TV cleric comments in 2011 on what Muhammad said about IS&J.
46) Sheik Taj Din Al-Hilali - Sunni, Imam of the Lakemba Mosque, former Grand Mufti of Australia & New Zealand, Ia€™m not sure of his education but he is on this page because he was the highest religious authority there for almost 20 years. 47) Imam Anwar al-Awlaki - American imam, became a leading figure in Al Qaedaa€™s affiliate in Yemen.
Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (1971- ) - First Caliph of the new Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL) created in 2014. If youa€™ve been through this site then you dona€™t need Raymond Ibrahima€™s explanation why the a€?religious defamationa€? laws being called for internationally in 2012 would ban Islam itself and its core texts (One & Two) if they were applied with the same standard to all religions.
10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010.A  Grand Mufti of Egypt 1986 - 1996. Britain's foreign secretary met Cuban officials on Thursday on the first such visit to the island since 1959, for talks on boosting trade and tourism ties with the island. Philip Hammond's trip comes a month after US President Barack Obama's historic visit to the Caribbean nation, which is opening up to warmer ties with its old Cold War rivals. Hammond said in Havana that he was "the first UK foreign secretary to visit Cuba since the revolution" in 1959. His visit also follows meetings in recent months between Cuba's President Raul Castro and other top officials and leaders from the European Union.
Hammond met with his Cuban counterpart Bruno Rodriguez and signed several cooperation agreements with other government officials. Hammond said he wanted "enhanced bilateral cooperation underpinned by increased trade, increased investment and more tourists coming to Cuba" from Britain. Britain was the second-biggest source of foreign tourists to Cuba last year after Canada, with 160,000 Britons making the trip, he said. His ministry said earlier that he would sign a "bilateral agreement restructuring Cuba's debt to the UK," but Hammond did not comment about that during his news conference later in Havana. He also met with representatives from Cuban civil society and the British business community in Havana, the Foreign Office said.
In March, European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini became the highest-ranking EU official ever to visit Cuba when she traveled to Havana. She signed a deal to normalize relations with Cuba, including an agreement on human rights. Hammond's office said he, too, would broach the sensitive topics of human rights and social and economic reform in Cuba. Britain in 2010 launched a drive to strengthen its ties with Latin America and also backs the EU agreement with Cuba. Britain wants to "strengthen a bilateral dialogue where we're able to raise issues of concern to both sides in the spirit of free and open discussions", he added. British direct exports to Cuba - mostly dairy, pharmaceuticals and machinery - increased by nearly a third last year to the equivalent of about $36 million, Hammond said.
Indirect trade via companies based in third countries made the total even bigger, the British embassy in Havana added. The growth in trade coincided with the historic rapprochement between Cuba and the United States after 50 years of enmity stemming back to the Cold War. Analyzing the current mass bleaching event ravaging the Great Barrier Reef, researchers from the ARC Center of Excellence for Climate System Science found the effects of human-induced climate change had added one-degree Celsius of warming to the ocean temperatures. But should greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase, this extreme temperature will become the new normal within 20 years and cause similar mass bleaching events every two years, the as-yet unpublished findings show. That spells death for large swathes of the Great Barrier Reef as coral bleaching recovery rates are being overwhelmed by more frequent and severe mass bleaching events. Though the research is yet to be peer reviewed, the scientists took the unprecedented step of releasing their results early due to the grave nature facing the Great Barrier Reef from inaction. Coral reefs are one of the most important and productive marine ecosystems that the world depends on for tourism and fisheries sustainability. Coral bleaching occurs when stress such as heat caused the animal to expel the symbiotic algae, loosing vital nutrients and energy reserves, thus color, leading to the wide scale loss of productive habitats for fish. Recent research suggests corals with high levels of fat or other energy reserves can withstand annual bleaching events, which is critical to predicting the persistence of corals and their capacity to recover from more frequent events resulting from climate change. South African President Jacob Zuma should face almost 800 corruption charges that were dropped in 2009, a judge said on Friday, piling further pressure on the embattled leader.
A sizzling heat wave has claimed more than 300 lives in India, and officials have forbidden daytime cooking in some areas to prevent fires that have killed nearly 80 others. Three people were killed and 25 wounded when rebel-fired mortars hit a mosque in Aleppo as people were leaving Friday prayers, the Syrian state news agency SANA said on Friday The mosque was in the government-held Bab al-Faraj area of Aleppo.
A helicopter with 13 people on board crashed off western Norway on Friday, with rescue workers saying there was no sign of survivors but that the search was going on. A 94-year-old former SS sergeant has told a German court he is "ashamed" that he served as a guard in the Nazis' Auschwitz death camp and that he knew what was going on there but did nothing to stop it. Albania's governing Socialist Party says it has sued former prime minister Sali Berisha for calling on citizens to arm themselves.
It's a big day for nine-year-old Nepali schoolgirl Riddhima Shrestha and her three-year-old sister, Ishita, as they dress up in silk brocade and gold jewellery, preparing to wed a Hindu god.
The two sisters are among dozens of girls taking part in the "ihi" or "bel bibaha" ceremony - a coming-of-age ritual practised by Kathmandu's indigenous Newar community, whose customs combine elements of Hinduism and Buddhism. The two-day ceremony, usually held several times a year in the capital's historic durbar (royal) square, sees pre-pubescent girls "marry" the Hindu deity, Vishnu, symbolized by the local "bel" fruit. The centuries-old custom is believed to protect girls from the stigma of widowhood by ensuring that a Newari woman's first husband - the god - will inevitably outlive her mortal spouse. During the ceremony, girls hold the bel fruit, also known as a wood apple, in one palm and touch a statue of the god with the other, symbolically giving Vishnu their hand in marriage. The girl's parents also secure their place in heaven by performing "kanyadaan" - the practice of giving away one's daughter in marriage - according to the priests who conduct the ceremony. After the rituals end, with gifts for the bride followed by a feast for family and friends, it's back to school for third-grader Riddhima, who is the first of her classmates to go through the ceremony. The Supreme Court of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on Friday sentenced a Republic of Korea-born US citizen to 10 years of hard labor for alleged subversion and espionage activities.
