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Surely the fairest, most democratic way is for parties to be required to spell out to voters in advance of a local election exactly what it's council tax proposals are, and then be legally required to stick to them if they are elected. Friends of the Shelter volunteers work hard to make the shelter a warm, inviting place to build relationships between adopters and the cats. Despite the widespread protests that erupted last year, the rate at which people are killed by the police in the US has accelerated. It’s perhaps portentous that a poll to find Britain’s national bird had last week been decided in overwhelming favour of the robin. Chief executive David Harker said: “First Class Futures really will bring huge benefits to the North East if it is able to realise its vision of raising £100,000. Yorkshire travel to Durham looking for their third successive North Division win after beating Derbyshire at Headingley and, last Friday, Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge. Kaag says the UN is also looking into recent reports of chlorine gas attacks in the country. Although the research has been pretty clear that there are health benefits to not sitting, we are just starting to understand that standing alone may be a good alternative, said Dr.
The researchers then lumped the data in with nine other studies that measured chocolate consumption and heart disease. It was his second injury of the season and he didn't appear again, but while he has been troubled only by the odd niggle this year he has been unable to regain his form. We can do this for him and dance for him, make him well, make him strong, put him on the front, and all his team, dancer Timmy Galalingu said.
The cooking zone features a cooktop with oils, seasonings, pots and pans and perhaps a sink nearby. Zielke noted that Punta Cana, Dominican Republic is becoming a big destination for weddings, as are cruises. He also won the FIFA Club World Cup and European Super Cup two times each and the Spanish Super Cup six times. However, Rob Youhill suffered a dislocated elbow on Saturday which will sideline him for two to three weeks.
Disciplined, well organised and extremely hard to break down, Newcastle have rarely looked like conceding throughout their six-game winning run, and aside from tipping over a Richard Dunne header, Tim Krul was barely tested against QPR. In return, Wijnaldum has been quick to praise McClaren’s input throughout pre-season, with the Yorkshireman’s experience of the continental game enabling him to establish a strong rapport with his club’s overseas contingent. The actual story is one of trying to find somewhere safe to live for some poor INNOCENT young children, not whether some "concerned " residents feel slighted. An agent in the 1970s had also suggested a name change – “he said Tony Peters was too clubby” – and came up with Septimus Shildon. ECHO Elder Cottage Housing Opportunities (ECHO) units are temporary, movable, self-contained houses designed to enable older persons to live near family members or caregivers.
Under normal driving conditions, 100 per cent of the engine’s torque is delivered to the front wheels so that the car runs with optimised fuel efficiency.
Professor Walton said she had heard of many cases of discrimination against junior females, but the culture was to never complain to supervisors. Mike Abbott, general group manager at The Co-operative Childcare, says: “With men under-represented in the childcare industry, we think they should be championed. The group has found, and cherishes, the 100-year-old Bishop Auckland National Union of Ralwaymen’s banner, plans a railway memorial garden near the station – “real railway seats everything,” he says – has designed LNER-style posters showing the old station in all its improbable glory.
Durham City MP Roberta Blackman-Woods demanded that the city council explains how it did not have spare detectors. I’ve been lucky on the job front, mostly down to working with fantastic people and having a positive approach to life.
Marquette went three-and-out on three pass plays and, on its own 26, elected to punt and rest its hopes of defending its state title on defense. The Brewers followed a Game 5 stinker in the National League Championship Series with a Game 6 clunker. China should work out a comprehensive income distribution reform package as soon as possible to promote sustainable, fairer and more balanced development of its economy and society. A home win against the same opponents and a victory away to bottom club Sunderland are Darlington's only wins in their last 14 games, having started with four wins from the first seven. He and Chris Rushworth quickly removed the home openers and it became 49 for three when replaced Arshad and struck with his fifth ball. The game was notable for the second-half appearance of Downing, with the England international kicking off his second spell at his hometown club in an attacking central-midfield role. With the rest of the Boro squad currently on a training break in Marbella, it remains to be seen whether Downing heads straight out to Spain or remains at Rockliffe Park ahead of his new team-mates’ return next week. On Sunday, the forecast calls for a high temperature in the low 20s in Milwaukee, with blustery northeast wind gusts as high as 30 miles per hour. Monroe mentioned Parker's return from injury next season as one of the factors that led him to choose the Bucks over offers from the New York Knicks, Los Angeles Lakers and Portland Trail Blazers. Nepal's major political parties on Tuesday agreed to reconsider the delineation of states in the wake of countrywide protests against the move in which three people have been killed. Other completed work on the Port Clarence scheme includes flood embankments to the east and west of the Wilton Engineering site.
Despite their success, Stuart says they have no intention of expanding their operation and is proud of their role in the burgeoning small-scale food and drink sector in the county. The problem for Brentford, however, is whether their soon-to-be departing manager, Mark Warburton, can motivate his team through the final throes of the campaign knowing that he will not be there to reap the rewards next season.
Council leader Councillor Bob Cook said: “Local residents and businesses had to endure the eyesore that was Billingham House for several years. While the West Nile virus is not new to Maryland, health officials warn people to take precautions when heading outside to parks or to the beach, especially areas where there might be standing water. However, even though the opportunity to return to Teesside after a two-year spell in London was a powerful attraction, Downing insists he would not have rejoined Boro if he did not believe they had a realistic chance of promotion. Dad, Ian, is director at the family-owned Barkers Furnishing Store in Yafforth Road, Northallerton, where earlier this year Hannah, along with brothers William and Thomas, cut the turf to get a £3m expansion of the business underway. The same night (Saturday), Darlington’s Neil Hepper also took a chance on the road when he travelled to Doncaster and faced the experienced Kevin Hooper over six rounds. The government has declared their strike illegal although GMA members continued services to their inpatients. The opportunity to meet with many leaders in Israel face to face has impressed on me even more the significance of the vote I will cast in the US Congress. The lifetime Falls resident had worked other jobs, but working for the schools he once attended is special, and not just because it s home. Linzi Nicolls leads the way with a sponsored Mile of Hope.  Many people turned out to do the mile either by walking, running, skipping, and someone even hula hooped it around to raise funds for Lifeline Community Action.
The recently launched group is run by YMCA working with Council’s Sport and Physical Activity Team and Hartlepool College of Further Education. Highly commendable but you have to admit Britain has some of the most bone idle, pig ignorant litter louts in (wider) Europe.
This is especially heartening, because it fits the theory that those people in our society who work really hard are the ones who get rewarded with a bit extra. Congressman Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania), who is on his first visit to Israel, said he would share with his colleagues and constituency what he learned on the trip about the need for America to stand with Israel in her defense, the 'Post reported.
With the last two months of a lost season amounting to something of a tryout for many players on the Milwaukee Brewers' roster, Khris Davis has put a solid foot forward in recent days. It is LVMH’s second-largest fashion and leather-goods brand and, according to analysts at HSBC, this sector of LVMH is doing very well indeed.
A southern spokesman said Greville's death had been referred to the coroner, but police were continuing to investigate on behalf of the coroner and WorkSafe. MISSOULA — A line of thunderstorms grinding up the Bitterroot Valley converged over Missoula on Monday evening, spawning gusts up to 74 mph that toppled century-old trees and flipped pole barns off their foundations. Bahraini authorities have suspended the country's main opposition newspaper, accusing it of threatening national unity and relations with other states, the official news agency BNA reported late on Thursday. If your staff can attend the tables with the professionalism and service that they provide in most US restaurants it will do two things! DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute. Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa. Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition.
This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No. The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic.
A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family. The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm. Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones. Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise. Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps. Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects. In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail.
Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers. The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians. Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant. In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names. In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether.
In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S. We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro.
On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea. But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest. It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java. The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north. The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify. The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses. In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest.
The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map. The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers.
The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties. In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous. In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy. The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century.
The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind. Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles. Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti.
We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235).
Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers. A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors. It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking. Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands. No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains. On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world. As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head. The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features. The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia. In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf.
On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti. Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria. Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita.
West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century. The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants. Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese.
On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro.
In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar. In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction.
The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile.
A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth. That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa. On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver. Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing. The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals. The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights. A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables.
Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one? He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature. As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content.
These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time.
DESCRIPTION: The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Although copies of Agrippaa€™s map were taken to all of the great cities of the Roman Empire, not a single copy has survived. Shown here are three continents in more or less symmetrical arrangements with Asia in the east at the top of the map (hence the term orientation). Note that most scholars, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular. The only reported Roman world map before Agrippaa€™s was the one that Julius Caesar commissioned but never lived to see completed. We may speculate whether this map was flat and circular, even though such a shape might have been considered a€?unscientifica€™ and poorly adapted to the shape of the known world. Augustus had a practical interest in sponsoring the new map of the inhabited world entrusted to Agrippa. In point of fact Augustus may have delegated the detailed checking to one of his freedmen, such as his librarian C. We may treat as secondary sources Orosius, Historiae adversum paganos, and the Irish geographical writer Dicuil (AD 825). It is also claimed that Strabo (#115) obtained his figures for Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily from Agrippa.
Although the term chorographia literally means a€?regional topographya€?, it seems to include fairly detailed cartography of the known world.
For a more complete assessment of what Agrippa wrote or ordered to be put on his map, we may again turn to passages where Pliny quotes him specifically as reference.
It is a pity that Pliny, who seems to be chiefly interested in measurements, gives us so little other information about Agrippaa€™s map. It is the sea above all which shapes and defines the land, fashioning gulfs, oceans and straits, and likewise isthmuses, peninsulas and promontories. A serious point of disagreement among scholars has been whether the commentarii of Agrippa mentioned by Pliny were published at the time of construction of the portico. Another element in this problem that demands some explanation is the origin of the two later works the Demensuratio provinciarum and the Divisio orbis terrarum which are both derived from Agrippa, probably through a common source. Apart from the information supplied by Pliny, our chief evidence for the reconstruction of the map is provided by the two works already mentioned, the Demensuratio provinciarum and the Divisio orbis terrarum. Dicuil, in his preface, promises to give the measurement of the provinces made by the envoys of the Emperor Theodosius, and at the end of chapter five he quotes twelve verses of these envoys in which they describe their procedure. According to Tierney, Detlefsen regarded these two works as derived from small-scale copies of Agrippaa€™s map.
Tierney believes however, that the west to east movement supposed by Klotz is, in fact, correct, but not for his reasons. Our idea of the detail of the map of Agrippa must be based on a study of the references in Strabo, Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio. There are twenty-four sections in the Divisio and thirty in the Demensuratio, the difference being mainly due to the absence from the Divisio of the sections on the islands of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. These sections are largely identical with passages in Plinya€™s geographical books (Books III to VI), and show that many passages in Pliny are taken from Agrippa beyond those where he is actually named. The consensus of the views of modern scholars on Agrippaa€™s map, is that it represents a conscientious attempt to give a credible version of the geography of the known world.
But this consensus is not quite complete and therefore I now turn to consider the view of Agrippaa€™s map put forward by Professor Paul Schnabel in his article in Philologus of 1935.
Schnabel does not himself take up the general question of the use of Agrippa by Marinus and Ptolemy. Schnabel here refers to the last chapter of the geographical books of Plinya€™s Natural History, that is, Book VI, cap. Schnabel continues with the negative argument that the Don parallel cannot belong to the school of Hipparchus. We may speculate as to whether Plinya€™s phrase regarding the a€?careful later students,a€? does not refer to Nigidius himself.
Schnabel next moves on to a more ambitious argument, making the assumption that Ptolemy has used some of Agrippaa€™s reckonings to establish points in his geography.
It is sad to think that this elegant piece of reasoning must be thrown overboard, but Tierney believes it must be rejected on at least three different counts.
In the second place Schnabela€™s statement that Agrippa reduced the itinerary figure of 745 miles to a straight line of 411 cannot be accepted. Thirdly, it may fairly be objected that the very method by which Schnabel obtains the figure of 411 miles is faulty. Tierney passes over Schnabela€™s reasons for thinking that Agrippa established lines of meridian in Spain and in the eastern Mediterranean, all of which Tierney finds quite unconvincing.
Schnabela€™s attempt to present us with a scientific Agrippa and indeed to reconstruct a scientific Roman geography may be regarded a complete failure, and the older view of Detlefsen and Klotz must be regarded as correct.
From another well-known passage in Strabo (V, 3, 8, C, 235-236) that contains a panegyric [a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something] on the fine buildings of Augustan Rome, we know that he was well acquainted with the dedications of Marcus Agrippa that he specifically mentions. Strabo shows the contemporary Roman view of the purely practical purposes of geography and of cartography by everywhere insisting on restricting to a minimum the astronomical and mathematical element in geographical study.
This would mean then that Agrippaa€™s map was based on the general scheme of the Greek maps which had been current for upwards of 200 years, since the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and that it presumably attempted to complete and rectify this scheme by using recent Roman route-books and the reports of soldiers, merchants and travelers. Towards the end of the fourth century two important events greatly enlarged the scope of geography. About a century later the famous astronomer Hipparchus subjected the geography of Eratosthenes to rather stringent criticisms. The next geographer whose views are well known us is Strabo (#115), who was writing at the time of the construction of Agrippaa€™s map or some years later.
If, then, progress was no longer being made or to be expected from Greek geographers using various astronomical instruments, was anything to be expected from the other tradition, the Roman roads and their itineraries?
We must then approach the map of Agrippa on a purely factual basis realizing that it provides us merely a list of boundaries followed by a length and breadth, for the areas within the Empire and beyond it.
Fundamentally, therefore, Agrippaa€™s figures allow us to construct a series of boxes or rectangle with which to deck out the shores of the Mediterranean and the eastern world and whose dimensions should be reduced by an uncertain amount. Spain consists of three boxes, the square of Lusitania and the rectangle of the Hispania citerior [Roman province] east of it being placed over the rectangle of BA¦tica. In Gaul [France] a large rectangle lies over a small one, that is Gallia Comata over the province of Narbonensis.
The islands of the Mediterranean are not forgotten, at least the major ones, just as Italy lies too far to the southeast, so do Corsica and Sardinia lie too far to the southwest.
The eastern Mediterranean is faced by Syria whose longitude Pliny (V, 671 states as 470 miles between Cilicia and Arabia, and whose latitude is 175 miles from Seleucia Pieria on the coast to Zeugma on the Euphrates.
We have now either reached or gone beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the north, south and east, as it was in Agrippaa€™s day. The most important achievement of the map, to Agrippaa€™s mind, consisted in its measurements, and it is possible that he spent very considerable pains in getting these exactly, although we cannot take the account given by Honorius (ca.
The exact correspondence between Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio, in giving many of the boundaries of the sections, shows, according to Detlefsen, that these boundaries also were inscribed upon the map. Klotz, in his final review of Agrippaa€™s methods of work, has made some illuminating points that supplement Detlefsen.
