How to get an ex back after two years

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When you are trying to get your ex back and happen to look online at the different bits of advice available, a lot of people will suggest that you should use the No Contact Rule for 30-60 days. Of course, using the No Contact Rule is all based on the hope that she might miss you, contact you and want you back.
In most cases, a guy should contact his ex girlfriend (wife or fiance) immediately and then meet up with her in person to re-attract her, rather than letting her move on with her life. Maybe your ex has already met another guy, is in love with another guy or is simply opening herself up to the possibility of being with other men. If the new guy makes her feel great emotions, then not contacting her for 30 or 60 days is going to be a bit of a favor to her. The reasons why you and your ex have broken up aren’t going to be solved by not contacting her. That starts with you really improving yourself and fixing your issues and that isn’t something that you need to do over 30 or 60 days using the No Contact Rule. Instead of wasting time with the No Contact Rule, to get an ex back now, you have to contact her and get her to feel respect and attraction for you again.
You also need to allow her to get the sense that the real reasons why she has broken up with you have been fixed.
When a woman provides her guy with the reasons why she is breaking up with him, she will usually try to keep things very simple and vague. Additionally, for most of human history and still to this day, a woman could be hurt or even killed by a guy during a break up.
She may get to a point where she misses him or she may just be curious to see if he is moving on faster than she is. If you use the No Contact Rule and your ex eventually does call, you need to make her feel respect and attraction for you on that phone call. If you turn her off by being insecure or needy, it will turn her off even more and make getting over you even easier. She just has to show interest in you again or say that she misses you and when you get excited about it, she knows that you were lying about not missing her.
At the meet up, you’ve got to re-attract her and then escalate to kissing, sex and the relationship. You have to get her into a new emotional state where she feels like she does need you, she does want your love and that her life just doesn’t feel right without you in it. So, don’t think that the No Contact Rule is going to solve all or any problems that you have with getting your ex back. It may cause your ex to call you, text you or send you a message on Facebook, but if your reply or response gives her the sense that nothing about you has really changed and she is still feeling the same old feelings that caused her to break up with you before, then you won’t be getting her back. In those cases where the woman is feeling worried, insecure and regretful about the break up and is panicking that her ex will move on faster than her and it will make her feel even worse than she does now, then she will reach out to the guy.
Sometimes, that will result in them getting back together, but it’s almost always just a temporary thing that she is doing to keep him close while she tries to find another guy or become confident enough to be without him.
When a woman gets back with a guy because she is worried that he will move on faster than her, she will usually reel him back in by saying that she’s made a mistake, loves him and wants to be with him forever.
She will say that she’s dumping him and never wants to see him again, to which most guys will respond to by being needy, insecure and desperate.
I bought your Get you Ex back system few months and used it to success first time but want to know what to do at the second time. But my own insecurities and the involvement of another guy (who she likes and had a brief relationship ) resulted in she breaking up with me very strongly few days back. What should I do NOW as she knows that despite I saying that we should be friends, I might try for a relationship reconciliation attempt! In a case like yours, you either need to make the commitment to properly learn from someone like me or lose her.
My name is Dan Bacon I am 100% committed to helping men succeed with women and relationships.
I've already helped countless men to get their woman back and I know that I can help you too. If you want me to help you get her back, don't leave my site until you watch this FREE video training on how to get your woman back now. Watch the free training and you will learn how to get her back NOW without having to waste time ignoring her, or waste energy trying to convince her to give you another chance.
Seriously though, if you see any book, product or article that guarantees that it can get you your ex back 100% of the time you should stop and realize that you are probably about to look at something that was made up just to get you to buy it or read it. Don’t worry though, I saw this problem and spent two months creating that step by step plan people were clamoring for. You are going to discover that this page is really long, in-depth but more importantly, it is going to help you to not only get your boyfriend back but to rediscover yourself in the process.
I thought the best way to go about the rest of this page would be to take an in-depth look at each step of the ex recovery process starting with your break up and what to do immediately after it. Ok, before we do any soul searching or serious strategizing you are going to have to implement the no contact rule. If you don’t believe in the no contact rule then all I can say to you is that you had better start believing in it. Right after a break up is when you are at your emotional peak and I don’t mean a good emotional peak, I am talking about anger, hate, basically everything that Yoda from Star Wars said to avoid. Your ex boyfriend is probably going to start wondering why you aren’t talking to him and possibly may even begin to miss you.