Kim Dong-chul, who was born in 1953 in Seoul and emigrated to the United States in 1972, was charged with plotting to subvert the DPRK system, slandering the supreme leadership of the country and gathering state and military secrets. Running a trade company in Rason, a special economic zone in the DPRK, Kim started espionage in 2013 after coming into contact with several people from the ROK who tasked him with collecting top party, state and military secrets of the DPRK, including its nuclear facilities, nuclear tests and photographs of warships at repairing factories, according to the prosecutor. The ROK citizens from whom Kim took orders included a correspondent of Donga Daily, an official with the ROK's Ministry of Unification and a professor at Seoul National University, said the prosecutor.
He was also accused of illegally buying a DPRK-made mobile phone in the capital city of Pyongyang via his local employee and providing the phone to the ROK. Kim received donations from a Canadian church, gave them to kindergartens in Rason and took pictures of the local children accepting the donations, according to the prosecution.
He was arrested on Oct 2, 2015 as he was receiving an SD card that contained photos of local markets in Rason and documents about the DPRK's nuclear programs from a local resident in Rason whom he had bought off, said the prosecutor. Evidence was presented to the court including his passport, the SD card, a Nikon camera, a mobile phone he used to contact with the ROK citizens, text messages showing him receiving orders from them, documents handed over to him when he was caught, and pictures he had taken of military vessels.
The DPRK government has convicted a number of foreigners for anti-DPRK crimes in recent years, often making them publicly confess their actions before trying them in court. In March 2016, US student Otto Frederick Warmbier was sentenced to 15 years of hard labor for taking down a political slogan from a hotel in Pyongyang. In December 2015, the Supreme Court sentenced ROK-born Canadian pastor Hyeon Soo Lim to lifetime labor. A young man poses as a sleazy, bejeweled politician in a white suit, sitting atop a white horse surrounded by hordes of bodyguards while promising jobs and prosperity to the voters.
Luka Maksimovic and his friends started out to have fun, but the young pranksters have become a sensation - and have been elected to office - after finishing second in a local vote in a rundown industrial town in central Serbia. The success of the rookie citizens' group at last weekend's election in Mladenovac, outside Belgrade, seems to reflect widespread disillusionment with politicians in crisis-stricken Serbia and the desire for new, young faces still untouched by the corruption that has plagued all aspects of the Balkan country's political scene. Maksimovic described his alter ego - Ljubisa Preletacevic Beli - as the worst possible version of a typical Serbian politician: He is loud and dishonest, owns a shady business and obeys no rules. During campaigning, Preletacevic parodied Serbia's political reality: bare-chested, he saved children from imaginary danger, posed with small animals in his arms, handed out forged university diplomas and promised healthier sandwiches than his opponents. The group's election list, dubbed "Hit it Hard - Beli," won 20 percent of the votes, or 13 out of 50 or so seats in the municipal council - behind the ruling coalition of Prime Minister Aleskandar Vucic's populist Progressive Party but ahead of all the opposition parties in Mladenovac.
The future council members from the list include Preletacevic and Sticker, but also independent activists determined to change the situation in their town and serve as a control mechanism for the work of the local authorities. Draza Petrovic, editor of the liberal Danas daily and a satirical columnist, said the happenings in Mladenovac show that citizens increasingly have been turning to irony and satire as a form of opposition to the dismal reality of their everyday lives. Amid Serbia's recent economic crisis, Mladenovac has turned from an industrial hub into a worn-out town, where many of the 20,000 residents have been left without jobs after factories closed one after another.
Out in the streets, Mladenovac citizens laugh and wave as a cheerful, blue-eyed Preletacevic walks the town in his white suit, his hair bundled on top of his head. Luka Maksimovic, who assumed the character of a bejeweled politician in a white suit during municipal elections, walks with his associates through the green market in the town of Mladenovac, outside Belgrade, Serbia, on Tuesday. Dozens of gawkers stood upwind of the carcass on Tuesday, examining it, marveling at it, and of course taking selfies with it. Its enormous tongue was so swollen that it bulged out of its mouth like a giant black balloon.
Authorities said on Wednesday the rotting carcass of the 30-ton gray whale would be cut up and trucked to a landfill. Beach Superintendent Rich Hardon said the work by an emergency contractor will begin on Thursday morning and take a couple of days at a cost of about $30,000.
Curiosity seekers have been visiting the beach, despite the stench, since the huge animal washed ashore on Sunday at Lower Trestles, a popular surfing spot.
Burial on the beach isn't feasible because the stretch is mostly cobblestones, Haydon said. The United Nations mediator on Thursday called on the leaders of the United States and Russia to salvage the "barely alive" two-month-old cease-fire in Syria and revitalize the damaged peace process. UN Special Envoy Staffan de Mistura voiced deep concern at the truce unraveling in Aleppo and at least three other hotspots, although he saw some narrowing of positions between the government and opposition visions of political transition. The US and Russia must convene a ministerial meeting of major and regional powers who compose the International Syria Support Group, he said.
The main opposition High Negotiations Committee pulled out of the formal talks a week ago, in protest at intensified fighting and slow aid deliveries. Bashar Ja'afari, who led the government delegation, said on Tuesday the round had been "useful and constructive".
De Mistura said this round of talks had been "overshadowed by a substantial and indeed worrisome of cessation of hostilities".
A day after Maduro announced his latest drastic measures to tackle power shortages in the recession-hit country, the opposition was gathering signatures for an official petition to launch a referendum.
Citizens queued up to sign, voicing anger at Maduro over a crisis that has led to power outages for four hours a day in most of the country, exacerbating an already disastrous economic implosion. The International Monetary Fund issued a stark warning on the state of Venezuela's oil-dependent economy, hit hard by the collapse in global crude prices. After daily power-cuts were imposed on Monday, looting was reported in several places including the country's second-biggest city, Maracaibo. Maduro on Tuesday announced enforced leave for public sector employees three workdays a week for at least two weeks in a bid to slash electricity use.