Within the Empire he chiefly used the itineraries without the overt use of an astronomical backing, although astronomical data, of course, already formed the basis of the Greek maps that were the real foundation of his. Klotz, A., a€?Die geographischen commentarii des Agrippa und ihre Uberrestea€?, Klio 25, 1931, 35ff, 386ff.
Note that most scholar, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular.
According to Fisher seeing that this is a Roman world map sharing many similarities with the mappaemundi, it is logical to assume that SchA¶nera€™s southern landmass is a copy of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum, the Roman world map upon which the mappaemundi were based.
Within the context of the early 16th century, it seems apparent that SchA¶ner found himself caught up in the perfect cartographic storm. All these parts were in place when an errant 1508 report of a strait at the tip of South America with a large southern continent lying beneath inspired SchA¶ner to unwittingly preserve the only copy of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum on the bottom of his 1515 world globe.
When medieval Christians began creating the mappaemundi they borrowed heavily from Agrippaa€™s map as well as Greek designs.
This design adjustment may also explain the Expositio mappemundi (EMM), manuscripts which are a collection of the data items appearing on the mappaemundi. It was reverse engineered from the mappaemundi, but plays it relatively safe in its assumptions.
The new found design also provides for the first time insights into the inspiration for key design aspects on the mappaemundi such as the tribute to Jesus at the top of the map, the transition from a separate commentary requiring locative terminology to commentary overlain onto the mappaemundi no longer requiring spatial references, and the distribution of images from a consolidated arced matrix lying above Africa on SchA¶nera€™s design to areas throughout the mappaemundi. In conclusion, Fisher believes that he has presented a solid logical case for the historic discovery of a long lost 2,000-year-old Roman world map at the bottom of the world, SchA¶nera€™s world that is.
I've been thinking about it a lot recently - because my kids are going to go to school soon so we're trying to work that out - and realise how important that is, but I never had an inspirational teacher. Not just be left free to increase taxes willy-nilly whenever they want, with the slight chance they may be held accountable for it once every 4 or 5 years.
They get to know adopters as well as they ve gotten to know their four-legged charges: Liz and her team try to educate potential adopters and find the best match for everyone who walks through their doors.
Since the beginning of this year, there have been 705 casualties in this internal war, 45 more than had been killed by the same date last year.
In the Panthers' Horizon League championship win over Wright State, the tenacious forward had seven points and eight boards.
They were sent text messages at the end of each day, informing them whether they were working or not.
Unless otherwise specified in the prize notification, all prizes or prize certificates may be picked up at the office of the Promoter at the address below. Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, director of preventive cardiology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. They'll tell you what you need to know about whatever is going on in the world in five minutes or less.
She recently helped a couple plan a wedding in Scotland and is currently working on a Fiji wedding. And after knocking each and every one down, Arrowhead is the Cinderella in the Division 1 field. ECHO units, which include efficiencies and one-bedroom cottages, enable older people to live independently and privately in their own homes, even while on the property of a family member or caregiver. On icy or slippery roads or when driving on wet off-road conditions, power is distributed to both the front and rear wheels to ensure a safe, stable and dependable drive.
He said: “The last two games have been very difficult against two teams in form, Manchester City and Liverpool, but at home we’ve got to do much better. If you’re going to spend your time doing something, you should always do it with a smile.
The income distribution reform, one that is closely related with China's overall social reform and development, is already receiving a great deal of attention.
2 in the final Wisconsin Volleyball Coaches Association Division 1 poll, was faced with arguably the toughest quarterfinal draw of the four area teams in the Division 1 state girls volleyball tournament but overcame a slow start to score a surprisingly one-sided, 3-1 victory over third-ranked Neenah at the Resch Center.
His family came from Yugoslavia on a trip sponsored by the Lutheran Church, and several times during his remarks, he mentioned his faith, as when he mentioned moving to North Carolina.
Mallon was instrumental in demolishing good homes all over Middlesbrough particularly central Middlesbrough. Nicky Featherstone broke into the area and rolled the ball across goal and out of reach of Paynter. Nepal's four major political parties -- Nepali Congress (NC), Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML), Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-Maoist) and Madhesi Janadhikar Forum-Loktantrik (MJF-L) -- on Saturday night came up with a six-province model in the new federal set up, a key contentions issue of Nepal's constitution-making process that started in 2008 when the first Constituent Assembly was elected. He says while Waitrose already champions English wines and Marks Spencer is considering offering domestically-produced tipples, he has turned down offers to export his wines to far flung countries. The Midlands Area champion and former English title challenger in two weight divisions had too much, however, and claimed the win. A weaker yuan may counter a slump in exports, but prolonged depreciation would trigger capital flight, disturb the financial system and slash investors' confidence in the yuan. If you want to be richer, instead of lying around teaching or nursing or driving trains, do some graft and sell short for an afternoon.
The soft-feel grained plastics and sensible switchgear have trickled down from the larger (and no longer available in the UK) Laguna model. In 2014, LVMH’s leather and fashion brands grew by 10 percent year-on-year and in 2015 it estimates sales will grow by another 19 percent, with a forecast of 7 percent growth in 2016 and 2017. Then all his bones begin to come out of joint and he had no form nor comeliness and he was poured out like water, he died, went to hell and God the Father raised Jesus from the dead on the third day.
The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates. Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings.
Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino. It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude. Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232). It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies.
Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters. There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders. The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere. By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details. The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed.
Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told. The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible. After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447. In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam. In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?). The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean]. This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River. The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it.
Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy.
This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched. In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day. In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto.
In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias. Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem.
In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built.
Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk. By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur. Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas.
The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details.
These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands. Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head.
In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows. It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country.
Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner.
A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus. In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages.
For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map. Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion.
Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. The reconstructions shown here are based upon data in the medieval world maps that were, in turn, derived from Roman originals, plus textual descriptions by classical geographers such as Strabo, Pomponius Mela and Pliny. The emphasis upon Rome is reflected in the stubby form of Italy, which made it possible to show the Italian provinces on an enlarged scale. We are told by late Roman and medieval sources that he employed four Greeks, who started work on the map in 44 B.C.
That is the form of the Hereford world map (Book IIB, #226), which seriously distorts the relative positions and sizes of areas of the world in a way we should not imagine Julius Caesar and his technicians would have. On the re-establishment of peace after the civil wars, he was determined on the one hand to found new colonies to provide land for discharged veterans, on the other hand to build up a new image of Rome as the benevolent head of a vast empire. It was erected in Rome on the wall of a portico named after Agrippa, which extended along the east side of the Via Lata [modern Via del Corso].
Orosius seems to have read, and followed fairly closely both Agrippa and Pliny, as well as early writers from Eratosthenes onwards.
His source was clearly one commissioned by Romans, not Greeks, as his figures for those areas are in miles, not stades. The Agrippa map probably did not, in the absence of any mention, use any system of latitude and longitude. These include both land and sea measurements, though the most common are lengths and breadths of provinces or groups of provinces. But on the credit side, Agrippaa€™s map, sponsored by Augustus, was obviously an improvement on that of Julius Caesar on which it is likely to have been based. The general history of ancient cartography and our knowledge of Roman buildings in the Augustan period would appear to be our surest guides. The German philologist and historian Detlev Detlefsen always clung steadfastly the view that there was no such publication and that the inscriptions on the map itself provided all the geographical information that was available to later times under the name of Agrippa. Detlefsen had explained their origin by assuming the production of smaller hand-copies of Agrippaa€™s map, their smallness then making a written text desirable. Small discrepancies were to be explained by differences in the copies of the map used by each. Strabo used Agrippa only for Italy and the neighboring islands, so that our chief evidence comes from the other three sources. Detlefsen believed that the island sections were later added to the Demensuratio, but according to Tierney there can be little doubt that he is wrong in this and that Klotz is right in thinking that these sections have rather fallen out of the Divisio. It relies on the general scheme of the Greek maps that had been current since the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and attempts to rectify them, particularly in Western Europe, with recent information derived from the Roman itineraries and route-books. We have to thank Professor Schnabel for providing in the same article a new critical text of both the Demensuratio and the Divisio.
He sets out, at first, to prove that Agrippaa€™s map possessed a network of lines of longitude and latitude. 39, sections 211-219, where Pliny mentions evidently as a work of supererogation, a€?the subtle Greek inventiona€? of parallels of latitude, showing the areas of equal shadows and the relationship of day and night Pliny then gives seven parallels, running at intervals between Alexandria and the mouth of the Dnieper, with longest days running from fourteen to fifteen hours.
Hipparchus had made the Don parallel the seventeen-hour parallel, corresponding to 54A° N latitude, whereas Pliny here puts it at sixteen hours or 48A° 30" N latitude, which is nearly correct. 39, section 211, refers obviously to all that follows as far as the end of Book VI and shows that the complete passage is taken from Greek sources. In the first place, Schnabel has apparently overlooked Ptolemya€™s method of establishing the longitude and latitude of particular geographical points. Pliny gives this itinerary as running at the base of the Alps, from the Varus through Turin, Como, Brecia, Verona and other towns on to Trieste, Pola and the Arsia.
For the reduction, of longitude he uses, as I have said, the factor of forty-three sixtieths derived from Ptolemya€™s fifth map of Europe (Book VIII, cap.
Tierney turns to his last main argument in which lie tries to prove Agrippa to be the author of a new value of the degree at 80 Roman miles or 640 stadia, Pliny (V, 59) gives the distance of the island of Elephantine from Syene as sixteen miles and its distance from Alexandria as 585 miles. If we accepted it we might as well accept that everyone in antiquity who either sailed or traveled in a north-south direction in the eastern Mediterranean was also engaged in establishing a new degree value.
On the general question of Roman proficiency in geographical studies some light is thrown by a passage of Strabo (Book III, C 166) who says: a€?The Roman writers imitate the Greeks but they do not go very far. The phrase which he uses of Agrippaa€™s aqueducts is exactly echoed in Plinya€™s phrase tanta diligentia. Before entering into the details of Agrippaa€™s map it will be useful to examine briefly these two traditions, the Greek and the Roman, in order to grasp more clearly the problem which confronted Agrippa or whoever else might wish to construct a world map in the age of Augustus. We are told that it was Democritus who first abandoned the older circular map and made a rectangular one whose east-west axis, the longitude, was half as long again as the north-south axis, the latitude. The campaigns of Alexander and the new Greek settlements pushed the Greek horizon far to the east while in the west the intrepid Pytheas of Massalia circumnavigated Britain and sailed along the European coast from Gibraltar at least as far as the Elbe, publishing his investigations in a work which included gnomonic observations at certain points, and remarks on the fauna and flora of these distant areas. He made devastating attacks on the eastern sections of the map, as being seriously incorrect, both on mathematical and on astronomical grounds. Sad to relate, the gradually accumulating mass of details concerning roads and areas did not add up to any great increase in geographical knowledge. Our three main authorities, Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio, have suffered a great deal in the transmission of these latter figures, the longitude and latitude, so-called.
Klotz has argued that Agrippa did not use the word longitudo in the technical sense of the east-west measurement, nor the word latitudo in the technical sense of the north-south measurement, but rather in the more general sense of length and breadth. To evaluate the map we must take a glance at each of these boxes in turn, and the most convenient order would appear to be that of the Greek geographers and of Agrippa himself, if we can trust the order of the Divisio that has Europa, Asia, Lybia, that is, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The internal line of division ran south from the estuary at NA“ca between the Astures and the Cantabri, down to Oretania and on to New Carthage.
Off the coast of Gallia Comata lies an enormous Britain, 800 by 300 miles, and north of it an equally exaggerated Hibernia [Ireland]. Corsica, in fact forms the eastern boundary of Sardinia and this explains why the long axis of both islands is described as the longitude. Tierney believes that it is possible to remove the difficulties felt about Agrippaa€™s Syria by both Detlefsen and Klotz.
Only a few more boxes or rectangles are left to the east of the line, formed by Armenia, Syria and Egypt, but now they begin to grow portentously large. Spain has three sections and Gaul two, while in the east of Europe Dacia and Sarmatia run off to the unknown northern ocean, and further east again the sections are quite enormous. Natural features such as the mountains and rivers that divided provinces were shown also, but in what exact way is not clear.
He points out that just as Eratosthenes had divided the inhabited earth into his famous a€?sealsa€?, so also Agrippa divided the earth into groups of countries without reference to their political or geographical conditions. Any attempt to draw the map of Agrippa from the figures that have survived without some astronomical backing is entirely hopeless.
Wherever itineraries did not exist he made use of the estimated distances of the Greek geographers, and outside the Empire he had to rely on them altogether. Proceeding in our evaluation with this in mind we can gain insights into how the mappaemundi arrived at their final design.
Fisher believes that the central zones on Agrippaa€™s map had to be eliminated when the Christians decided to adopt and adapt from Greek maps the concept of cartographic centricity by distorting the map to position the holy city of Jerusalem at the mapa€™s center. Some believe that these manuscripts were instruction sets used to construct a mappa mundi based on the fact that the text is spatially specific. The reconstruction acknowledges that the waterway originated on Agrippaa€™s map as it is common to most mappaemundi, but it assumes that the Roman original was far less imposing, whereas SchA¶nera€™s design suggests that the mappaemundi are far more accurate in their depiction of the waterway spanning most of the continent. All three adjustments were based on their Roman counterparts, but reflect necessary adjustments as the makers of the mappaemundi opted for a Christocentric design. His evaluation, however, is based on the fact that copies of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum did indeed exist and were at one time distributed throughout Europe becoming the model for the medieval mappaemundi. The factory-inspired modern building is honest, hard-working architecture that sits in what was the industrial heart of Milwaukee. Roy Blunt, R-Mo., said it Obama is making the right move but said the president should have sought a congressional vote on this issue earlier. Overtime would be paid only after an employee had worked more than his allocated annual hours. It put the Bears in front, to stay, at 48-46, and clearly saved the day in the win-or-go-home scenario.
The winner will forfeit any prize or prize certificate not claimed within thirty 1 day of winning. Pardew adhered to it more often than not and, overall, has done a decent enough job during his four years in charge. Scott Walker's administration could hold demonstrators at the Capitol liable for the cost of extra police or cleanup and repairs after protests, under a new policy unveiled Thursday. Brett and I were obviously on the same staff at Drake and we've developed an unbelievable bond.
Of the more than two-thirds of exchange enrollees reporting dissatisfaction with their plans, paying too much was cited as the top reason.
The technology also works perfectly to give a smooth and safe departure when driving away from a standstill on a steep slope, while a lock mode distributes power equally between the front and rear wheels at speeds below 25mph to optimise traction. Then there is my husband (French billionaire Francois-Henri Pinault) also who takes me to many places.