Knowing what caused your breakup is important because it can give you an idea of where your relationship went wrong and how you can possibly correct it in the future.
However, I would say that the average man will leave a relationship when his is no longer getting what he needs.
Another thing that you always hear guys saying is the fact that they are constantly nagged to death by their girlfriends. Nagged To Death = A man looks at this as if his woman no longer is satisfied with what he has to offer or bring to the table. Ouch, I know this one must definitely sting to hear but it is a legitimate REAL reason for why he may have broken up with you. A lot of times what can happen is an ex can realize what they missed about you once they are settled in with their new person. A huge misconception out there is that because you did the dumping it is a lot easier to get back with your ex. Everyone always thinks they could do better until they go out and realize that the relationship they had before wasn’t so bad. A while back I was dating someone and it always seemed that we would fight over the silliest things.
One thing that needs to be made clear is that if you are going to seriously invest the time and effort to get your ex boyfriend back you are going to have to adopt a new mindset.
The big goal that you should strive for is to create a relationship with your ex boyfriend that is not only new but better. To a casual observer that may sound really risky but personally I love women with that belief that after they get their boyfriend back they will be with him forever.
So, the big take away that I want you to get from this section is that your ultimate goal assuming this process works for you is that you are discarding your old relationship and creating a new one that is stronger. If you can’t already tell I truly do enjoy helping women strategize on how to get their ex boyfriends back. As a general rule it is good to have a legitimate reason for getting back together with your significant other.
If you break your no contact period agreement (talking to him in any shape or form before the 30 days are up) then you have to start your 30 day no contact period over. Ok, so those are pretty much the most basic things of the big NO-NO’s of the no contact period. Alright, so the biggest thing I want you to focus on for the no contact period is the fact that you are using this month to become the best version of yourself that you have ever been.
First things first, you are going to become the sexiest version of yourself that the world has ever seen. You can change your hairstyle- I’ll admit, I am not a hairstyle guru but everywhere I researched claimed that this was an excellent tactic to looking good for your man so who am I to argue with the experts. Get in shape- There is no argument that you can make to me to say that this isn’t a good idea. Clean up your diet- Again, this is another great way to feel better about yourself and notice how it is the opposite of sitting around eating ice cream all day.
Clean up any skin problems you have- If you have excessive acne or any unwanted moles you can get those taken care of.
So, now that you know what changes you need to make physically lets talk about arguably the harder thing to improve, your mental state.
Focus on work- It is good to distract your mind for a while and what better way to do that than with work. Write in a journal- Sometimes your mind is constantly racing with thoughts about your ex boyfriend and since you can’t talk to him for 30 days it might be a good idea to jot your thoughts down in a journal. Have fun- If your friends invite you out to a party or club I would recommend that you go out and have fun with them. It shows you are moving on- In a strange way you kind of want your ex to know that you are on a date with someone. It can build up your self confidence- Dating other people helps you feel a little bit more confident.
It will help keep your mind off your ex (probably)- When you are busy you have less time to mope around or think about your ex. It will cure any phobias you may have developed- Women who haven’t been in a relationship for a long time may feel a little worried about meeting someone new. Studies have shown that 90% of rebound relationships don’t work out in the long run so the odds are probably in your favor. You may notice that a lot of what you are doing during the no contact period is working on bettering yourself. As stated above, I personally prefer texting over any method of contact for a number of reasons. Actually, in my research I found that a lot of experts recommend calling (after the no contact period.) I have read multiple stories of women who have actually had some success with this method. I don’t know about you but if I got a letter out of the blue from an ex girlfriend I might be a little creeped out. You should try to create a message that is so interesting it is impossible for your ex boyfriend not to respond.
Since things went positively you can contact them again in a few days and talk for a little bit longer. Alright, assuming you successfully engaged your ex boyfriend and got a decent response you can move on to this section.
First things first, this is not the part where you are going to try to get your ex boyfriend back.