Vice-President Aristobulo Isturiz also said primary and high schools would be closed on Fridays. Electricity shortages have compounded an economic crisis that has left Venezuelans queuing for hours in shops to buy scarce goods. But the government has resisted using crude to generate electricity, calling it inefficient. April in Thailand is typically hot and sweaty, but this year's scorching weather has set a record for the longest heat wave in at least 65 years. The average peak temperature each day this month has been above 40 C, with the mercury spiking one day to 44.3 Cjust short of the all-time record. The heat wave has also fueled a new record for energy consumption and prompted health warnings on everything from foodborne illness to drowning, both of which rise every April when Thailand's hottest month coincides with school summer break.
On this very day, April 27, in 1960, Thailand posted its hottest day ever recorded with 44.5 C in the northern province of Uttaradit. Countries across Southeast Asia are feeling the heat, which scientists said is triggered by El Nino, a warming of parts of the Pacific Ocean that changes weather worldwide and tends to push global temperatures up. Thailand's Department of Disease Control has warned people to beware of food poisoning and other food-related illnesses that typically increase during hot weather when bacteria can thrive on unrefrigerated food. Oranges, watermelon, pineapple and other fruit get chopped up, mixed with fruit juice or water and is then frozen for the chimpanzees, orangutans and other primates.
The return to Paris of the last known survivor of those believed to have carried out the Nov 13 attacks in the French capital may help investigators untangle some of the still-unresolved questions about the assault, which claimed 130 lives at restaurants, a noted music hall and a sports stadium outside the city. Attorney Frank Berton told reporters that his client "volunteered that he would explain himself at some later date".
Abdeslam, a French citizen of Moroccan origin, spent four months on the run following the attacks and a month in Belgian custody after being tackled by heavily armed police outside his hideout in the Mollenbeek neighborhood of Brussels.
Abdeslam was extradited from Belgium to France earlier on Wednesday in what Berton described as a "muscular operation" involving an early-morning transfer from his cell in Belgium and a cross-border helicopter ride. The Paris attacks were carried out by three teams of assailants who blew themselves up or sprayed gunfire, and Abdeslam's testimony will likely prove significant to definitively linking the events that night - and in establishing how they fit in with the suicide bombings in Brussels that rocked the city on March 22.
Abdeslam faces preliminary charges of participating in a terrorist organization, terrorist murders and attempted murders, attempted terrorist murders of public officials, hostage-taking, and possessing weapons and explosives, French prosecutors said in a statement. French Justice Minister Jean-Jacques Urvoas had earlier said that Abdeslam would be placed in isolation, watched by guards specially trained to deal with "people reputed to be dangerous". Georges Salines, whose daughter Lola died at the Bataclan music hall, said Abdeslam's arrival in Paris had enormous significance for victims of the attacks. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea fired what was believed to be a Musudan intermediate-range ballistic missile on Thursday, but it appeared to have failed, the Republic of Korea's defense ministry said. Russia on Thursday successfully launched the first rocket from its new space facility after a last-minute delay the day before. Turkish authorities detained 15 people on Thursday in connection with a suicide bomb attack in the northwestern city of Bursa which wounded 13 people, Interior Minister Efkan Ala said. A woman who unexpectedly gave birth on a Jetstar flight has named her son after the airline, in a bizarre tribute to the flight attendants who helped deliver the child. A British couple and their son were savagely attacked during a family vacation in the latest blow to Thailand's image as a welcoming tourist paradise. Japan is abandoning a quarter-of-a-billion-dollar satellite it sent to study black holes, disappointed space scientists said on Thursday, after spending a month trying to save it.
After trekking nearly two hours through dense jungle, Brazilian government environmental special forces burst into a clearing where the trees had been sawed and a muddy crater dug: an illegal gold mine on indigenous land in the heart of the Amazon. The miners and gold were already gone, scattered by the whir of helicopter blades, but armed troopers in camouflage burned the tents and generators. The five-day operation last week, coordinated by Brazil's environmental agency Ibama and Indian foundation Funai, found 15 air strips and destroyed 20 barges used to transport equipment and supplies by the estimated 5,000 illegal miners in the vast remote region.
At more than 29.5 million hectares, the Yanomami people's territory is twice the size of Switzerland and home to around 27,000 indigenous people. The land has legally belonged to the Yanomami since 1992, but miners continue to exploit the area, sawing down trees and poisoning rivers with mercury in their lust for gold.
A study published last month by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, a public biomedical research group, found that in some Yanomami villages, 92 percent of residents suffered from mercury poisoning. High mercury exposure harms the nervous, digestive and immune systems, can lead to impaired vision and hearing, and can be fatal. Last week's raid was considered a success but Ibama's operation leader Roberto Cabral said the miners will probably be back. From a base in the Tepequem mountains on the frontier with Venezuela, three helicopters flew the 35-person team for an hour and a half to the banks of the majestic Uraricoera River.
From there it was another hour or two on foot, cutting aside branches and wading through waist-high mud, to reach the mines.
For Fiona Watson, who works for the activist group Survival International and has campaigned for the Yanomami since 1990, any long-term solution must be based on having more people on the ground, graver punishments and a focus on those hiring the miners and supplying equipment.
An agent takes cover as an illegal gold dredge burns down on the banks of Uraricoera River during an operation against illegal gold mining in the heart of the Amazon rain forest on April 15. So powerful was the indoctrination during his 20-month captivity in Iraq and Syria that the boy told his mother he wanted to stay at the camp where the Islamic State had trained him to kill "infidels", including his own people. Now in the relative safety of Kurdish-controlled territory, Murad's mother said how she had struggled to persuade her son - like other Yazidi boys being prepared for battle - to escape earlier this month with her and his little brother.
Yazidi boys appear to be part of broader efforts by the IS to create a new generation of fighters loyal to the group's ideology and inured to its extreme violence.
The IS captured Murad, his mother and brother in August 2014 at their village near the Iraqi town of Sinjar. The United States launched airstrikes against the militants partly to save the survivors and last month said the attacks on Yazidis, whose faith combines elements of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam, and other groups amounted to genocide. More than one third of the 5,000 Yazidis captured in 2014 have escaped or been smuggled out, but activists said hundreds of boys are still held.
Murad, wearing a jersey of the Spanish soccer club Real Madrid, sat with his mother on the floor of a Spartan trailer in Qadiya camp, twiddling his thumbs and resisting answering questions.