On Tuesday, the authorities repeated their earlier statement that the results would be released soon . Whether or not some breakthroughs will be achieved in this area will produce decisive influences on the country's consumption-based economic transformation, which is now in an important period of historical opportunities.
The Red, Orange and Light Green subway lines converge in Chistiye Prudy, and buses, trams and marshrutki (gypsy vans) run frequently along the neighborhood's traffic arteries. The town centre needs investment people need to be encouraged to live there not on the outskirts. 6 when Iowa City Officer Ben Hektoen noticed "an odor of ingested alcohol" coming from the vehicle,the Iowa City Press-Citizen reported. If the issue of state restructuring will resolve the ossue, Nepal will ensure a new constitution and there will be a new president, vice president, prime minister and other major political posts, sources said.
To be honest, it hasn't sunk in yet,” said Lowry who held off the challenges of overnight leaders Justin Rose and Jim Furyk, as well as Watson – all three of them Major champions – to become the first non-PGA Tour member to win the prestigious event since Martin Kaymer in 2011. Stuart says: "We don't make massive batches, the largest amount of anything will be 2,000 bottles. But if you're going to give quarterback Matthew Stafford the help he needs and a guy to take heat off of budding star defensive tackle Ndamakong Suh, the Lions did it. Repeat offenders , guarded and supervised by Military Police should be cleaning up grot spots like this instead of sitting on their butts for hours in the nick some playing on Pool tables and Game Boys for hours on end..
Tzipi Hotovely a charg l ambassadeur d Isra l en Suisse de pr senter une demande officielle au Conseil f d ral et la municipalit de Z rich de retirer leur soutien financier la conf rence de l ONG Breaking the Silence dans la capitale. The game, which is inspired by ancient apocryphal biblical texts, tasks you as an agent of God to track down several fallen angels. In February, hundreds of children were forcibly conscripted in the northeastern town of Malakal by a government-aligned militia. A spokeswoman for the commission says the plan limits participation in the Jonah crab fishery to fishermen who hold an American lobster permit or can prove previous participation in the crab fishery.
However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old.
The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre. It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer. A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg. But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context? Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c. Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident.
Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible.
From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted. All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name.
West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming. Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes. According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra. The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century. In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men. Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores. A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus. Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia. In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges. Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth.
In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen.
On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward. Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner. Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant. Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo. There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims.
The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river. The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249). A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog.
This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr. The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented. It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries. There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood. One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain.
But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted.
What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern. Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space. Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions. Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time. A But he promised me on his returnA back to the United States I would be the first media personality to interview him in New York City.A  I never will forget how confident he was that he would return victorious. This leads him on to the advantages of the northern half from the point of view of agriculture. The original was made at the command of Agrippaa€™s father-in-law, the Emperor Augustus (27 B.C. These were no doubt freedmen, of whom there were large numbers in Rome, including many skilled artisans. A late Roman geographical manual gives totals of geographical features in this lost map with recording names, but even the totals, on examination, turn out to be unreliable. Mapping enabled him to carry out these objectives and to perfect a task begun by Julius Caesar.
This portico, of which fragments have been found near Via del Tritone, was usually called Porticus Vipsania, but may have been the same as the one that Martial calls Porticus EuropA¦, probably from a painting of Europa on its walls. Dicuil tells us that he followed Pliny except where he had reason to believe that Pliny was wrong.
It is through such features that continents, nations, favorable sites of cities, and other refinements have been conceived, features of which a regional [chorographic] map is full; one also finds a quantity of islands scattered over the seas and along the coasts. The fact that such an insignificant and distant place as Charax was named on the map shows the detail that it embodied.
His sister, Vipsania Polla, began the work, and we know from Dio Cassius that it was still unfinished in the year 7 B.C.
There can be no reasonable doubt that the map was a rectangular one with the east-west measurements running horizontally and the north-south measurements running vertically. Though Strabo does not mention Agrippaa€™s name here he is probably merely being tactful with regard to the Emperor who, presumably, took a large part in the completion of the portico with its map. One must grant Detlefsen that in Plinya€™s main reference there is talk only of a map and the commentarii are merely the basis of the map. Partsch on the contrary, had assumed an original publication, contemporary with the original map, of a Tabellenwerk, that is, a series of tabulated lists.
1475, and, according to Paul Schnabel (Text und Karten des PtolemA?us, 1938) the thirteen manuscripts of the 15th and 16th centuries and a further manuscript of the 13th century all derive from the ninth-century codex in the library of Merton College, Oxford. What they show is rather that on the orders of Theodosius two members of his household composed a map of the world, one written and the other a painting.
The classical scholar Alfred Klotz, however, in his articles on the map has shown that a number of correspondences between the two works as against Pliny point rather to a common source from which both works are derived. Greek cartography, like Greek writing, ran from left to right and perhaps the former practice was promoted by the fact that the western boundary of Europe was well known, at least from the time of Pytheas (ca. The numerals are much more corrupt than those in Pliny, and there is usually a presumption, therefore, that Plinya€™s figures preserve a better version of Agrippa.
Schnabel, while expressing appreciation of the earlier work of Alfred Klotz, yet criticizes Klotz severely on two grounds.


For the sixth of these parallels he gives a slight correction due to the Publius Nigidius Figulus (ca.
Therefore, Schnabel argues, the incorrect latitude of Hipparchus was corrected by Agrippa who had experience of the Black Sea in his later years. His proximate source, moreover, he names in section 217, according to his usual custom, as Nigidius Figulus.
The parallels of Meroe and Thule were both equally useless in astrological geography although they may well have been mentioned by Nigidius, as they are by Strabo simply by way of clearing the decks.
H, 10, 1.) for the mouth of the river Varus (the frontier of Gaul and Italy), that is, 27A° 30a€™ E longitude and 43A° N latitude, and again his position for Nesakton (Geog. This method Ptolemy has described quite clearly and unambiguously in the fourth chapter of Book I of his Geography. It is difficult to see how Schnabel imagined that this line could be reduced to a straight line of 411 miles. What they have to say they translate from the Greeks but of themselves they provide very little impulse to learning, so that where the Greeks have left gaps the Romans provide little to fill the deficiency, especially since most of the well-known writers are Greek.a€? On a comparison of this passage with Straboa€™s usual sycophantic admiration of things Roman we can rate it as very severe criticism. He was, therefore, well acquainted also with the map or Agrippa to which, or to whose content he refers no less than seven times in his Books II, V and VI. In the fourth century the study of spherical geometry was pushed forward rapidly by Eudoxus in the Academy, and again by Callippus. This new knowledge was then exploited geographically by Eratosthenes of Cyrene (#112) in the latter half of the third century. His delineation of the Near East, of Egypt, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean was reasonably correct, and this was also true of his sketch of the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Brettanic islands in which area he followed Pytheas. Hipparchus further indicated the theoretic requirements for establishing the exact location of points on the eartha€™s surface. Despite his criticism of earlier geographers such as Pytheas, Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, it has long been recognized that he does not advance their work except in providing some details in regard to the map of Europe, while his general map of Europe has more faults than that of Eratosthenes. Without the stiffening of astronomical observation the Roman road systems were like a number of fingers probing blindly in the dark.
The variation in the figures is aggravated by the fact that our later authorities do not entirely understand the Roman method of expressing large numbers as used by Agrippa and Pliny. This is, however, a serious error on the part of Klotz and to accept it would be a very retrograde step in our appreciation of the map. Therefore the word longitude could reasonably he used of its full length, and the measurements at right angles to this, that is, the latitudes, varied so much that Agrippa thought it necessary to give at least two, one in northern Italy and the second from Rome to the river Aternus. Since the Pyrenees are supposed to run north and south the longitude of Hispania citerior is really the latitude, as was noted before. Over the Rhine lies a small Germany, only half the size of Gaul, and southeast of it an Illyricum and Pannonia of about the same size as Germany. Cross measurements of the Mediterranean are given at three points, from the Italian coast by way of Corsica and Sardinia to Africa, from southern Greece through Sicily to the same place, and from Cape Malea in Greece to Crete and Cyrenaica. Mesopotamia measures a fairly modest 800 by 320 miles, but further east Media measures 1,320 by 840, Arabia to the south is 2,170 by 1,296 and, finally, India represents the Far East with 3,300 by 1,300. He must have taken over the map of Eratosthenes as revised by people such as Polybius, Posidonius and Artemidorus, and made it the basis of his own.
Pliny understood these measurements as being the prime value of the map and that is why he copies them so exhaustively.
Sometimes simple dividing lines were used, such as that used in central Spain, or wherever natural features of division were not present.
Thus Agrippaa€™s India corresponds generally to the first a€?seala€? of Eratosthenes, and Agrippaa€™s Arabia, Ethiopia and Upper Egypt corresponds to the fourth a€?seala€?.
Even with an astronomical basis they only provide us with a set of rectangles mostly scattered at haphazard about the Mediterranean. At the boundaries to the north, east and south he had to content himself with qua cognitum est. This water feature is significant not only in the fact that it is completely landlocked, unlike most waterways which empty into a surrounding sea, but also notably both waterways are 1) truncated at each end by circular lakes 2) are similarly arced away from the center of their C-shaped surrounding, and 3) span the portion of their C-shape lying opposite the Greek and Italian peninsulas, the portion of the map which coincides with Africa. First century Roman maps like Agripaa€™s Orbis Terrarum, which had existed throughout Europe, disappeared during the medieval period, but at least one copy was discovered in Germany just a few years prior to the arrival of Schonera€™s 1515 globe, the Peutinger Table (#120), and therefore it is not unreasonable to believe that SchA¶ner might have had access to an unfinished copy of Agrippaa€™s map.
When Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum was originally created and put up for display on the wall of a portico, extensive commentary was likely consolidated within the center circular zone (2), but extending Jerusalem and Asia Minor into the mapa€™s center displaced much of the central text and necessitated the text's redistribution about the mappamundia€™s new design, relocating comments within the region to which each pertained, which is why we find the mappae mundi littered with commentary. But it may actually be that the EMM were based on the original text found on Agrippaa€™s map with the locative terms such as a€?above,a€? a€?opposite,a€? and a€?to the south ofa€? being necessary for a consolidated text set apart from the map, while the mappaemundia€™s placement of these data items directly onto the map logically allowed the removal of the spatial references. The mappaemundi maintained this orientation because medieval Christians held Eden, which they believed resided in the east, in high esteem.
The reconstruction also omits completely the lateral mountain range above the waterway, which seems like a rather large oversight as both the Peutinger Table and Ptolemya€™s map, two ancient Roman maps, incorporated a trans-African range as does SchA¶nera€™s design. It also maintains a more realistic belief that ancient maps did not maintain the accuracy of modern maps, but retained a basic design and set of elements common to nearly all ancient maps.
The crisp, hard edges of the building, which takes on a tire tread-like texture, show deference to the supple shapes and sheen of the bikes that park along the open-air streets, meant to re-create the feel of annual bike rallies in places like Sturgis, S.D. That tragedy led to the country s first Disaster Management Act, followed eight months later by the establishment of the Disaster Management Centre. Prize or prize certificates will not be mailed to the winner without the winner s prior written consent in which the winner shall agree to assume its risk of loss.
The caller told authorities that one person had made it out, but two people were still inside the residence. Tensions between Egypt and Iran heightened when the Islamic Republic named a street after Khalid Islambouli, who assassinated Egyptian President Anwar Al-Sadat in October 1981.
Last week, it widened thecorridor by5 kopeks andsaid that it will continue toadd 5 kopeks tothe corridor foreach $600 million ofintervention money it spends onkeeping theruble inthe corridor. 22, 2013, the Philippines unilaterally initiated compulsory arbitration proceedings with respect to the relevant issues between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea. While both treatments relieved the hot flashes these drugs are designed to treat, in neither case did the scientists find any changes in cognition or thinking, for better or worse. Thehouse's chef serves fine grilled meat, boiled sprats, andFrench fries, among many other treats. Phelps admitted to smoking marijuana before driving his car and agreed to take a breath test and evaluation for marijuana intoxication. At a press conference in Kathmandu on Tuesday afternoon, the political parties appealed for calm after violent protests erupted in the western region of the country against the proposed six-state federal set-up.
Tel Aviv defines such goods as dual use - meaning that while they are needed for the civilian population, they could also potentially be used by militant groups in attacks. Le but de cet v nement, qui est aussi celui de ce groupe financ par des capitaux trangers, tant de diaboliser et de diffamer l arm e isra lienne.Il semble donc que le gouvernement ait finalement d cid de r pondre aux provocations. The game is striking in both its anime-style art style and its attitude, which includes God checking in on your progress by calling your guardian angel over a mobile phone.
All his 12 children are to be beneficiaries, but the deciding votes will be held by his wife and one of his children. There is still no official number of dead since the fighting started, but officials estimate in the tens of thousands, while an additional 1.5 million people have been internally displaced and 500,000 have fled abroad. It has two other LNG developments on its books a 5-mtpa plant at Vladivostok that could be on line by 2018 and could expand to 10 mtpa in the 2020s; and the 10 mtpa Baltic LNG project that could be producing in 2018. Many were standing around the cross looking up at Jesus as he was crucified and were astonishedas they begin to see Jesus lose his form and comeliness, right before their eyes as Jesus bones were coming out of joint, because of all our sins being laid upon him, others looked up at Jesus and said an evil disease cleaveth fast unto him: as they were watching him become deformed right in front of them, this was all our sicknesses being laid upon the body of Jesus.
48: a€?Whoever receives this child in my name receives me, and whoever receives me receives him who sent me. To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold. In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him.
This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi.
The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head. Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog.
This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself. Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur.
Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group. If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok. A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows. A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree. Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo. Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats. The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St. Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction.
This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries.
Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance. It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India.
King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand. Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi. On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum.
Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins. The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times. Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers. The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains. Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula.
The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted. In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet. It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward. Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise. The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously. In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. The speakers compare Italy with Asia Minor, a country on similar latitudes where Greeks had experience of farming. India, Seres [China], and Scythia and Sarmatia [Russia] are reduced to small outlying regions on the periphery, thus taking on some features similar to the egocentric maps of the Chinese.
He first became prominent as governor of Gaul, where he improved the road system and put down a rebellion in Aquitania. Thus Agrippa is said to have written that the whole coast of the Caspian from the Casus River consists of very high cliffs, which prevent landing for 425 miles. Such a word certainly ties up with Divisio I: a€?The world is divided up into three parts, named Europe, Asia, Libya or Africa. It is, as one might expect, more accurate in well-known than less-known parts, and more accurate for land than for sea areas.