Think of it this way, if you do this set of messages correctly then you have a good chance of getting your ex to feel the same feelings you are feeling and they will start to remember how great your times together were. When you write your text message to him you are going to have to go into details instead of just writing something general. Alright, lets say that I was trying to get an ex girlfriend back and I had made it this far into the step by step process I am outlining here. Choice 2: “Do you remember the night where I loaned you my jacket at the football game? Sometimes asking your ex a question can work well to get them to remember a good experience. More often than not if you have gotten this far in your conquest to get them back they are going to respond back positively.
Ok, so you sent out your text to remind them of the good ole days where the two of you were as thick as thieves but they haven’t responded yet. If you haven’t heard anything from them yet and it has been past a couple of days then this could mean a couple of things. Whatever the case is just simply take things down a notch and start a few more harmless text messages where you just make first contact.
You have to be really careful because if this is done wrong then your chances of getting your ex boyfriend back drop drastically.
Well, now you are going to implement a number of small heart to heart chats in various different ways that are going to change your fortune in a positive way. One of the little things I always love about relationships that are going well is how you are constantly helping each other remember things.
This tactic may be a little harder to implement because it can sometimes depend on the situation that your ex is currently in. Your best bet here is to take out a sheet of paper and write down all of the things that you have ever appreciated about your ex so you have an inventory to dive in. Plan your phone call when you know that your ex boyfriend will have a moment to talk privately. I researched a lot on this section and discovered there are two types of very different methods to making this important phone call.
This one is risky and may not get you a yes to a meet up but it allows you the ability to try again later whereas the method below this one pretty much lays your cards on the table.
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Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany. It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St.
The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano]. Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St. In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico. In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance. This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name.
In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula.
The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger. Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him. Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?. WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas.
Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus. Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond. Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets. WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™.
The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend. One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores. The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself.
And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history. Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery. Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled.
During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured. The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement.
The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections. Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim. An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map.
Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France.
Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days.
The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance.
Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio.
That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school. In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely.
Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map. Miller is a fiscally conservative Republican whose primary agenda is to strengthen our economy by creating and protecting jobs, controlling government spending and getting government off the backs of small business. This article is for informational purposes only and does not imply an endorsement by NCALC or Carolina Clean.
If you get a call from an operator representing a handicapped person who is communicating with them via a keyboard & if they have 50 comforters, 300 shirts or any seemingly lucrative order, ITa€™S PROBABLY A SCAM.
Greeting from the cool, clear, arid Blue Ridge Mountains!A  Just pulling your chain, ita€™s hot and humid here too.A  In this issue I thought you might be interested in knowing a little more about me, my involvement in NCALC and what you should expect from us over the next two years.
Well, as fate would have it, Dada€™s friend Bretney Smith of Asheville (Swannanoa Cleaners) needed some help and well, I was available. As you can see, wea€™ve still got work to do on this front but there are other issues facing our industry as well.A  Tax evasion, illegal immigration and unfair hiring practices in my opinion will plague North Carolina dry cleaners in the years to come. In closing let me remind you, the times they are a changing and we, as members of NCALC will be prepared for the challenges, no, opportunities that lie ahead.A  Dona€™t forget, wea€™ve been through much of this before. Governmental Affairs is chaired by the Vice President for Governmental Affairs and is responsible for the Associationa€™s activities in pursuit of its legislative and regulatory objectives. Membership is chaired by the Vice President for Membership and is responsible for all the Associationa€™s activities in pursuit of its membership objectives and activities to retain, recapture and recruit members. NO MATTER WHAT YOUR INTEREST MAY BE THEREa€™S A PLACE FOR YOU TO GET INVOLVED WITH YOUR ASSOCIATION. A recent study from the Pew Research Center found that Small Businesses are the most trusted institution in America.