The IS dressed the boys in the same long robes they wore, and trained them how to use guns and knives. Around 750 other children have escaped in recent months but a few thousand more remain missing. Close to 200 dogs, including Golden Retrievers, Siberian Huskies, Rottweilers, Japanese Tosas and Korean Jindo dogs, paced in circles inside the small wire cages, barking furiously at their rescuers. The dogs in Gong's farm, one of thousands across the country, were bred specifically for consumption and confined in their cages from birth until slaughtered for their meat. Gong's business is the fifth and the largest dog meat farm to be closed down by the US-based Humane Society International, and Gong said he was happy to get out. A poll conducted by Gallup Korea last year showed that only 20 percent of men in their 20s consumed dog meat in the past year, compared to half of those in their 50s and 60s. Gong also noted that the increasing popularity of dogs as domestic pets had played a large part in reducing demand for their meat. The HSI rescued a total of 225 dogs last year, closing down four farms in what they call a "constructive and collaborative" approach to phase out an industry that has long been criticized by international animal welfare groups. In return for shuttering his business for good, a farmer receives up to $60,000 - depending on the number of dogs being bred - that can be used as seed money for a more "humane" farm, growing anything from blueberries to green peppers. Through its well-publicized rescues, HSI seeks to raise awareness about the cruelty of dog meat farms and "initiate a conversation with South Korean policymakers," the group's campaign manager Andrew Plumbly said.
South Korea is preparing to host the 2018 Winter Olympics, and Plumbly said the global publicity surrounding the event provided an opportunity to push for change. The South Korean authorities are sensitive to the negative publicity attached to the dog meat industry, and dog restaurants in Seoul were shut down ahead of the 1988 Summer Olympics.
Gong, who stumbled into the dog meat industry after many failed business attempts, admits he was "never proud" of his farm, which only ever earned him a modest living.
In a normal year, he would sell around 200 animals, with an average price - depending on size - of about $200. Running a dog farm in South Korea requires no special license, although Gong said there were regular government checks to ensure neighbors weren't being disturbed and dog waste was being properly disposed of. Gabriel Wildgen, right, and Abbey Herbert of the Humane Society International transfer a dog from a cage to a crate before transport during a publicized rescue event involving the closure of a dog farm in Wonju, southeast of Seoul, on Wednesday.
Australia's hard line immigration policy was thrown into turmoil on Wednesday after Papua New Guinea ordered a processing camp to close, leaving the fate of hundreds of asylum-seekers hanging in the balance. The move to shutter the Australian-funded Manus island facility follows a Supreme Court ruling on Tuesday that detaining people there was unconstitutional and illegal. Piling further pressure on Canberra, just weeks out from an expected election campaign, an Iranian refugee set himself on fire during a visit by UN officials to Nauru, the other Pacific nation where Australia sends boat people.


Four others on the tiny outpost reportedly attempted suicide by drinking washing powder on Tuesday.
Papua New Guinea's former opposition leader Belden Namah had challenged the Manus arrangement in court, claiming it violated the rights of asylum-seekers, leading to the center's closure. In a 34-page finding on Tuesday, the Supreme Court found that detaining them on the island was "contrary to their constitutional right of personal liberty".
Despite this, Australian Immigration Minister Peter Dutton remained adamant that none of the 850 or so men held there would come to his country and that the government's policy designed to deter others wanting to make the risky journey would not change.
Canberra currently has an arrangement with Cambodia, along with Papua New Guinea, to resettle those found to be refugees, although only a handful have taken up the option. Australian media have reported that it is also trying to negotiate deals with Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. The court ruled that Australia and Papua New Guinea must "take all steps necessary to cease and prevent" the continued detention of asylum-seekers and transferees on Manus. Earlier this month, the gurdwara in Peshawar's crowded Old City opened its doors to worshippers for the first time in 73 years.
On Friday, a Sikh leader and provincial lawmaker was shot and killed outside his home in a remote area in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province, some 140 kilometers from Peshawar. It also added to human rights activists' despair over rising violence against religious minorities in Pakistan. The Taliban claimed responsibility for the shooting of Sardar Suran Singh, but police disputed their claim, blaming the shooting on political rivalry and saying they had arrested the culprit.
Peshawar is a deeply conservative city at the foot of the mountainous Khyber Pass - once a popular route for traders and tourists traveling to nearby Afghanistan, now the focus of an extremist insurgency. The newly-opened gurdwara has a 24-hour Sikh Security detail as well as police guards, but their Muslim neighbors believe an attack is inevitable. Gohar Iqbal, a bookseller who works at a busy stall opposite the temple was certain the building would be targeted by militants. President Nicolas Maduro had already given most of Venezuela's 2.8 million state workers Fridays off during April and May to cut down on power consumption. Drought has reduced water levels at Venezuela's main dam and hydroelectric plant in Guri to near-critical levels.
Water shortages and electricity cuts have added to the hardships of Venezuela's 30 million people, already enduring a brutal recession, shortages of basics from milk to medicines and soaring prices.
Maduro, 53, who succeeded the late Hugo Chavez in 2013 and is facing an opposition push to remove him through a recall referendum, appealed for understanding and support.
After months of unscheduled outages, the government began programmed electricity rationing this week across most of Venezuela, except the capital Caracas, prompting sporadic protests in some cities.
Maduro has also changed the clocks so there is half an hour more daylight in the evening, urged women to reduce use of appliances like hairdryers, and ordered malls to provide their own generators. Regarding the public sector measure, the government is excluding workers in sensitive sectors such as food. UK officials announced on Tuesday that the famous bell of Parliament will fall silent for several months during repairs to its crumbling clock tower. The work, due to begin in January 2017 and last three years, is the biggest repair job on the tower for decades - and Steve Jaggs, Parliament's Keeper of the Great Clock, said it can't wait much longer. Jaggs said the $42 million renovation will include work to repair corrosion to the cast-iron roof and to stop water seepage that threatens to damage the stonework on the 160-year-old building. The huge clock, which has run almost uninterrupted since 1859, will be stopped for several months so that Parliament's clockmakers can work on the spring that holds the 4-meter pendulum and remove the hands from each of the four faces.