Moreover it seems to have been the first Latin map to be accompanied by notes or commentary. In regard to the materials of construction I think we have to choose between the painted type of wall-map mentioned by Varro and the construction of marble slabs that is used in the forma urbis Romae of two centuries later, of which considerable parts are extant. Detlefsen, as against the view of Partsch, effectively quoted the passage of the younger Pliny, on the 160 volumes of his unclea€™s commentarii, which he describes as electoruma€¦ commentarios, opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos, annotated excerpts, written on the back in a minute hand. It is, of course, possible to imagine that tabulated lists were put up as an adjunct to the map at the short ends, but the references to Spain and the Caspian seem somewhat out of place even here, and the balance of probability on this problem seems to lie, although rather precariously in favor of a contemporary, or nearly contemporary, publication of at least a selection of Agrippaa€™s material comprising something more than mere lists of names and figures.
Detlefsena€™s view that both works were the transformation of actual maps into a written record had the advantage that the differences in the order of the material in the two works was of little consequence, the map giving merely the visual impact, and the writer a€?being free to begin his description at whatever point on the map he preferreda€?. First come the boundaries of the province given in the constant order east, west, north, south. Firstly, Klotz has not discussed the possible use of Agrippa in Ptolemya€™s Geography, and secondly, and much more fundamentally, he has not recognized the scientific importance of the world-map of Agrippa as a link between Eratosthenes and Hipparchus on the one hand and Marinus and Ptolemy on the other, but has merely repeated traditional views dating from the end of the 19th century. It follows further, says Schnabel, that Plinya€™s seventh parallel, that of fifteen hours, belongs equally to Agrippa. Detlefsen pointed this out in 1909, and Kroll (after Honigmann) throws further light on the subject in his article on Nigidius in R. Plinya€™s final phrase about these scholars adding half an hour to all parallels denotes rather the astronomer than the astrologer. III, 1, 7) on the river Arsia, that is, 36A° 15a€™ east longitude arid 44A° 55a€™ N latitude. It would be fairer to use the reduction factor from Ptolemy's third map of Europe, referring to Gaul (Book VIII, cap. Hipparchus however, reckoned the distance from Syene to Alexandria as seven and one-seventh degrees of latitude.
The most important of these passages is the first (II, 5, 17, C 120) where he refers to the important role played by the sea and secondarily, and by rivers and mountains in the shaping of the earth.
Yet we may be sure that maps still continued to be made as rectangles on a plane surface, although the relation of the spherical to the plane surface must have begun to appear as a problem.
His calculation of the length of the eartha€™s circumference and of the degree length of 700 stadia was a notable event in the advance of geography. For latitude he described the celestial phenomena for each individual degree of the ninety degrees running north front the Equator to the North Pole, giving for each the length of the longest day and the stars visible. He tells us that the lack of gnomonic readings in the east, of which Hipparchus complained, was equally true of the west (IL 1, C 71). When one considers the variants within the MSS groups it follows that one may have a dozen or more variants for a single number. The corresponding Greek words had, of course, originally meant length and breadth with no particular sense of direction. In Spain again the Pyrenees were always regarded as running north and south, parallel to the Rhine, while the east coast as far as the straits and Cadiz was regarded as running more or lees in a straight line to the west. Detlefsen accepts that Agrippaa€™s figure is an error without being able to explain why, while for Klotz Syria is an obvious proof that Agrippa assigned no definite direction to his longitude.
India alone, therefore, has a longitude as great as the whole Mediterranean, while its latitude is comparable to that of Europe and Africa combined. His chief pride would seem to have been in his measurements, and indeed it is only for the exactness of these that Pliny praises him when he refers to BA¦tica in Book III, 17.
Again the horizontal spine of Mount Taurus plays an important role in both as a line of division between the northern and southern areas, Agrippa, however, follows the Eratosthenic method of division only in a general way and not in detail. It is quite certain that the waterway made its way onto the mappaemundi via Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum as this landlocked waterway represents the Roman belief that the Nile River originated in the mountains of Mauritania and ran laterally across the continent dividing the African continent in two with Libya to the north and Ethiopia to the south. And finally, based on SchA¶nera€™s design Agrippaa€™s map was built around a concentric grid that resembled a polar projection which he as a globe maker would have readily recognized.
Ancient Roman maps like the Peutinger Table, however, oriented the map with north to the top similar to the reconstruction based on SchA¶nera€™s design.
But should some doubts still linger, he offers one last review two earlier images comparing the landmass to other C-shaped maps, the Greek Hecataeus (#108) and medieval Hereford world maps, and ask that you consider the mathematical probability that SchA¶ner would incorporate the precise elements of these maps in their precise order and placement without an ancient world map as his template. Panicker submitted that it was mandatory for units with more than 10 workers and engaged in continuous processing, manufacturing, and distribution of any product to come within the ambit of the Act. The Promoter, its sponsor, or promotional partner are not responsible for the safe arrival of a prize or prize certificate.
The next day, while inaugurating a road while Scioli stood at her side, she said: "We could have saved so much time if (the opposition) had realized just a little sooner" the value of the policies. Inother words, theCentral Bank is revving up tomanage acontrolled, slow-moving devaluation ofthe ruble that will soften theblow ofan external crisis andpreserve Russia's hard currency reserves: If Greece has acontrolled default, Russia will respond with acontrolled devaluation.
Since then, the Philippines has obstinately pushed for the above-mentioned arbitration proceedings despite repeated objections of China. Here's an idea for MBC, start collecting the rates from those that don't pay rather than hammering the ones that do pay. Phelps then asked Hektoen if he would take a Snapchat selfie, according to the criminal complaint. A Republican rewrite without Democratic input will not inspire broad confidence that elected representatives will put the public's interest over their own or those of special interests financing their campaigns. In addition, 16 of the 33 Senate seats are up in the November election under the new legislative districts more favorable for Republicans, meaning their party could pick up enough seats to regain the majority. In May-June last year, a Chinese naval task force held military exercises with Cameroon and Nigeria, the first time that the Chinese navy appeared in the west coast of Africa.
The world of El Shaddai ' is mesmerizing and beautiful and an amazing place to escape for hours. Another product is an antibiotic foam for treatment of Impetigo, an infectious disease, which is due to begin a Phase III trial after talks with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1959, in a story describing the crash-landing of a German Bomber plane on a north-east of Scotland farm 19 years earlier during the Battle of Britain, 1940.A The farm was `Windyhead`, situated on a hilly plateau in Buchan, Aberdeenshire, just outside the ancient village of New Aberdour where St.
In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part. Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination. What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise. Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea. Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art. The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term.
As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well. Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara. Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns. Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events. Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity.
When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins. Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark. From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made. Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars. They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation. Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region.
He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated. In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis.
This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map.
The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China.
Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer. About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia. A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta. Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter. Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth.
Within this round frame the Roman cartographers placed the Orbis Terrarum, the circuit of the world.
This shape was also one that suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. If Romans were planning this, they would place the northern section much further west, whereas the cartographers were Greeks, and they followed a tradition which originated in Rhodes or Alexandria. He pacified the area near Cologne (later founded as a Roman colony) by settling the Ubii at their request on the west bank of the Rhine.
Agrippa was an obvious choice as composer of such a map, being a naval man who had traveled widely and had an interest in the technical side. The date at which the building was started is not known, but it was still incomplete in 7 B.C.
If the commentary had not been continuous, but had merely served as supplementary notes where required, there is a possibility that by Plinya€™s time, some eighty years later, it might have gone out of circulation. Augustus was the first to show it [the world] by chorography.a€? Evidently there is a slight difference of meaning between this and Ptolemya€™s definition, by which chorography refers to regional mapping. From the quotations given by Dilke, there would appear to be a general tendency by Agrippa to underestimate land distances in Gaul, Germany and in the Far East, and to overestimate sea distances.
Although the words used are longitudo and latitudo, they have no connection with longitudinal and latitudinal degree divisions. Romans going to colonies, particularly outside Italy, could obtain information about the location or characteristics of a particular place. We know that the campus Agrippae was in the campus Markus on the east side of the Via Flaminia and that it was bordered towards the street on the west by the Porticus Vipsania. In view of the widespread use of marble facings that characterizes the age of Augustus, the marble slab method appears more probable. Riese and Partsch had argued that certain references to Agrippa in Pliny, in particular the reference to the inaccessibility of part of the coast of the Caspian Sea and also that to the Punic origins of the coastal towns of Baetica refer more naturally to a published work than to the map in the Porticus Vipsania.
We do not know the size of this map that has perished, or whether its descent from the map of Agrippa was through a series of hand-copies as Detlefsen supposed.
In actual fact Pliny and the Divisio both begin their description from the straits of Gibraltar, moving east, while the Demensuratio, on the contrary, begins with India moves west. Following on this and connected there with come the longitude and latitude, in that order, expressed in Roman miles with Roman numerals. These views stated that Agrippaa€™s work was constructed on the basis of Roman itinerary measurements and took no note of the scientific results of the astronomical geography of the Greeks. Pliny then adds a€?from later studentsa€? five more parallels, three of them, those of the Don, of Britain, and of Thule, running north of the original seven, and two, those of Meroe and Syene, running south of them. What is new in Plinya€™s parallels may be referred to the Greek astronomers of the age of Hipparchus or the two or three generations after him.
By subtraction we get the difference in longitude between the two places as 8A° 45a€™ and the difference in latitude as 1A° 55a€™.
This third class was to be manipulated as intelligently as possible so as to fit in with the basic evidence of the first two classes.
But in every case instead of a geometrical definition a simple and rough definition is enough. He also established a fundamental parallel of latitude, following the example of DicA¦archus. The north, the far east, and Africa south of the Arabian gulf, were practically unknown, and even in the Mediterranean and the land-areas surrounding it, major defects were due to the great uncertainties of measurement, whether by land or by sea. Straboa€™s aversion to the mathematical and astronomical sick of geography has already been described and considered as typical of the age that he lived. Much toil has been expended by scholars such as Partsch, Detlefsen and Klotz in attempting to divine which, if any, of these figures belong to Agrippa. They became technical terms for longitude and latitude with a strict directional sense in the filth century B.C. The north coast, however, was usually thought to run from Lisbon (Cabo da Roca) to the Pyrenees, the northwest capes, Nerium and Ortegal, being ignored. Detlefsen held that the map was not drawn to scale and that the measurements were merely inscribed upon it.
Unfortunately, in nearly all cases we know neither the beginning nor the end of the routes measured, nor do we know, with any exactness, the direction of the route. Eratosthenes determined the sides of his a€?seals,a€? that were irregular quadrilaterals, by the points of the compass.
It is clear that he gave the itinerary stages in Italy and Sicily in addition to the coastal sailing measurements. He believes such a notion is impossible and with the presentation of a sound argument for the circumstances contributing to SchA¶nera€™s error, there remains little reason to doubt that because of his grand error we are able to gaze upon Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum for the first time in many centuries.
He alleged that the unit processes used syringes and gloves and transports them to Coimbatore to be sold to medical equipment manufacturing units without proper licence from the DFB. The decision to federate the country into six provinces with tentative demarcation of borders sparked protests in various parts of the country.
It's a quiet performance yet so assured that it takes you mere seconds to learn to read his silences. Reid Ribble, a Wisconsin Republican, and his Democratic colleague in the House, Jim Cooper of Tennessee, unveiled a pair of bills back in March that got little notice but could go a long way to making the nation's reapportionment process less partisan. Shapcott is one of the world’s leading researchers on how to effectively market to, and teach, women the game of golf.
On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion. The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is.
In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance.
Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography. These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish.
Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables. Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat. The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird.
According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land. Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots. Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves. Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned. The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India. In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character. And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods. South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy. The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass.
They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks. In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea.
The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes.
On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai. Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese.
One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down.
It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo. In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441.
If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions. Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia.
The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong. Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. As a visual aid to this discussion, the temple map will have been envisaged as particularly helpful.
He must have had plans drawn, and may even have devised and used large-scale maps to help him with the conversion of Lake Avemus and the Lacus Lucrinus into naval ports. Two late geographical writings, the Divisio orbis and the Dimensuratio provinciarum (commonly abbreviated to Divisio and Dimensuratio) may be thought to come from Agrippa, because they show similarities with Plinya€™s figures. If West Africa is any guide, in areas where distances were not well established, they were probably entered only very selectively. Also the full extent of the Roman Empire could be seen at a glance.a€?Certain medieval maps, including the Hereford and Ebstorf world maps (see monographs #224 and #226 in Book IIB) are now believed to have been derived from the Orbis Terraum of Agrippa, and point to the existence of a series of maps, now lost, that carried the traditions of Roman cartography into Christian Europe. Varro, in the following century, tells us of a map of Italy that was painted on the wall of the temple of Tellus.
Remains of the portico are stated to have been found opposite the Piazza Colonna on the Corso at about the position of the column of Marcus Aurelius and further north.
The volumes of commentary referred to by the younger Pliny were not published, but were clearly digested to the point where little further work was needed to prepare them for publication, and the same situation may well be accepted for the commentarii of Agrippa. The text, however, had long previously been known from its reproduction in the first five chapters of the De Mensura Orbis Terrae, published by the Irish scholar Dicuil in A.D. But it did quite clearly derive from that map, whether in the map-form or in a written form, with its list of seas, mountains, rivers, harbors, gulfs and cities.
On Klotza€™s view that both works derive from a common written source this major divergence becomes a problem to he explained, but Klotz can offer no explanation. The boundaries are marked by the natural features, usually the mountains, rivers, deserts and oceans, only occasionally by towns or other features.
Of these parallels Schnabel tries to establish that at least two are due to Agrippa, to wit, the first of the new parallels passing through the Don, and the seventh of the old parallels passing through the mouth of the Dnieper. Using Ptolemya€™s reduction factor at 43A° N latitude which is forty-three sixtieths we find that with Ptolemya€™s degree of 500 stadia the difference in longitude between the two places in question is 3,135 and five-twelfths stadia and the difference in latitude is 958 and one-third stadia. It was this third kind of evidence which gave Ptolemy his positions for the Varus and the Arsia. He thinks the 411 miles represents the itinerary measurement from the Varus to Rimini through Dertona, and that the Arsia has got attached to it by a slight confusion in Pliny's mind in thinking of the boundaries between the mare superum and the mare inferum, with which, in fact, he equates the Varus-Arsia measurement. This factor of forty sixtieths or two-thirds gives a distance of approximately 384 miles from Varus to Arsia and the striking coincidence on which Schnabel has built this elaborate theory simply vanishes. Therefore, argues Schnabel, Agrippa made a new reckoning of the degree at 80 Roman miles or 640 stadia.
Such features as these brought into existence the continents, the tribes, the fine natural sites of cities and the other decorative features of which our chorogaphic map is chock full.a€? The map of Agrippa displayed, therefore, all the natural features just mentioned and, in addition, the names of tribes and of famous cities. Only a combination of the practical measurements with astronomical observation could have affected a real progress and our evidence shows only too clearly that this happy union did not take place.