The 13.7-ton Big Ben bell will cease to sound the hours while the clock is stopped, and will be cleaned and checked for cracks. Officially named the Elizabeth Tower in honor of Queen Elizabeth II, the structure is one of London's most famous landmarks. The sound of the bongs became associated with Britain during wartime BBC news broadcasts, and is still played live each day on BBC radio through a microphone in the belfry. The repair work will use traditional methods and materials as much as possible, but a couple of modernizations are planned.
The 28 light bulbs behind each of the four clock faces will be replaced with LED bulbs that can change color, so the clock tower can be tinted to mark major celebrations.
A year later, the five experts from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights are going home without an answer for the desperate parents of the young men missing since September 2014. But they leave behind a blistering account of the government's investigation - a report on Sunday that accused authorities of stonewalling them in their quest for new information and of possibly torturing suspects. Before their mission formally ends on Saturday, two of the experts said they are now concerned about how the parents, who have a tense relationship with the government and wanted the experts to stay, will be treated. The experts also voiced hope that the government will follow their recommendations and use their conclusions to improve the country's judicial system. Fellow Colombian lawyer Alejandro Valencia said the government has a "duty to guarantee it will investigate this grave human rights case". At the request of the parents, the government invited Valencia and Buitrago, along with a Chilean lawyer, a former Guatemalan attorney general and a Spanish psychologist, to help in the investigation. President Enrique Pena Nieto faced international outrage and protests before his administration invited them to help resolve a case that became a symbol of the tens of thousands of deaths and disappearances in a decade-old drug war. When the experts arrived, the government had already concluded that the students vanished after they were abducted by municipal police in the southern city of Iguala on the night of Sept 26-27, 2014. Prosecutors said the officers delivered the 43 young men to a drug gang, which killed them and incinerated their bodies at a garbage dump. But parents of the students never bought that story, especially after the experts said in a September report that there was no scientific proof that the teachers-in-training were burned at the dump. The parents are from the impoverished state of Guerrero and their sons were in school to become teachers in rural areas.
Pena Nieto has been criticized for only meeting twice with the parents, though other officials have held several meetings with them to give them updates about the investigation.
Republican Donald Trump and Democrat Hillary Clinton rolled up wins in Northeastern states on Tuesday in a major show of strength and immediately turned their fire on each other in a possible preview of a general election matchup. Trump easily defeated rivals John Kasich and Ted Cruz in all five states that held contests, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Delaware, with his margin of victory rivaling that in his home state of New York a week ago. Supporters and opponents of Trump clashed in California on Tuesday, and five people, including two little girls, were pepper-sprayed by a demonstrator during the heated confrontation, police said. No serious injuries and no arrests were reported in the clash as about 50 people confronted each other in the Orange County community. Clinton, already in control of the Democratic race, defeated challenger Bernie Sanders in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania and Connecticut. The two front-runners used their victory rallies to snipe at each other in the kind of back and forth that will take place should they win their party's nominations and face off in the Nov 8 election to succeed President Barack Obama. Trump criticized Clinton's record as secretary of state and her vote as a US senator from New York in support of the Iraq war. Clinton, in a victory speech in Philadelphia, took aim at Trump for accusing her of trying to "play the woman card".
For the Republicans, the Northeastern battles set the stage for a big contest next week in Indiana.
Of 118 committed delegates available on Tuesday, Trump took 105, raising his total delegates to 950. Clinton's victories on Tuesday gave her 2,141 delegates, pushing her closer to the 2,383 needed for the nomination. Donald Trump's highly anticipated foreign policy speech will test whether the Republican presidential front-runner known for his raucous rallies and eyebrow-raising statements can present a more presidential persona. Trump's campaign said his speech on Wednesday will focus on "several critical foreign policy issues" such as trade, the global economy and national security. Trump has a lot to prove when it comes to calming foreign leaders and policy professionals. The case began when students at Hijla High School in Bagerhat district complained that the assistant teacher of a science class on Sunday dismissed the Quran as the word of Allah and said there was no heaven, Magistrate Anwar Parvez told The Associated Press late on Tuesday. The students, aged 17 to 18, along with others from a nearby Islamic school became incensed when the high school's head teacher backed up his colleague. The magistrate of the quick-ruling court said the assistant teacher pleaded guilty to publicly insulting religion, and the two were sentenced to six months behind bars. The law against insulting religion, imposed when Britain ruled the Indian Subcontinent, is rarely used and aimed at preventing communal clashes and inciting violence. The Muslim-majority country - politically fractured between secularists and those wanting Islamic rule - has been roiled by an ongoing wave of deadly attacks on atheist writers, religious minorities and activists over the last two years. On Monday, a gang of young men stabbed two men to death in Dhaka, including the editor of a gay rights magazine who also worked for the US Agency for International Development. Eleven men were shot dead in Cape Verde on Tuesday, including eight soldiers, a local civilian and two Spanish citizens, the minister of Internal Administration for the archipelago off the African coast said. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea on Wednesday announced that the ruling Workers' Party of Korea will hold its 7th Congress in Pyongyang, the capital of DPRK, on May 6, the country's official news agency KCNA reported.
An overloaded truck carrying garment workers swerved and flipped over after a tire exploded on Wednesday, leaving 70 passengers injured, authorities said. Chile reburied Nobel Prize-winning poet Pablo Neruda's remains on Tuesday after exhuming them to determine whether he was assassinated by late dictator Augusto Pinochet's government - a mystery that still lingers. Syria peace talks in Geneva will resume on May 10, Russia's RIA news agency quoted Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov as saying on Wednesday. Bangladeshi Muslims attend the funeral of Xulhaz Mannan who was killed in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on Tuesday. The Bangladeshi prime minister has vowed to hunt down and prosecute those who fatally stabbed two men, including a gay rights activist who worked for the US Agency for International Development.
The killings on Monday night were the latest in an ongoing wave of attacks claimed by radical Islamists and targeting the country's outspoken atheists, moderates and foreigners.
The victims were identified as USAID employee Xulhaz Mannan, who previously worked as a US Embassy protocol officer, and his friend, theater actor Tanay Majumder. Mannan, a cousin of former Foreign Minister Dipu Moni of the governing party, was also an editor of Bangladesh's first gay rights magazine, Roopbaan, and Majumder sometimes helped him with the publishing, local media said.