Some light has been thrown on the subject by comparison with later Roman itineraries for the particular areas.
The result of this misconception was that the figures for longitude and latitude were simply interchanged.
Agrippa regarded the Syrian coast running northeast from the boundary of Egypt, as running much more in an easterly direction than it actually does. His map represents, says Detlefsen, a moment of historical development, a point in the process of crystallization of the lands of the Mediterranean into the Roman Empire.
Agrippa defines the boundaries of his groups of countries in the same way, by the points of the compass, but as regards size he supplies only the length and breadth, thus agreeing with Strabo, already quoted.
It is a question whether these itinerary measurements were given, in detail on the map for all the western provinces, not to mention the eastern ones. On another note perhaps Mallon might reflect on the cost of investigations into his behaviour that of his ex-colleagues that cost the town a fortune under Lancet!
It is the second largest town in North Sinai and the only major population centre remaining in the restive corner of the peninsula, which borders the Gaza Strip and Israel. Three people were killed and over half a dozen injured in violence that broke out in Surkhet district in mid-western Nepal. Drostan his companion first landed when they brought the Gospel to the North-East shoulder of Scotland 1400 years earlier, and indeed the very village where St. Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols.
Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south). A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality.
One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map. A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule. The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice.
In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan.
Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest.
It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones. In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch. These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili. As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features. This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay. A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes. On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus.
The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China. This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History. In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men. A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations. But whether it was only intended to be imagined by readers or was actually illustrated in the book is not clear. The map was presumably developed from the Roman road itineraries, and may have been circular in shape, thus differing from the Roman Peutinger Table (#120). The theory that it was circular is in conflict with a shape that would suit a colonnade wall.
What purpose was served by giving a width for the long strip from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea is not clear. Dilke provides a detailed discussion of Agrippaa€™s measurements using quotes from the elder Plinya€™s Natural History.
We do not know the occasion of this dedication, but since it was meant to celebrate a victory it may been intended for the geographical instruction of the Roman public. They are said to allow the conclusion that it had the same dimensions and construction as the adjacent porticus saeptorum, whose dimensions were 1,500 ft.
The twelve lines were inscribed on this map and also on an obviously contemporary written version thereof, and it is this written version that has been preserved for us both by Dicuil and in the various manuscripts of the Divisio orbis terrarum, whereas the map has perished.
Klotz, however, believed that be could determine the original succession of countries and groups of countries as treated in the published work of Agrippa by criteria.
The Demensuratio on one occasion gives the fauna and flora of Eastern India, which it calls the land of pepper, elephants, snakes, sphinxes and parrots. He argues that the Dnieper was used as a line of demarcation between Sarmatia to the east and Dacia to the west only on the map of Agrippa, and neither earlier nor later, and that therefore the parallel from the Don through the Dnieper must derive from that map.
Plinya€™s seven klimata are a piece of astrological geography and derive through Nigidius from Serapion of Antioch, who was probably a pupil of Hipparchus, or if not was a student of his work. But there is no vestige of probability or proof that Agrippa made new gnomonic readings to correct Hipparchus. Schnabel now treats the spherical triangle involved as a plane right-angled triangle, and using the theorem of Pythagoras, he finds that the hypotenuse, that is, the distance between the Varus and the Arsia is 3,291 stadia or 411 Roman miles. Gnomonic readings were often inaccurate, measurement of time was still very vague, and a degree length one-sixth too large did not help. He used the circle of 360 degrees, giving up the hexecontads [a 60-sided polygon] of Eratosthenes. But since we normally do not know by what route Agrippaa€™s measurements were taken, this light may prove to be a will-o-the wisp. Aristotle, Strabo and Pliny all insist on the technical directional sense, as there was the possibility of ignorant people misunderstanding them.
The same thing occurred in the British islands that were regarded as running from northeast to southwest. 1,200, 720 and 410 miles, respectively, running from the unknown north down to the Aegean, but all having approximately the same latitude of just under 400 miles.
Therefore the longitude was to him the east-west direction, and the latitude from Seleucia Pieria to Zeugma was the north-south direction. Partial distances were given from station to station along the Italian coast, but Detlefsen thinks that the summation of the coastal measurements appeared elsewhere on the map. Where this process is complete we have ready-made provinces, where it is still in progress we find the raw materials of provinces-to-be, which are still parts of large and scarcely known areas, and finally, where Roman armies have never set foot we find enormous, amorphous masses lumped together as geographical units. It is notable, as Detlefsen points out, that Strabo must have recognized this lack of scientific value. It appears from passages in Pliny that Varro had already used the Roman itineraries in his geographical books and Agrippa was only following his example.
Present at the conference were Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, CPN-UML chairman Jhala Nath Khanal, UCPN (Maoist) chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal and MJF-L chairman Bijayakumar Gachhadar.
Chaque ann e, les Pays-Bas consacrent plusieurs millions d euros au financement, direct ou indirect, d organisations dont le seul objectif est la diabolisation d Isra l. Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249). For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia.
The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels. The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life.
Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens.
That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness. This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent.
The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map. Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details. Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured. Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes. On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts.
The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located.
Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi. It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. The same applies to possible cartographic illustration of Varroa€™s Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum, of which Books VII-XIII dealt with Italy. The map of Agrippa, however, was set up, not in a sacred place, but in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsania.
Dicuil worked and wrote probably at the Frankish palace at Aix-la-Chapelle in the time of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
The date of the making of the map was probably the fifteenth consulate of Theodosius II, that is, A.D. One of these was the direction shown in the order of naming several particular countries where several are included in the same section, or the direction shown in the list of the boundaries of the section.
This argument, however, is unsound for a number of reasons, of which the most obvious in this context is that whereas the Dnieper is given by our sources as the west boundary of Sarmatia, it is never given as the east boundary of Dacia. Nigidius was a notorious student of the occult and his astrological geography was contained in a work apparently entitled de terris. At right angles to this he established a meridian running from Meroe northwards to the mouth of the Dnieper, and passing through Alexandria, Rhodes and Byzantium. Yet he did not try to get a more exact value for the degree, although this was the point where theory could most easily have affected practice. Moreover, although the Roman roads may often have rationalized the native roads by new road-construction or by bridging, yet in general they continued to be town-to-town roads, and if the itineraries ever correctly represented the longitude and latitude of a province it would be by pure chance. But, you may object, this technical sense is only suitable for describing rectangles and not all countries fall into that convenient form. Here again longitudo is the long axis and latitudo the short axis, not because of a misuse of these technical terms, but simply because their general position was misconceived. Further east again Sarmatia [Russia], including the Black Sea to the south, measures 980 by 715 miles, Asia Minor 1,155 by 325, Armenia and the Caspian 480 by 280.
Any doubt on this matter is removed when we look at Pliny (VI, 126), where he gives the latitude from the same point, Seleucia Pieria, to the mouth of the Tigris. It is probable that Italy and the neighboring islands were given in greater detail than other areas.
Of the first class, the ordered provinces, we have eight in Europe, three in Africa, and three in Asia. He gives us from Agrippa, a few lines along the coasts of Italy and Sicily but not a single one of his reckonings for the provinces. Since so little of the materials of the ancient geographers bas been preserved it is mostly a matter of chance whether we know or do not know whether Agrippa agreed or not with the measurements of a particular earlier geographer. L ambassade isra lienne La Haye et le ministre des Affaires trang res doivent exiger un arr t imm diat de cette campagne subversive et diffamatoire.
1-5,6 When I call to rememberance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and in thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also. Century.A The farmer, my father, James (Jimmy) Beedie was sitting, relaxing at home with his cousin Donald Watson when they heard the strange, roaring sound of an aircraft engine as it passed overhead A They rushed to the door, but from the dreich, damp, foggy sky above them, they heard no more. Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer.
By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely. The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map.
If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map. Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile). This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron.
It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy. In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy. The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found. Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist. This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map.
There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean. Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast.
The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and . With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara).
But at least we know that he was keen on illustration, since his Hebdomades vel de imaginibus, a biographical work in fifteen books, was illustrated with as many as seven hundred portraits. Plinya€™s most specific reference to the map is where he records that the length of BA¦tica, the southern Spanish province, given as 475 Roman miles and its width as 258 Roman miles, whereas the width could still be correct, depending on how it was calculated. It was not a map of a part of the Empire, not even a map of the Empire as a whole, but rather a map of the whole known world, of which the Roman Empire was merely one part. The Porticus Vipsania was, therefore, an enormous colonnade and it follows that the map with which we are concerned was only one decorative item among the many that adorned it.
Thus he says that the order Cevennes-Jura for the northern boundary of Narbonese Gaul shows motion from west to east, and again the list Macedonia, Hellespont, left side it the Black Sea shows the same movement.
This work seems to have included his commentary on the sphaera Graecanica describing the Greek constellations and his sphaera barbarica on the non-Greek constellations. From the coincidence of the figures Schnabel strongly argues that Ptolemy must have taken over the figure of 411 miles from Agrippa. The establishment of these two lines provided the theoretical basis for a grid of lines of parallels and meridians respectively, points being fixed by longitude and latitude as by the coordinates in a graph.
The measurements of Agrippa should, therefore, be reduced but it is not easy to say by what factor. This is true indeed, and here we have to consider a few ancient misconceptions about the shapes and positions of particular countries. The distance is 175 miles from Seleucia to Zeugma, 724 miles from Zeugma to Seleucia and Tigrim and 320 miles to the mouth of the Tigris, that is, 1,219 in all.
Of the second class, where the Romans had recent military campaign we have three in Europe, that is, Germany, Dacia and Sarmatia, one in Africa, Mauretania, and one in Asia, Armenia. Klotz has shown that he used Eratosthenes very often, but that on occasion he disagreed with him, and that Artemidorus apparently he did not use at all.
Wherefore I put you in rememberance that thou stir up (re-kindle) the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands. Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™. Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds. The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages. In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented. Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet.
The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ. The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him. In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael.
Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine. On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. Since we are told that this work was widely circulated, some scholars have wondered whether Varro used some mechanical means of duplicating his miniatures; but educated slaves were plentiful, and we should almost certainly have heard about any such device if it had existed. Pliny continues: a€?Who would believe that Agrippa, a very careful man who took great pains over his work, should, when he was going to set up the map to be looked at by the people of Rome, have made this mistake, and how could Augustus have accepted it?
The second criterion is that the use (the alleged use) of the term longitudo for a north-south direction or for any direction other than the canonical one of east-west, shows us the direction of Agrippaa€™s order in treating of the geography. Nigidiusa€™ a€?barbaric spherea€? was derived from the like-named work of Asclepiades of Myrlea.
The two main passages from Straboa€™s second book may reasonably be regarded as a transcript of contemporary geographical practice and since between them they give an exact description of the methods followed in the ancient remains of the map of Agrippa, Tierney thinks that they may rightly be regarded as a strong proof that the views held on this map by Detlefsen and Klotz are generally correct.
In somewhat similar circumstances Ptolemy reduced the figures of Marinus in Asia and Africa by about one-half. This distance, he adds, is the latitude of the earth between the two seas, that is, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins. In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door. In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti. The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist.
The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence. These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia. Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke. The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm. It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks. For it was Augustus who, when Agrippaa€™s sister had begun building the portico, carried through the scheme from the intention and notes [commentarii] of M.


Tierney does not believe that either of these criteria can show us the order of treatment in the original publication, presuming, that is, that there was an original publication.
The detailed extension of the Greek parallels into the Roman west is apparently due to Nigidius.
Agrippa, he thinks, took the itinerary figure for the distance from the Varus to the Arsia, which is given as 745 miles by Pliny (III, 132) and reduced it to a straight line of 411 miles by astronomical and mathematical measurement.
A Jimmy and Donald had been listening to the BBC report on their Marconi Radio unaware that before the night was over they too would be caught up in their own `Battle of Britain experience` at the farm.
Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt. The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages. It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map.
This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification. Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name.
The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper. We are prone to forget that all ancient geographers were necessarily map-minded, and even when the map was not before their physical eye, it was before their mental eye.
This proves, therefore, that Agrippaa€™s map was not a purely itinerary map, but that Agrippa reduced the itinerary measurements in the way described. People say, that is my problem I don't have any faith, well then you need to turn your life over to the Lord and he will put a measure of faith in your heart, that is what is written here in Romans 12:1-3, but you say I have turned my life over to the Lord, then you have the faith of God within you, you just need to stir it up. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees. However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west.
Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava. On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation. Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog. Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India.
The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying. Augustus, as he was ill, handed his signet-ring to Agrippa, thus indicating him as acting emperor.
The order of countries within a section would, I think, very much depend on the momentary motions or aberrations of that mental eye. It is unfortunate, however, that nearly all Agrippaa€™s figures come down to us in a non-reduced form that makes it impossible to reproduce his map. You need to settle it in your heart once and for all that you have the faith of God within you.
I had this wonderful sermon today on resurrection but I am changing it due to something in this morninga€™s paper. It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent.
The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia. Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China. As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia. Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat. The same year Agrippa was given charge of all the eastern parts of the Empire, with headquarters at Mitylene. If you haven't turned your life over to the Lord, then you will never walk by faith, you see, you don't use God, he uses you. The Pilot, peering out of his cockpit window and trying to make sense of where he was, had because of sea-fog, crossed the shoreline unknowingly, and was unaware that he was now over Scottish farm-land.A The Bomber`s crew, Ltz. The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa. The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island. As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian. There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler. It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India. God isn't our servant we are his servants and walking by faith and doing his will go hand in hand. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles. A My second week at the course I got in early and became bored while waiting for my homeboys.
Faith worketh by love, if your faith isn't working you are not obeying God, you are not believing the gospel and doing God's will, you may be trying to, but only God can lead a person to repent and believe the gospel, just don't turn away from the Lord because he is faithful and he will surely lead you to repentance if you humble yourself and continue to hold fast to the gospel.
According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia. From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent. Let me tell you this, you can believe some, you may be a weak believer, but use the faith you have and you will get stronger in faith.A The next question a person would have is, how do you stir up the gift of God (faith) in you? Our daughter who is also in the Army was in special training for 3 A? months and Oma and I took care of Alan at our home. The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East. A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region. At the local daycare, Alan met his friend Noah and they played together for the duration of this time. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation. A My teammates and coaches were often challenged by my "Just give me the ball and get the hell out of my way" attitude. You see faith is a substance, it also is a spirit and it is confident, but believing is an act of your will. A I was not the best athlete on the field or on the court, but I thought I was.A When the game was on the line I wanted the ball in my hands.
You will have to use your will to the believe the gospel when you don't have any faith working in you, until your faith is stirred up. Faith will be ministered to you as you hear the gospel by the Spirit and it will persuade you to believe, but you will have to use your will to believe while you are overcoming unbelief.
A She was right, it had gouged a long deep gully in the wet earth of the turnip field nearby. Believing is choosing to trust in God's power, sticking with it, you continue to trust until you recieve what you were trusting God for and if it is his will you will have faith for it, but you will have to believe the gospel to overcome the unbelief in your heart so that the faith of God in you will rule.A In John 6 it is written that this is the work of God that you believe, it is work to believe, it takes much effort in prayer, but I believe that once we overcome the unbelief in our hearts it won't be that hard, I have experienced many times when it was easy to believe, and then a little while later I would be fighting more unbelief and it got hard again. Quarter of a mile, precisely, in a field of corn, after rutting the turnip field, bouncing into a wall - which sent it`s floats flying and one of it`s engines skiing off at a tangent - the plane, having rumbled on for another 100 yards or so through the field of corn, had come to a final halt having embedded it`s nose in the soft, fertile, north-east soil. The reason it is hard is because the power of the devil resisting you, but through faith you overcome him, little by little. A The three German airmen tried to make their escape from the plane, fearing that it might blow up at any moment. Donations can be sent to any PNC bank location in Pennsylvania directed to the Noah Staley Trust Fund. One jumped clear before it struck ground, thinking he was jumping into the shimmering sea before realizing he had hit shimmering corn instead. This cancer is so rare that only about 100 people in the US have ever been diagnosed with this.
He lay on the ground in tremendous pain with a fractured pelvis and a broken hip-bone, his tangled parachute lying beside him.A As Agnes, Jimmy and Donald approached the turnip field they expected to see a British plane but were shocked when they saw the black German Crosses emblazoned on it. Lazy people cannot walk in the power of God, because they won't put forth the effort to believe.A Religious people will believe doctrines that set well with their own heart, that take little, to no effort. As they followed the deep rut made by the plane Agnes picked up a small pistol lying nearby on the wet earth and put it in her pocket for safe-keeping.
What they are doing is trying to conform God to them, instead of them being conformed to Jesus. The plane`s Navigator lay nearby, seriously injured, where he had landed when he jumped from the plane just before impact.
Don't be so foolish, God isn't going to change his ways, we are going to have to be changed, so we can walk with him, in the psalms it say my heart oh God is fixed I will trust in you.A So keep stirring up your faith, keep using your faith, and keep looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of your faith, because the strong in faith will overcome the world. A A It was a hot evening and the constant in and out of the woods was not a pleasant undertaking. A below: Jimmy BeedieA As Jimmy left to get his motor-bike to go to the village for help, Agnes and Donald drew nearer to the injured German airmen.
They felt that for the injured airman`s safety he should be carried away from the plane in case it burst into flames. I am asking all of my readers, please pray to our Lord for his healing, that his parents get the much needed monies, and that everyonea€™s faith shall increase as they see the Glory of God do a miracle. It is written again: for neither cicumcision availeth (prevails, overcomes) anything, nor uncircumcision, but faith that worketh by love. With the help of the 2 other airmen, they retrieved a rubber dingy from the Sea-plane on which to lay the injured man, but it proved too cumber-some and difficult to handle so Donald Watson decided to go and look for a gate on which to lay the injured navigator whilst the young 20 year old Agnes Marr was left alone with the Germans in almost total darkness, with the lantern and the struggling moon-light as her only protection.A A Agnes conversed with the Pilot, and looking at the distraught and injured Navigator thought to herself, "Enemies? What I thought would be a nine-hole outing turned into eighteen holes and a White House visit and a Presidential appointment in 1969.
They all need to repent and believe the gospel that Jesus died for their sins was buried and rose again to justify them before it is too late, and no I am not self righteous I have committed lots of sins but I didn't go around and parade them before everybody and say what I am doing is good, but you homosexuals & lesbians are the ones that are self righteous and you are going to perish in your sin if you reject the love of God. Had the Germans so chosen, they could have shot Agnes and made their escape, but compassion for their injured companion, the futility of their situation and their own inherent-human compassion for a defenceless young foreign woman over-ruled.A The two relatively-uninjured airmen went back inside their plane and Agnes heard the sounds of something being broken up as if the men were trying to destroy something they didn`t want to be seen. They then exited the plane carrying their rucksacks and the Pilot said to Agnes, "Don`t go too near the plane, it is full of bombs and could explode at any moment!"A It was a miracle the bombs didn`t explode when it hit ground zero.
General William Rogers, Hattie, President Nixon and HBA Petey and I would become great friends and in 1965 we would meet again.
Curt Hurley has a simular testimony, when he first heard Doyle preach the gospel, he said this is what we are missing. The fuel tanks too, which were almost full of petrol, amazingly didn`t break up and burst into flames.
A The United Planning Organization a self-help community organization was hiring "Neighborhood Workers." A They hired three, me, Petey and H. Help me boldly claim my full capacity for your use.a€? ------------- Donna Givlera€”quoting Katie Brazelton of Saddleback Church in her devotional book titled a€?Praying for Purpose, for Womena€?. A Two years later Rap would be named Chairman of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
This is how you are to witness to people, walk in the power of God and speak the things of the Spirit to the people, minister that power to them, but what do religious people do, they pass out tracks and walk up to people and say do you know Jesus?
Getting no answer he ran back to his motor-bike, got it started and then rushed back to the Police-House. A I would become a Roving Leader (Youth Gang Task Force) for the DC Recreation Department and Petey would find his new home in radio at WOL. He could hardly persuade Constable Soppitt and others to believe that a German Bomber had crashed onto his farm-land. They considered that the poor man had gone crazy and could hardly believe what he was saying. A Three UPO "Neighborhood Workers" would go on to establish their own independent idenities. Now some people would say I never followed any of those religious ways, well some of you just didn't give a damn about people or God, so don't act so wise.A If you love God or even have a fear of God you will seek to obey his words and you will make some mistakes along the way, but you don't let that bother you, you just keep on trucking. Constable Soppitt then decided that he had better phone his Officials at Fraserburgh, a fishing port, 12 miles away, and inform them of the Farmer`s amazing story.A Back at the farm-house, the airman who had good-command of the English language was deep in conversation with Agnes Marr.
Everyone who lives in me and believes in me will never die.a€?1 Corinthians Chapter 15, vs. A Petey would win 2 Emmy Awards and in 2007 there was a feeble attempt to do his life story on the big screen.
He related to her that his own father had trained as a Dental-Surgeon in London prior to the First World War; "Where are we?" he asked the housekeeper. 42: Our earthly bodies are planted in the ground when we die, but they will be raised to live forever. Spotting the butter and foodstuffs on the kitchen-table, the Airman said with surprise, "You have butter and all this food? We are told you all are starving!" - "Yes," Agnes replied, "We are told the same about you." The Pilot took from his rucksack 2 sealed packs of food which he then popped into the drawer of a kitchen cupboard. 27: For you will not leave my soul among the dead or allow your Holy one to rot in the grave. A Constable Soppitt had, meanwhile, jumped on to the back-seat of Jimmy Beedie`s motor-bike and they were now well on their way back to the farm. He is now in jail serving a life sentence for the murder of a black Deputy Sherrif in Fulton County, Georgia. Arriving at the plane and finding it deserted, Jimmy then made for his house where he found his house-keeper, Miss Marr caring for the three airmen and providing them with hot tea, scones, cheese and bread and butter biscuits which she had made herself. 2: The leaders were very disturbed that Peter and John were teaching the people that through Jesus there was a resurrection of the dead.
Two of the airman were seated at the kitchen-table and the injured man was lying on the floor. Ok, lets read 2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lestA the light of the gloriousA gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them. Agnes Marr was at the `stove` frying sausages and eggs for her `visitors` who were still in shock after their unplanned visit. 11: I want to suffer with him, sharing in his death, so that one way or the other I will experience the resurrection from the dead.
A The Germans, being in shock, were very quiet and subdued and displayed no rudeness or aire of superiority to their hosts. In fact, they appeared quite surprised and appreciative of the kindness being shown to them by the young house-keeper.
It proved that he was God and that He had power even over His own death and Satana€™s dominion. For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.
But this was Agnes Marr and like many of her fellow Scots she had that inherent compassion for the sick and injured and considered it her humane duty to care for such injured, even though they were `the enemy`. Brian McIntyre.A  He was sitting almost alone and there was no one waiting in line (compared to today's media circus). Her own brother, Leslie was on a Minesweeper ship far away, doing his bit for the defense of his country and she hoped that, if tragedy ever befell him, he too would be treated with similar kindness by the enemy. Above : New Aberdour VillageA Not long after the arrival of Jimmy Beedie and Constable Soppitt another commotion was heard outside.
Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee.
Then bursting through the door, brandishing guns and rifles, came the `officials` from Fraserburgh, the Home Guard, Police-Inspector George Michie, Police-Sergeant James Thompson and local army officers, and, like the men in the BBC`s `Dad`s Army`, were expecting to face a hostile reception from arrogant Germans.
They were shocked to find all the Air-men sitting in quiet conversation with Agnes and the others. The scene before them `took the wind out of their sails`.A Dr John Cameron and the District Nurse from New Pitsligo arrived in their wake and immediately set to task of doing what they could to relieve the suffering of the injured Navigator, but because the kitchen was full of hyped-up men, the Doctor found it difficult to treat his patient and Agnes suggested taking the injured man into the main living room where there was more space to work.
God can resurrect our lives, our dreams, and our visions if we ask him to or if it is His will for us. For the earth (heart) bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. If we have a dream or vision and we lose sight of it we can gain our sight back if we ask Him in prayer. The Doctor noted that the Pilot looked as if he was still in his teens and asked him where in Germany he was from, "I belong to Hamburg," he replied "and I`ve also been to America, and my father trained in London." He took from his rucksack a box and the good-doctor realized that it was a first-class first-aid kit. A  I looked down and notice that all the white media were seated on one side of half-court and all the blacks were seated on the other side of the half-court line.
A Some time later an ambulance arrived to take the injured man to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary hospital, and as they carried him out on a stretcher to the ambulance he discreetly took from his jacket-pocket a pair of binoculars and pressed them into Agnes`s hands, saying, "Danke, Veile" - "Thank you, very much." The army-officers then took hold of the other 2 airmen to take them away and as they were leaving the house, the airmen turned to Agnes Marr and Jimmy Beedie, thanked them profusely for the humaneness shown them, and the Pilot taking the anchor-badge from the Navigator`s cap, pressed this into Jimmy Beedie`s hands as he left. A The night had long gone and it was almost the dawning of the morning before the farm-house emptied of it`s visitors and neither Jimmy Beedie nor Agnes Marr slept that night. She continued her life style and left her son with babysitters while she partied and enjoyed life (she thought). At Dawn, Jimmy watched as the RAF set up guard a ` safe-distance` from the abandoned bomb-laden aircraft. A I shared in a previous note how my will was corrupted by sorcery and how I had such a struggle with rebellion, well my will has been changed a lot and I have been taking possession of my soul and recently there has been some real significant changes.A Jesus said repent ye and believe the gospel, this has been the biggest struggle of my life is to believe this gospel. One day, depressed of how her life was going, she drove past our church and stopped in on a whim. No one, that is, except the `bomb-busters` (and a sneaky, unofficial party from the nearby Pennan village, of `Local Hero` fame, who got through the cordon unseen and made off with a Verey pistol). He stepped in front of me and said "I got it."A It would be the start of the 4th quarter that Mark returned to the press table table and apologize for his unprofessional actions. That prophesy is coming to pass in my life!!!A We are to press towards the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. A There were other mistakes like someone thought a black Judy Holland was VP material---far from it.
Sergeant George Thompson of the RAF was startled to see one of his young men sitting astride one of the bombs, "Hey Young, do you want to blow us all up?" he screamed.
I do, this is the high life, you can follow the desires of your flesh if you want to, but not me, I have seen the end of that, I am going to follow on to know the Lord!!!A So if your willing to pay the price you can go unto perfection, if God permit, and what is that price? Sapper David Young, a teenager with a bomb-proof constitution chirpily replied, "How high do you reckon I`ll go, if it does, Sarge?" This was David and Goliath 1940`s style. We sponsored her that Christmas and had much joy running around buying her son Jared presents. Over the next two years we connected a couple more times and gave her encouragement when we seen her.
The task of defusing the bombs took several days and much sweating, but the work was completed.A Then, like vultures, other officials swooped in to strip the plane of it`s rich pickings. Last year we gave her a gift card for a restaurant so that she and Jared could have a nice meal out together. A It took a minute but in the meantime, he was making an effort to bring about change in his own way.
Now lets read verse 1 in Romans 12 I beseech you therefore brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service.A Then in verse 3 it says God has dealt to every man the measure of faith. Sledgehammers, crowbars, picks, shovels and axes - anything that could be put to use to `skeletonise` the plane was utilised.
A But according veteran (32 years) sports writer Bill Rhoden of the New York Times, progress in sports media pressrooms around the country are on a slow boat to China.A His recent appearance on the widely acclaimed television news show Meet the Press, he said, "the NBA, NFL and MLB are still dragging their feet. The banging, thudding, ripping and tearing apart of the plane could be clearly heard back at the farm-house by Jimmy Beedie and Agnes Marr.
A person who didn't have understanding would think the Bible contradicts itself, but it doesn't. Media pressrooms at Deadline are still the last plantations.A A Pioneering broadcaster and former NBA CBS basketball analyst Sonny Hill and now a sports talk show host on WIP Radio in Philadelphia said, "I am not surprised by Rhoden's statement, very little has changed in media pressrooms.
God gives the measure of faith to people who present their body to him as a living sacrifice, but not all men will do that. A One of the problems there is no networking among blacks who have moved it up the ladder." A That is an understatement.
If you can read these scriptures and keep them in context than that is what that is saying. You see you have to give your life to God and acknowledge him in all your ways and let him direct your paths if you want the faith of God to work in you.
At Windyhead his eulogy was even more appropriate.A After the German Air-Navigator was released from hospital, he joined his comrades at a Prisoner-of-War camp, remaining there til the war ended in 1945.
She now has a good full time job with benefits, her son is doing fantastic in school, and she is looking exceptionally healthy and emotionally stable now. If you will pray without ceasing and mind the things of the Spirit and be obedient to what God is saying and leading you to do and hold fast to the gospel your heart will be straightened out and you will end up walking in the power of God!!!A 1 John 2:15-17 Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world.
They then returned to Germany where one of the Airmen had their story published amongst others in a book entitled, `Luftwaffe at War (1939-42). For she took the courage in her slow death of life and laid all her hope at the foot of the cross.
For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.
A  The copy rights for Inside Sports is own by News Week Magazine and it is own by the Washington Post.
And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever.