US Secretary of State John Kerry condemned the "barbaric" murders, issuing a statement from Washington that said the US government would support Bangladeshi efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice. Police said no arrests have been made in the attack, which involved at least five young men who posed as courier service employees to gain access to Mannan's apartment building.
On the morning of April 26, 1986, no one could yet tell that a meltdown in reactor 4 of the nuclear plant in then-Soviet Ukraine was poisoning the air with so much deadly radioactivity that it would become the world's worst nuclear accident. Now, as some survivors returned to their hometown of Pripyat on the eve of the anniversary, memories of confusion and sacrifice abound. She only realized something might be wrong that day 30 years before when her husband, Valeriy, didn't come back from his night shift as a foreman at the stricken reactor.
She left her apartment in Pripyat, a model Soviet town built in the 1970s to house Chernobyl workers and their families, to look for him.
He was airlifted to Moscow for treatment, but died 45 days later - one of the 31 to die of acute radiation sickness in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Elena Kupriyanova, 42, was only 12 when she was evacuated from Pripyat, which lies in the 2,600 square km 'exclusion zone' that has remained largely uninhabited by law since the disaster.
Her family and most of the town's 50,000 other residents were transported out of the area in buses on April 27 and told to pack only the bare essentials because they would only be away for three days. A rare inscription found on a stone unearthed near Florence is exciting archaeologists who say it may help reveal the secrets of the Etruscans, one of Italy's earliest and most enigmatic civilizations. The Etruscans flourished in central Italy 2,500 years ago but their culture and language were assimilated into the Roman empire. Etruscans usually wrote longer texts on perishable linen or wax, so archaeologists excavating in Tuscany's Mugello Valley were delighted when they found a 200-kilogram sandstone slab, inscribed with more than 100 characters, in the foundations of a buried temple.
The stone has been painstakingly cleaned and, although the inscription is yet to be formally deciphered, experts are starting to understand its full significance.
The stone could yield a new perspective because it was found in a religious sanctuary rather than one of the burial sites from which archaeologists have gathered most of their understanding of Etruscan life. It lay flat in the temple's foundations but appears to have stood upright previously, leaving unanswered questions about its original function.
A careful cleanup, applying paper pulp and distilled water, seems to have already revealed the names of the two most important gods in the Etruscan pantheon: Tina and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Jupiter and Juno or Greek Zeus and Hera. Unlike many ancient relics which are found out of context, having been illegally dug up or moved from Italy's archaeological sites, the researchers hope the stone can document local history in the tract of land between modern Fiesole and Bologna, once major Etruscan cities. The Philippine military came under increased pressure on Tuesday to rescue more than 20 foreign hostages after their Muslim extremist captors beheaded a Canadian man, but troops face a dilemma in how to succeed and also ensure the safety of the remaining captives.
Abu Sayyaf gunmen beheaded John Ridsdel on Monday in the southern densely forested province of Sulu, sparking condemnations and prompting Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to pledge to help the Philippines pursue the extremists behind the "heinous act".
Ridsdel's head, which was placed in a plastic bag, was dumped by motorcycle-riding militants on Monday night in Jolo town in impoverished Sulu, about 950 kilometers south of Manila, where the Abu Sayyaf and allied gunmen are believed to be holding 22 foreign hostages from six countries. It's a politically-sensitive time to carry out major offensives at the height of campaigning in a closely-fought race by four contenders in May 9 presidential elections. President Benigno Aquino III and opposition politicians have had differences over the handling of the Muslim insurgencies and the poverty and social ills that foster it. The Philippine military and police said "there will be no letup" in the effort to combat the militants and find the hostages, even though they have had little success in safely securing their freedom. About 2,000 military personnel, backed by Huey and MG520 rocket-firing helicopters and artillery, were involved in the manhunt for the militants, who were believed to be massing in Sulu's mountainous Patikul town, military officials said. Among the 22 hostages are 14 Indonesians who were kidnapped from tugboats in two separate incidences. In past militant videos posted online, Ridsdel and fellow Canadian Robert Hall, Norwegian Kjartan Sekkingstad and Filipino Marites Flor were shown sitting in a clearing with heavily armed militants standing behind them. A girl does her homdwork by candlelight at home during a power cut in a San Cristobal in the state of Tachira,Venezuela ,on Monday.The government has ordered the rolling blackouts in 18 of 24 states ro save enetgy.
As if daily life in Venezuela wasn't hard enough, people across the crisis-wracked South American country will now have to add electricity to the long list of things they'll have to do without.
DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk. The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St.
As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa.
EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true.
France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome.
Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east.
4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States.
The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history.
There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map.
These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford.
We shook hands and Hitler said, pointing to a book that was lying on the table: a€?I had a chance to read your al-Tazkirah.a€? Little did I understand at that time, what should have been clear to me when he said these words!
But only after leading his nation to the intended goal, has he disclosed his movementa€™s rules and obligations to the world; only after fifteen years has he made the means of success widely known. In 1922 he became President of the Supreme Muslim Council where he had the power to appoint personally loyal preachers in all of Palestinea€™s mosques, making him indisputably the most powerful Muslim leader in the country.2 Exiled, eventually to Germany from 1937 - 1945 where he was Hitlera€™s close associate.
He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977.
90-91), Irana€™s Ayatollah Khomeini himself married a ten-year-old girl when he was twenty-eight. English translation in Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.