IMPORTANT NOTICE LITTLE BLOOMS CHILDREN`S ORPHANAGE INDIA MY INDIA MISSIONS TRIP NAZARENE ISRAELITE ??? A A First, there was a a problem with the PR Men from hell, Brian Sereno and Matt Williams. To crush (beat to pieces, break) under his feet all the prisoners of the earth, To turn aside the right of man before the face of the most high, To subvert a man in his cause, the Lord approveth not. My wife and I thank God that he let us participate, even if it was very little, in her re-birth. A A It was brought to my attention that Sereno was disrespecting the ladies of The Roundball Report. INTERESTING VIDEOS OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT OBAMA NAZI GENOCIDE PERSECUTION OF THE JEWISH RACE HITLER`S HOLOCAUST BLUEPRINT CHRIST KILLERS??? Dona€™t allow yourself to get offended at God when he breaks you, just continue to believe the gospel and be healed.
A The meeting was set before a Wizard's game in the press louge but Scott Hall was the lead man. For the fruits of righteousness to grow out of a hard heart (soil) it must be broken up(tilled). Shortly after the dream, we were visiting YWAM in Lebanon and they were showing us their prayer tent that they use in Lancaster and Cape Cod. A He listened and we disagreed on some points but when we walked away from the table we were on the same page. When Goda€™s servants speak correction, many times it is real hard because God is dealing with the heart, sometimes it is all you can do to sit there and take it, but ministers who walk in the flesh usually speak softly and they only deal with the outward behavior, not the heart, therefore there are no changes in the hearts of the people they minister to.
This was with the hope that someone would step up to the plate and donate a space to erect it. Your heart has to be prepared (tilled soil) to receive the word of the kingdom (gospel), so it can bring for the fruits of righteousness in you!!!A Jeremiah 18:3-6 Then I went down to the pottera€™s house, and, behold, he wrought a work on the wheels. And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter; so he made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the potter to make it. Then the word of the Lord came to me, saying, O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? I have spent the last three years working a hundred hours a week or longer at times doing hard labor (some of that was in 100 degree weather) and God led me into this situation to bring down my heart with labor, because of rebellion,(psalm 107:10-15) but even when I was doing everything I knew to do, God would break me, why? A The community and everyone in it was a friend, the old and the young, the black and the white and the healthy and the lame. Another thing I will say since I have been at WOL I have never went backwards, only forward, God knoweth.A If we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remained no more sacrifice for sins. Do you know that after you receive the knowledge of the truth you are set free?(John 8:31,32) then if you sin willfully after you have been set free, which means you go back to your sin then you cana€™t be forgiven once you have gone so far in the Lord. A I was honored to speak at his retirement held at the arena just before the Bullets moved to Washington and changed their name to the Wizards.A Denny Gordon was in ticket sales and it seem like he knew everyone who brought a ticket. People who have had a foundation laid in their heart, they have been enlightened, and after they have tasted the heavenly gift, made partakers of the Holy Ghost, tasted the good word of God and the powers of the world to come, if they fall away, after that it is impossible to be brought to repentance, but some people will have trouble with willful rebellion until their will is renewed and can be forgiven, just dona€™t ever stop going forward, just keep grabbing a hold of your will and use it to obey.
However, recently the pastors of the Gathering Place (a project to help people with Aids) asked us to help bring CAP some clothes this winter. It took a long time for God to renew me in the spirit of my mind (renovate, rebuild my will) - Ephesians 4:23 Notice your spirit is your will. Anyway God had great mercy on me and I thank him.A I had such a rebellious will, I had to grab a hold of my will over and over and if I relaxed then I would rebel again, but slowly I was overcoming it. I dona€™t care what you think about me, I care about helping people who are bound like I was and I am still coming out this spirit of sorcery.
A He was made the scapegoat after being sold out by his assisstant coach Bernie Bickerstaff and others. I know I will walk in great power and by the will of God I am going to go get as many people set free and lead them out of bondage as I can.
It is horrible to be bound like this, a nightmare that never seems to end, you think will righteousness ever come, yes it will. Our Father and the Lord Jesus are very merciful and they will never leave us nor forsake us.
A The meeting revolved around a charity all-star game scheduled for the Bahamas, the island home of NBA star Mycal Thompson. I know the Lord Jesus and he does not want people to perish, he died for our sins, was buried, went to hell and was raised from the dead to justify us!!!A The body of Christ does not know what happened to them when they were first born again, some think they got a whole new heart(spirit & soul), others think that just their spirit is reborn, thata€™s what I used to believe, but now I believe the only thing that happened in us, was our spirit was joined to the Lord, then the rest of being transformed into the image of Jesus is a process, many scriptures prove this.
You cana€™t overcome the world when your spirit is first joined to the Lord, but after the new birth is complete you will be able to overcome the world and this is the victory that overcometh the world even our faith. Just open your mouth and ask.a€?A a€?Even though your promise may be postdated, remember whose signature is on the checka€? Pastor Pop-Pop 11-8--09.
A Magic Johnson was one of All-Stars participating.A Representatives from the NBA included VP Ron Thorne, Legal Counsel Gary Bettman and head of security Horace Balmer. What started out as something to just help pastor my children, has turned into something that may be helping lots of people. According to Yahoo my host, I have an average of 50 hits a week on the Pastor Pop Pop site.
A A Gary Bettman is the Commissioner of the NHL, Thorne is somewhere lurking in the NBA, Balmer has since retired and Magic is a role model for Black America?
A A The short lived existence of basketball legend Michael Jordan as a Wizard's player and Executive in the front office. 10:5 Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith Sacrifice and offering thou wouldn't not, but a body hast thou prepared me, and in v10 By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once and for all. A After the story broke he and several teammates made light of it during introductions of a game. A He was eventually suspended for most of the 2009a€“10 season.A The thing that I find disturbing about this Donald Sterling charade is that folks are acting like they were surprised by his rants against blacks.
A A I also notice the same "Old faces and voices" are called on to respond to the racist acts by men like Sterling---when they are a part of the problem . Wherefore in all things it behooved (due, must needs be) him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation (to atone, be merciful)A for the sins of the people. A He and Sterling were good friends because "Birds of a feather flock together." A  Check Magic's history out and you will discover the two have a lot in common. This weekend at a prayer tent at a local flea market, I seen a leg grow that was shorter than the other one. A Magic's claim to be a minority owner of the LA Dodgers is another sham (token black face).
James Brown (CBS Sports) another mis-guilded brother claiming to be a minority baseball owner and an expert on racism. A He did finally admit on the late George Michael Show (Sports Machine) "I have no say in making baseball decisions as a minority owner." A His role as a minority owner is to be paraded out on Opening Day as the black face to read the starting line-ups.
Every week from now on there will be two tabs to the right of the Home Page that will be new. A A This is the same Michael Wilbon that I had at least two recent conversations about the use of the N word as a term of endearment. A I have to give him credit, he will at least talk to me face to face and not behind my back. A I tried to explain that his rationale that his grandfather's use the word as a term of endearment does not make it right today. A I told him he should not go on national television saying it is okay to use the N word among friends and family. 9:12-14 Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. A It gives bigots like Donald Sterling the Green Light to do the same among his friends and family.
A Plus, Michael told me he was not going to appear on the ESPN Show Outside the Lines because the white host had no horse in the race!
Spotting the butter and foodstuffs on the kitchen-table, the Airman said with surprise, "You have butter and all this food?
After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cupA is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. We will address both today and you may click on the Tab in future weeks to experience the Altar Call again. A A I wish that Magic, James, Michael and the rest of the media experts would defer to black men like Hank Aaron, Dr.
For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. A Christian artist once said that when she was in another country and away from her Church, she would sit and pray alone and have communion by herself to remind her of her faith. A But they wear the battle scars and have been on the front lines of the civil rights movement in real life and in the sports arenas of America. That inspired my wife and me to do it occasionally by ourselves and with some of our Amish friends.
A In other words, they have been there and done that.A I guess that is wishful thinking, especially when everyone wants to be an expert on television. I did an audio clip a few years back teaching the word of God and uploaded it to the internet and I went to my website and clicked on the link to hear it and when I did, I was very encouraged because my words were with power. A In the meantime, they don't know their asses from a hole in the ground but the beat goes on and on.
I had ministered the power God to people when praying for them, but when I previously spoke my voice was weak and I could sense little if any faith. So as I said I was encouraged when I heard my audio, then the Lord began to remind me of a minister whoa€™s church I use to attend in Farmers Branch TX.
It can be about your body, mind, soul, family, friends, healing needed, finances, challenges, or anything that you wish. So as I thought on this I knew in my heart God was saying to me, that is a false anointing in you Scott.A Right after that, I went to church and God begin to convince me I was a sorcerer and my heart sunk just like it had been doing for years anytime God had convinced me of sin or showed me my wicked heart. A Auerbach would go a step further in the 1966-67 NBA season, when he stepped A down after winning nine titles in 11 years, and made Bill Russell player-coach.
A A trailblazers, RED AND DOTIE AUERBACHi»? ON INSIDE SPORTSA Russell would eventually be the first black to win an NBA championship. V6 whom the Lord loves he chastens v8 all are partakers of correction, if not you remain a bastard v11 the chastening is grievous, but afterwards yields the peaceable fruit of righteousness v12 so lift up your hands that hang low and the feeble knees v13 make straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way.A A The human soul is absolutely scared to death to face that it is wicked, because the law of Moses in us causes our own hearts to condemn us and we are convinced we would go to hell if we accepted that we were wicked and therefore many will not hear what God is saying concerning correction, especially when it zeros in on the root of the problem and that is mana€™s heart is evil and I talking about people who are born again and think they are a new creature in Christ, because salvation is all a process to transform us spirit, soul, and body into the image of Jesus.
Turn away from your former self, study in the Word (the Bible) and find yourself a good Christian Church that will support you and help you grow in your faith. You know under the law of Moses it is written I would not suffer a witch to live or a man or woman that hath a familiar spirit or is a wizard or adulterer, they are all put to death.
A There are far too many crying "Foul" and playing the victims in this charade, to include some NBA owners.A Let me start with my homeboy, the great Elgin Baylor who was the Clippers GM for over 2 decades.
His teams were perennial losers on the court and in attendance, but he picked up his check every two weeks and kept his mouth shut. Romans 2:15 The condemnation isna€™t that we are wicked, the condemnation is men loved darkness rather than light and therefore they wona€™t come to the light. The Son being Jesus Christ who died on the cross at Calvary and shed his blood for our sins. I believe that since I now accept Him as my Lord and Savior that I have been washed clean of my sins and guilt by his blood. A A In his deposition, Elgin spoke about what he called Sterling's 'plantation mentality,' alleging the owner in the late 1990s rejected a coaching candidate, Jim Brewer, because of race. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven.
Jesus, I love you.a€? A If you prayed this simple prayer, you are saved and re-born in Him.
So dona€™t be afraid to hear God and let him correct you, because he is not doing it to condemn you, but to set you free. A Talking about an organization needing a change of name and a face-lift---meet Leon Jenkins.A Jenkins seen above at a press conference trying to explain why the li»?ocal branch was honoring Sterling during the 100th Anniversary of the organization next month.
A A He explained the previous award had been approved by the man he replaced and he just went along to get along. This is the wisdom of God to draw a contrast between the servants of God and those who give their own opinion, so that the sheep can clearly see who is of God and who isn't.
A A Sterling won't be the first to sleep black and think white when it comes to sex, politics and money. Philippians 1:6 Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ. Slave owners lived by the credo and in modern day history there was the late Senator Strom Thurmond.
A Nike NBA rep John Phillips and I met with VP Rod Thorn, League Counsel Gary Bettman and Head of League Security, Horace Balmer. This is a familiar scripture, that I have heard taught over the years, it is a common scripture on religious tracts and it has been misapplied.
A The meeting centered around whether Magic Johnson, Mycal Thompson and a group of NBA All-Stars would be allowed to travel to the Bahamas for a charity basketball game without league approval.
This is how it was taught, we have all sinned and come short of Goda€™s holy nature, therefore we must receive Jesus Christ and then start living a moral life by going to church and practicing Christian principles.A What that scripture is saying is we have all sinned in that we didna€™t believe God and therefore we didna€™t give glory to God. Sadly, her beloved brother Leslie sustained injuries during his war-time service which led to his early death in 1947, at the age of 34 years. The game had been played in the Bahamas the previous year without incident or controversy.A It was obvious that there was a power-play being made by the league office to cancel the game. Jimmy and Agnes were laid to rest next to Leslie in the serenity of the immaculately-kept kirkyard of New Aberdour`s St. Thorn open the meeting by asking who was going to be responsible if one of the players was hurt during the game? Drostan`s Church, which overlooks the beautiful and imposing Moray coastline that the Heinkel Bomber fatefully crossed, that September night, exactly 72 years ago.I was barely 12 years of age when I first heard fall from my mother`s own lips, the story of the crash-landing of the German Bomber, and over the next 50 years, whenever enquiring minds asked her to retell her incredible experience, her detailed and crystal-clear recollection of that unforgettable night were so embedded in her memory that she never once deviated in any way from the account I first heard as a youngster. Mitchell (Fraserburgh) after having been invited to open the new `Superdrug` Store in Fraserburgh. A Magic suggested that the topic of conversation just might be centered around an injury to a player. We are going to drown!a€? He replied, a€?You of little faith, why are you afraid?a€? Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm. When preachers instruct their congregation or their listening audience to practice scriptures without telling them they must believe God and be led by the Spirit then they seduce them from the faith. I tried to explain that playing the game was no different then one of the players participating in a pick-up game on a New York City playground in the off season.
Preachers take a stand against many sins except unbelief, which is the one sin that keeps you from being saved from all your other sins.
If you want to deal with sin in your life then you must trust in Goda€™s power that he worked in Jesus when he raised him from the dead.
The eyes of the Lord are upon those who love him; he is their mighty shield and strong support, a shelter from the heat, a shade from the noonday sun, a guard against stumbling, a help against falling. A What is this some kind of plantation?"A The room went silent and Horace Balmer the only other black in the room just shook his head and seem to be lost for words.
A Thorn called off the discussion and promised to get back to us but he never did.A In the meantime, Magic Johnson disappeared and changed his number. A The German military secret service, commonly known as the Abwehr, conducted a small series of secret operations under the codename of Unternehmen Moewe (pronounced - Mwav) (Meaning: Operation Seagull) throughout World War II. These operations are not to be mixed up with the British special forces' operation Seagull, conducted against the Arendal smelting works and other plants in Norway June 1944. A Mycal was a class act but his hands were tied when Magic decided to do his Houdini act.A Gary Bettman now runs the NHL, Ron Thorn is still in the NBA somewhere calling the shots, Horace Balmer has since retired and Magic is the face (black) in the middle of the Donald Sterling charade. The Moewe operations were of such a small scale, that they have received little to no attention in commonly available history literat-ure. Another likely reason for them not being mentioned is the destruction of archives in later stages of the war. A When all is said and done, the real victim despite all of her baggage is the girlfriend (The Whistle Blower) V. Although I own and study from many various different Bible translations, I personally normally use the NAB version.
A NBA Commissioner Adam Silver during his annoucement as it related to the punishment of Donald Sterling apologize to black NBA pioneers Earl Lloyd, Chuck Cooper and Magic Johnson. Occasionally I like to read some of the a€?missing books of the Biblea€? sometimes called the Apocrypha.
They include the books of the books of Baruch, Judith, both Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit and the book of Wisdom. If youa€™re Amish (I do have some Amish readers), you may find these books in an earlier version of the King James printing. Any way, I was reading the book of Sirach and through some of the verses it was put on my heart that I treated this person somewhat wrongly and it could have been done through ambition or pride of mine.
I immediately broke down and confessed this sin to Jesus and asked for Goda€™s forgiveness.
A He reminds me of the controversial Celebrity Chef Paula Deen who alledgely use The N word to describe her love for black folks.
A  How should we expect her to know if she has never walked in our shoes ?A  When it is a part of your DNA it is difficult to rid yourself of the gene.A  A One morning I was watching Ms. However, I will declare that the Lord has closed a door but he will surely open a new and better one. I choose to believe this truth and not the news media and evil spirits who would much rather us to believe that this bad economy, unemployment, and world affairs will defeat us. This award was longed overdue and I wonder why it took the NAACP so long to finally recognized Mr.
Belafonte in accepting the award asked, "Where are today's black leaders?A  Our children's blood is still running in our streets---there is work still to be done. He was led by the Spirit in the wilderness, where he was tempted by the devil for forty days.
The Scriptures say, a€?People do not live by bread alone.a€™a€? Then the devil took him up and revealed to him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. The coalition stated it will urge President Obama to mention an urban jobs plan in his state of the Union speech on February 12th----Good luck!
Ben Carson of John Hopkins University Hospital.A  His prayer and message was centered around health care, the economy, American debt, and tax reform, thus taking dead aim at President Obama's platform for the nation. Carson spend 25 minutes talking about the nation's ills and solutions with the President sitting less than 5 feet from him.A  When all was said and done, President Obama was not looking so Presidential! 12: For we are not fighting against flesh-and-blood enemies, but against evil rulers and authorities of the unseen world, against mighty powers in this dark world, and against evil spirits in the heavenly places.
Carson set the record straight from the very beginning.A  He made it clear he was not taking any wooden nickels.
It is good for us to know the Scriptures and write some down to pray and declare a€?in Jesusa€™ namea€™ when we are being attacked.
When you are in the battles of life, say a verse or two out loud and declare it over your life in Jesusa€™ name. Tell Satan to, a€?Get out of my life, body, mind, and soul and leave me alone in Jesusa€™ namea€? And use the arrows against him.
Have mercy on me and hear my prayer.Go away, all you who do evil, for the Lord has heard my weeping. He rescued me from my powerful enemies, from those who hated me and were too strong for me. I will thank the Lord because he is just; I will sing praise to the name of the Lord Most High. In 2010, he became that series' youngest driver and the first black driver to win a race at Greenville-Pickens Speedway. My enemies retreated; they staggered and died when you appeared.Turn and answer me, O Lord my God! Dona€™t let my enemies gloat, saying, a€?We have defeated him!a€? Dona€™t let them rejoice at my downfall.Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will not be afraid, for you are close beside me. A close friend of mine that has been partially paralyzed by strokes, pays for aids to "help". If they show up, they usually just sit and do nothing, root through her jewelry and personal effects, and some have been caught stealing jewelry. One was there when she collapsed with another stroke, and instead of calling for help, she called her boyfriend and left, leaving her patient to manage on her own.
Protect my life from my enemiesa€™ threats.But God himself will shoot them with his arrows, suddenly striking them down. It runs M - F from 10am - Noon and starting on Monday July 22 will repeat from 4pm - 6pm each day. Pray and think on this thing called freedom, which we take for granted but is being eroded away. My opinions about Tiger Woods or any other issue are mine and I could give a damn about what Feinstein or anybody else things about them.
37-40: Then He said to him (a Pharisee), a€?Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. In their prime at theA Washington Post, they were among the best sports writers in the country. A I was up close and personal with the sports department.A Kindred and Chad were talented writers but you could not trust them, Cornheiser and Feintstein's talent, they easily blended in with the landscape of the paper. A Feinstein called Wilbon the biggest ass kisser in sports media, if that is true he had great teacher in Cornheiser. A When Solomon tried to kick Cornheiser to the curve (fire him) in the 80s he was able to move to the Style section of the paper.
21: The one who pursues righteousness and faithful love will find life righteousness, and faithful love.
A One black female Washington Post columnist wrote a book titled "Plantation on the Potomac." A She was describing her employer. Many relatives were coming to our home to partake in the golden turkey and all the other foods and treats my wife prepared. A Hopefully, they were asked to participate and were of the same mindset as Wilbon not comfortable with Mr. A Goodell makes more than any player in the NFL and he never has to make a tackle or catch a pass.A The owners recent pay out to the players for injuries suffered on their watch was peanuts compared to the billions they make year in and year out. A When he refused a request by his mother to cease using the word and a similar plea by poet Myra Angelo. Martin Luther Kinga€™s 1963 march on Washington and 46 years since his assassination in Memphis, Tenn. So I will not be spending Thanksgiving having dinner around a table with my family like you are going to.
With the high-scoring Macauley, elite passer Cousy, and new prodigy Sharman, Auerbach had a core that provided high-octane fast-break basketball. If people like you would not patronize this store on holidays and make sure that you have all your stuff the day before, it would be unlikely that they would stay open.
In the next years until 1956, the Celtics would make the playoffs every year, but never won the title. It also made me think about all the other stores that are open on these days and the countless others that have to work those days and cannot have an enjoyable time like some of the rest of us. Brown was desperate to turn around his struggling and financially strapped franchise, which was reeling from a 22a€“46 record.[5]A The still young but already seasoned Auerbach was made coach.
And dona€™t forget to thank them for being there if you just cannot bear not to go to the store for that a€?emergencya€? item. A Nike NBA rep John Phillips and I met with VP Rod Thorn, League Counsel Gary Bettman and Head of League Security, Horace Balmer.A The meeting centered around whether Magic Johnson, Mycal Thompson and a group of NBA All-Stars would be allowed to travel to the Bahamas for a charity basketball game without league approval. A He was right on point.A To this day I think Magic had a previous discussion with the league office. 37-38: On the last day, the climax of the festival, Jesus stood and shouted to the crowds, a€?Anyone who is thirsty may come to me! For the Scriptures declare, a€?Rivers of living water will flow from his hearta€™.a€?Matthew Chapter 11, vs. James Gholson, Red Auerbach, Biff Carter, Jessie Chase, Morgan Wooten, Everett Cookie Payne Sr., Frank Bolden, Dr.
Leo Hill, Roper McNair, Earl Alfred, Maxwell Honemond, Tilman Sease, William Roundtree, Charlie Baltimore, Jaky Mathews, Ferdinand Day, Nick Turner, Walter Brooks, Ted McIntye, and my saviors, Dave Brown and Bighouse Gaines.A  They knew their Xs and Os, but more important, they were there for our highs and lows.A  Where have all those flowers gone?
We never could have made it without them.I have given up on the Pigskin Club, but keeping hope alive for the DC Recreation Department and the Roving Leader Program. On one day before his memorial service when we were all there at his home, his daughter went out in the backyard by her self. She was walking around in the back yard and my other brother and I decided to go out and comfort her. BELL 12-25-1940---8-1-2013A A GOOD COP WHO BROKE THE CODE OF SILENCE IN THE WASHINGTON, DC POLICE DEPARTMENT. She said that she looked up in the sky (it was blue and full of clouds that day) and, a€?I saw a very large white hand that seemed to reach down to mea€?. A The real Serpico is seen leaving the Bronx Courthouse alone after testifying before the Knapp Commission on wide spread police corruption in the department. She stated that she felt it was her daddya€™s hand and because of this she felt better knowing that he was still watching over her. A In the old days police A would carry a "drop knife---an inexpensive weapon cops would bring along on patrol to drop onto or next to suspect that they had taken out so that they could say that he had threaten them. A Today you don't even need to do that; all that you have to do is justify the use of deadly force if you are a police officer is to say that you feared for your life, for whatever reason.
If the victim dies, that just means there will one less witness around to contradict the test-lie. A In the case of Officer Michael Slager of the North Charleston police, it appears he was being extra-carefulto cover his tracks. A Probably he could have gotten away with simply declaring, as he did in the radioed report, that Walter Scott "took my taser," and that would have probably have sufficed to exonerate him. A But Slager having shot Scott eight times in the back--as everyone can see in the now famous video--perhaps felt that he needed a little help explaining what he was up to. A So apparently dropped his Taser next to Scott's body, which would obviously help to make the case that Scott "Took my taster."A If you think that what happen in North Charleston is a unique case, its not. A Only recently, in another case, a policewoman in Pennsylvania first Tasered a black man then shot him twice in the back as he lay face down in the snow. A Unless honesty is rewarded more often then corruption, the police will lose credibility altogether.
A I wrote a letter to President Bill Clinton in 1994 addressing this very issue, saying that honest cops have never been rewarded, and maybe there ought to be a medal for them, he wrote back but nothing change. A If enough testi-lying is uncovered, then who is going to believe the police even when they are telling the truth?
A A Until now the shoot first fear of my life mantra has eliminated any cause for concern in the taking of life by police. A When a civilian committs a crime, every nuance is looked at, the better to "throw the book at" the suspect.
A The other day I got a letter from a journalist in Argentina who was complaining about police and judicial corruption there. A I wrote back to him, there are good cops, even where you live, but if the good cops don't want to be painted with the same broad brush as the bad cops, they need to come forward and expose the guys who are doing bad things. A Take New York City detective who was caught on camera recently abusing an Uber driver with threats and foul language, A This was truly disgusting behavior. Yet predictably enough the detective union leader, Michael Palladino, was out there making excuses for him, suggesting that, well, it was only one incident, and everyone has a bad day.
We may go through many troubles and trials in our lives but God will always be with us and never forsake us. A Afterward Police Commissioner William Bratton announced he was removing the detective's shield and placing him temporarily on desk duty while an investigation is conducted .
A But this man needs to be demoted to uniform at the very least, or "back in the bag" as we use to say. A Imagine what he is capable of doing under the cover of darkness if he can talk to someone like that in broad daylight. A There are plenty legitimate incidents where police believe, correctly, that their lives are in danger. A I was in a few of those situations myself during the course of my career.A But unless the police forces and society as a whole take action we're not going to be able to distinguish between the legititimate claims and made-up testimony. A A long time ago Norman Rockwell painted a famous picture of a friendly neighborhood cop bending down to help a little boy. A For example; I could name someone who is a great athlete but a lousy human being or I could name someone who is a great human being but not a great athlete. 12-13: If a man has a hundred sheep and one of them goes astray, will he not leave the ninety-nine in the hills and go and search of the stray?
A Heading the list is Muhammad Ali (The Greatest), Red Auerbach (NBA), Dave Bing (NBA), Lenny Moore (NFL), Bert R. And if he finds it, amen, I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that did not stray.
Sugar (Boxing), Lee Jones (NBA), Roy Jefferson (NFL) and Harold McLinton (NFL), finding pro athletes like them today are far, few and in-between. A And that is a sad commentary when you think about the hundreds of men and women I have interviewed on Inside Sports and worked with as a youth advocate (Kids In Trouble).
Moore, LB Dave Robinson (2013 NFL Hall of Fame inductee) and WR Roy Jefferson host KIT toy party. A Sam Jones (NBA), Lenny Moore (NFL) and Roy Jefferson (NFL) participate in KIT clothing drive for needy children at Union Station. After a few days, the younger son collected all his belongings and set off to a distant country where he squandered his inheritance on a life of dissipation. When he had freely spent everything, a severe famine struck that country, and he found himself in dire need. A Bert Sugar (Boxing) receives KIT Life Time Achievement Award and Dave Bing (NBA) pays tribute to KIT Saturday Program All-Stars.I had the opportunity to hear an interview on Sirius A XM Radio (channel 126) on the Maggie Linton Show recently, her guest was NFL Washington Pro football player, wide receiver Peirre Garcon. So he hired himself out to one of the local citizens who sent him to his farm to tend the swine. A I have not been very impressed with todaya€™s pro athletes and their give back commitment to their family, friends and community. Coming to his senses he thought, a€?How many of my fathera€™s hired workers have more than enough food to eat, but here am I, dying from hunger. I shall get up and go to my father and I shall say to him, a€?Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. While he was a long way off, his father caught sight of him and was filled with compassion.
A He has three older sisters making him the youngest and the only one born in the United States.His father died when he was 4 years old leaving his mother to raise him and his 3 sisters alone. A My background is similar to Peirrea€™s, my mother had to raise 4 boys alone with an assist from Grandma Bell. Loads of cars and cameras were set up by the Audubon society to just catch a glimpse of it. You may have had parents or grandparents that were religious and went to church and prayed.
Perhaps you have done something you consider really bad and believe God just doesna€™t love you anymore. Through his Son, if you confess your sins and ask for his forgiveness, you will be washed clean again.
One that will help you feel better, enriches your soul, shower you with His Word, and nurture your faith so it grows in the path of Christ. I wish to thank all my readers for visiting my web site this year and I hope that it helped in some way. She will give birth to a son and will call him Immanuel (which means a€?God is with usa€™).Micah Chapter 5, vs. 2: But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village among all the people of Judah . God sent him to buy freedom for us who were slaves to the law, so that he could adopt us as his very own children.John Chapter 20, vs. 30-31: The disciples saw Jesus do many other miraculous signs in addition to the ones recorded in this book. But these are written so that you may continue to believe that Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing in him you will have life by the power of his name.Luke Chapter 2, vs. 9-12: Suddenly, an angel of the Lord appeared among them, and the radiance of the Lorda€™s glory surrounded them.
The Savior a€“ yes, the Messiah, the Lord a€“ has been born today in Bethlehem, the city of David! The names have been changed and the name of their Church deleted to help keep their identities secret.
It was at this Church that we also got baptized together and rededicated our lives to Christ.
I desire a man after your own heart and if that is not Mark then remove him.a€? I also said, a€?But Lord, divorce is not your desire, I believe in you. Mark has too much pride to come down to the altar, but I know if you can make a Donkey talk, you can call him out!a€? (Read Numbers Chapter 22, vs. God has something to say.a€? Now the Pastor did not know Mark and did not know what I had prayed before we came here, only God knew.
I now read the Bible to them every day, monitor their TV, take them to Church, and lay hands on them and speak blessings into their lives.



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Category: Winning Back Your Ex



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