The 2 largest standing Buddha carvings in the world from the 6th century were blown up by the Taliban in 2001. Ahmad AlA­Tayyeb - Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar University, was President of Al Azhar for 7 years, was Grand Mufti of Egypt. Career spanned more than 65 years, joined SAIS faculty in 1949, then created the first graduate program in the U.S on the modern Middle East. Islamic Education, Darul Uloom, Karachi, now hadith and Islamic economics instructor, sat for 20 years on Pakistani Supreme Court, he is one of the most respected Deobandi scholars in the world who authored over 60 books, an expert in Islamic finance who was quietly terminated or resigned in 2008 from the Sharia Supervisory Board of the Iman Fund, formerly the Dow Jones Islamic Index Fund (sharia finance). Al-Azhar University in The Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Shariah degree Damascus University, influenced by Sayyid Qutb and knew his family while in Egypt, lectured for years at Saudi Arabiaa€™s King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah until 1979. Although acquitted by an Egyptian court for complicity in the 1981 slaying of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, he has bragged about issuing the fatwa that approved the killing. He meets frequently with Crown Prince Abdullah and other senior members of the ruling family. But if the standard is how violent a reaction it provokes from the offended people, then only a€?defaminga€™ Islam will be banned. Including all his references, they amount to a mountain of evidence that shows the consensus on IS&J in all 5 schools since the 7th century, especially in the absence of any book full of contrary opinions from authorities with the stature of the examples you have seen. If they had, it would be easy to demonstrate with the kind of evidence you see here, from whatever era that was.
He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977.A  Its stated goal is jihad a€?in clearly defined stagesa€? against existing political regimes, and their replacement with a caliphate.
The charges, relating to a multi-billion dollar arms deal, were dropped by the chief state prosecutor in a move that cleared the way for Zuma to be elected president. The eastern state of Bihar banned cooking between 9 am and 6 pm after accidental fires exacerbated by dry, hot and windy weather swept through shantytowns and thatched-roof houses in villages and killed 79 people.
SANA also said there were more deaths and injuries from rebel mortar attacks which hit the Bab al-Faraj and al-Midan quarters of Aleppo on Friday.
The chopper was transporting workers from a North Sea offshore oil field when it crashed around midday near the shoreline off the coast of Bergen, Norway's second biggest city. So far we have not seen any sign of survivors," Sola rescue center spokesman Anders Bang Andersen told reporters. Reinhold Hanning told the Detmold state court on Friday that he had never talked about his service in Auschwitz from January 1942 to June 1944, even to family, but wanted to use his trial as an opportunity to apologize. The request was handed to the prosecutor general's office on Friday, according to lawmaker Taulant Balla.
He was charged with attempts to overthrow the DPRK government and undermine its social system under the guise of conducting religious exchanges over 18 years. The English translation would be something like "Switchover" - suggesting that he switches political parties easily for personal gains. Seaweed still dangled from its mouth, and only a few patches of grey-black skin were left on the body, which was a light beige color from the fat underneath.
California parks officials said it would be impractical to tow the whale out to sea or bury it at San Onofre State Beach in San Diego County. It's something that even I find it difficult, can you imagine the Syrians?" de Mistura said, adding he aimed to resume talks in May, though he gave no date.
But he gave no sign of ceding to the HNC's central demand for a political transition without President Bashar Assad. It warned the economy would shrink 8 percent this year and inflation would exceed 700 percent. There are areas that have been nearly 10 hours without electricity and that has made people even more annoyed," said Doris Falcon, a Maracaibo resident. That followed the start of daily four-hour electricity blackouts in several states on Monday, which Maduro said would last 40 days. Berton said the 26-year-old was being sent to Fleury-Merogis, a massive, high-security prison about 30 kilometers south of Paris, where he is due to be held in isolation in a special camera-equipped cell until his next hearing on May 20. The express transfer surprised even Berton, who had to rush from Lille to join his client at Paris' Palace of Justice, arriving in the early afternoon. A ROK official said that the DPRK launched a projectile, estimated to have been a Musudan missile, at about 6:40 am local time from the Wonsan area in northeastern DPRK.


The Soyuz 2.1a booster blasted off from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Russian Far East in the early hours Moscow time on Thursday. The female attacker blew herself up near an Ottoman-era mosque in Bursa's historic district on Wednesday. Jetstar, a subsidiary of Australia's national airline Qantas, allows pregnant women to fly up until the end of their 40th week of the pregnancy for flights shorter than four hours, but passengers were surprised when a woman went into labor midway through the flight. The ultra-high-tech "Hitomi" - or "eye" - was launched in February to find X-rays emanating from black holes and galaxy clusters. While miners once killed the Yanomami with guns or disease - nearly 20 percent of the population was wiped out in the 1980s - today the threat is the toxic liquid metal used to separate gold from grit. The results shocked experts, who believe mercury is entering the food chain through fish in polluted rivers.
We're not able to arrest them, there's no space in the helicopter," he said, sweat pouring down his face in the middle of the steamy jungle. Beyond the equipment, authorities have been hunting for clues on the illicit business interests behind the miners.
With Brazil suffering through its worst recession in a century, Funai's budget for 2016 was cut by 24 percent, while Ibama had its spending reduced by 30 percent. During that offensive, the radical Sunni Muslim group massacred, enslaved and raped thousands of Yazidis, whom they consider to be devil-worshippers. The group also forced Murad to pray, study the Quran and sit through extremist religious lessons, according to his mother, who said she had been beaten as well as raped by at least 14 men.
He kept a watchful eye on everyone who passed him on the narrow street, looking for a suspicious gesture, or a bulge beneath the clothes that hints at a hidden gun or a bomb. The reopening was celebrated by Pakistan's tiny Sikh minority, but security is a constant concern. The murder of Sardar Suran Singh devastated the Sikh community and heightened their fears of militant attacks. It is increasingly intolerant," said Zohra Yusuf, chairwoman of the independent Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. Militants have attacked Peshawar schools, killing children as they studied, bombed buses of government workers and attacked Christians in their churches. The vast majority migrated to India in 1947, the year Pakistan was created as a homeland for Muslims of the subcontinent. They are easily identifiable because of their tightly wound and often colorful turbans, and because they share the surname Singh. With all these measures, we are going to save it," he said, adding that the daily drop in water level had slowed to 10 centimeters from 20.
Mario Cesar Gonzalez, whose son Julio Cesar is among the missing, said the families "don't trust any authority". They've been stunned by his often brash policy proclamations, like his vow to bar foreign Muslims from entering the country. A mob including students, parents and villagers attacked the teachers with sticks, forcing them to lock themselves in a room until police intervened, Parvez said. International governments and aid groups have implored the Bangladeshi government to do more to safeguard free speech.
The men were killed at a telecommunications site at Monte Tchota, Minister Paulo Rocha said. The congress will be the first major conference in 36 years and the first under the current DPRK top leader Kim Jong-un.
The truck was packed with 75 people and far over capacity, which caused the one of its rear tires to explode. That would mark the first time the nation has been a net importer of the sweetener in four years, with the switch likely to support global prices that have already been rising this year.
Three years after they were disinterred to be tested for traces of poison, Neruda's remains were returned to his grave at his former home in the resort town of Isla Negra in line with his last wishes. The prime minister accused the country's opposition party and allied militants of orchestrating the attack.
He said a member of the patrol team briefly caught one of the suspects, but he managed to escape. All the rooms are empty, the glass is gone from the windows and everything's destroyed," said Zoya Perevozchenko, 66.
Returning to Pripyat, she found it hard to reconcile the memories of her life there with the derelict ruins of a town abandoned for three decades.
They left behind lavish tombs, pottery and statues but tantalizingly few written documents and patchy evidence of their daily lives.
It seems to be "a sacred text that may reveal to us parts of the belief system of the Etruscans".
Indonesian President Joko "Jokowi" Widodo said on Tuesday that his country will host talks with Malaysia and the Philippines to boost maritime security following those hijackings. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress.
Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities.
Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G.
The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north.
They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text. Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes.
They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe.
In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. After the war he was wanted for crimes against humanity, but returned as a war hero to the Middle East, and remained Grand Mufti at least 10 years after WWII.
Hizb reportedly now has secret cells in 40 countries, outlawed in Russia, Germany, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and many others, but not in the USA where they hold an annual conference, and ita€™s still a legal political party in UK. Extremely influential Sunni jurist, sharia scholar based in Qatar, memorized the Koran by age ten.
Chairman of the board of trustees atA Michigan-based Islamic American University, a subsidiary of the Muslim American Society, which was claimed by the Muslim Brotherhood as theirs in 1987.
Goma€™a was #7 in the book co-authored by John Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims, and he is widely hailed as a Moderatea„?.
He was the program's director until his retirement in 1980 and University Distinguished Research Professor until his death at 98 years old. Deputy Chairman of the Jeddah based Islamic Fiqh Council of the OIC, and is a member of ECFR, whose President is Sheik Qaradawi. OBL was enrolled there from 76-81 where they probably first met; Azzam eventually became his mentor. In fact 3 times Pulitzer Prize winner and Middle East Experta„? Thomas Friedman wants to give a Nobel prize to him even though he is an Islamic supremacist. There is much more than those 2 books, here are reading lists with books full of more evidence from Muslim and non-Muslim accounts of institutionalized IS&J for over 1300 years.
University Dogma takes for granted that a majority of jurists and ulama scholars, past and present, taught against IS&J, but no one says who and where these people are, and exactly what they said about relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. Speaking at a parliamentary session last week, Berisha accused the government of having links to crime gangs and urged Albanians to get weapons to protect themselves. The official said the launch appeared to have failed as the projectile was believed to have crashed several seconds after liftoff.
The Roscosmos space agency said in a statement that the three satellites the rocket was carrying orbited several hours later. A video of the attack, which was captured by overhead security cameras, has stirred shock and outrage over its brutality and the ages of the victims, a 65-year-old woman and 68-year-old man from Scotland and their 43-year-old son.
But shortly after the expensive technology reached orbit, researchers admitted they had lost control of it and said it was no longer communicating. The Sikhs that lived in the area and attended the gurdwara left when it closed in the 1940s. The CIA Factbook estimates that 3.6 percent of Pakistan's 180 million people are non-Muslims, including Sikhs, Christians and Hindus. The Spaniards were telecommunications technicians working at the site and the local civilian was a co-worker. Damascus said on Tuesday that it had held a final session of talks with de Mistura in a "useful and productive round".
In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches.
India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed.
Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs.
Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot.
Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research.
In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books.
God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. He is remembered as the godfather of Palestinian terrorism nationalism - Professor Edward Said praised him as a€?the voice of the Palestinian people.a€? The History Channel made a film about him.
Former Hizb-ut-Tahrir member Ed Husain, in his 2007 book The Islamist, says: The difference between Hizb ut-Tahrir and jihadists, is tactics, not goals.
Qaradawi was #6 in the book co authored by Esposito in 2009 featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims. Similarly, when Muslims and the Western heirs of the Enlightenment speak of tolerance they have different things in mind. Internationally recognized as one of the world's leading authorities on Islamic law and jurisprudence, modern Arab and Iraqi history, and politics.
Even though he is not a sharia scholar, he is on this page because that is mostly what his The Calcutta Qur'an Petition (1986) is - quotes of Koranic commentaries by famous sharia scholars, in an attempt to ban the Koran in India. If you have any examples, please send documentary evidence so I can add it to the Tiny Minority of Extremists page, coming up next. Parliament has suspended Berisha for 10 days, prompting his opposition Democratic Party to boycott Parliament. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular.
Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps.
Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235.
It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. They simply deny that it is a principle of Islam that jihad may include wars of aggression. Mashriqia€™s book Tazkirah (a commentary of the Quran) was nominated for the 1925 Nobel Prize in Literature. What is the good of us (the mullahs) asking for the hand of a thief to be severed or an adulteress to be stoned to death when all we can do is recommend such punishments, having no power to implement them?
Because of his huge influence, and to understand the significance of his connections with Moderatea„? American Muslim leaders that you will see in the Muslim Brotherhood page, you must understand what believes. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254].
400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity.
Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong.
Fouad Ajami said "Professor Khadduri was one of the pioneers of Middle Eastern studies in the United States. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ.
The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. In 1930 I sent him my Isharat concerning the Khaksar movement with a picture of a spade-bearer Khaksar at the end of that book. According to prosecutors, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center (WTC), which killed six people, was part of the conspiracy.
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. The intention of Mohammed, in what he said of jihad, may have been misunderstood and misrepresented. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Islam says: Whatever good there it exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! Founded the Shaybani Society of International Law, and was a founder of the Middle East Institute, and the University of Libya, where he became dean in 1957. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. Until the newer conceptions, as to what the Koran teaches as to the duty of the believer towards non-believers, have spread further.. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.



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