The Obama administration has launched a multi-faceted crusade against employers who may be guilty of Labor Violations. ICE-IMMIGRATION CUSTOMS and ENFORCEMENT, the Department of Homeland Securitya€™s enforcement arm has removed several illegals from the premises and levying substantial fines for paperwork violations on the employer. You may qualify for a 6.2% payroll tax incentive if you hired or hire a worker who was unemployed or worked a total of less than 40 hours during the 60 days before beginning work after February 3, 2010 and before January 1, 2010. North Carolina small businesses with gross receipts less than $1 million can claim a tax credit for 25% of contribution made to the State Unemployment Insurance Fund in tax years 2010 and 2011. Information provided in a€?News You Can Usea€? is drawn from sources we believe to be reliable, but is not to be taken as legal or accounting advice.We strongly recommend that you consult with your lawyer, accoutant or appropriate governmental agency before taking any action based on these news items. It is also important to note that human health risk based standards used by the North Carolina Drycleaning Solvent Clean-up Act (DSCA) program for releases are based on a 1 in 10,000 risk level that requires mitigation if those standards are exceeded. Until a comprehensive regulatory approach is developed to address contaminant contributions to indoor air from both operational and non-operational sources, there are a few practical and comparatively low-cost steps a dry cleaner can take to reduce indoor air concentrations of contaminants. Greg has over 28 years of progressive geological, business, real estate and management experience and currently serves on the Board of Directors of Shield Engineering, Inc. Irving Weber Associates and Argo Select (a division of Argo Group US) have just declared the 59th consecutive dividend for fabricare safety groups managed by Irving Weber Associates (IWA).
While dividends are never guaranteed, they are based on the experience of the company you choose to provide your insurance needs. Irving Weber Associates insurance programs have provided protection for Fabricare specialists such as Dry Cleaners, Commercial Launderers, Linen Supply and Uniform Rental firms for over 60 years. IWA encourages anyone not already participating, to request that their broker obtain a proposal on their behalf. Because government agencies care (and, as described below, you have certain legal obligations to fulfill).A  The Federal Trade Commission has taken more than 20 actions alleging that inadequate information security constituted an unfair trade practice. If you run credit checks or other types of background checks on employees or consumers, this federal regulation will require that you securely dispose of that information by cross-cut shredding or any other method that renders it unreadable and unusable.
Elizabeth Johnson is an attorney at the law firm Poyner Spruill LLP.A  She practices privacy and information security law, representing clients from many industries ranging in size from small businesses to Fortune 100 companies.
The different designs are differentiated by being a different "model" or "series." Confusing the issue even more, some manufacturers "private label" their machines for large department stores. Instead of getting her back, you are simply helping her get on with her life and forget about you.
You can quickly (within hours or a few days) fix those issues enough to get her respect and attraction back. Some women call just to check that the guy is still sitting around missing her and feeling horrible and lonely without her. If she gets the sense that you still have the same old mindsets and insecurities that caused her to break up with you in the first place, then it simply reminds her that she has made the right decision to break up with you. To get an ex back for real, you’ve actually got to prepare yourself for when you call her or for when she contact you.
Well, given the fact that women are sexually attracted to a man’s emotional strength and turned off by his weakness, his response to her will allow her to feel turned off by him and move on with less worry and regret.
Now she knows what all i did last time to get her back and doesnt want any contact whatsoever.
Now that your insecurities have driven her away, she will be blocking out any feelings of attraction or respect to help herself move on. There is way too much to teach a guy like yourself and you can’t be properly helped with a simple comment. Ironically, a lot of the stuff out there that makes these ridiculous claims offer no value and leave you feeling taken advantage of.
This page, while amazingly detailed, won’t have every single step that you will need to successfully get him back.
I put a lot of work into this page (1 full month to be exact.) I read relationship books, I took notes on speeches that dating experts gave, I bought online products, I listened my friends tell me stories about what they did to reunite with their exes and tested out some of the things I learned.
The no contact rule is going to give you time to work on yourself and calm down a little bit so you can think more rationally instead of emotionally. Make sure any interactions you do have with the person are short, pleasant and to the point.
Thus, it is entirely possible that whatever reason they gave you for the breakup may not be completely true. No I am not talking about sex here (although that can lead to problems for some men.) I am talking about admiration.
They love the newness of a relationship, want respect and like to see significant interest coming from females. I feel for you but don’t worry we are going to take a look at your breakup and figure out the best way to approach things. This is a common complaint among men who are dating someone who let themselves go a little bit in the relationship. Unfortunately, in my personal opinion it says more about of his lack of character (unless you were really boring but I doubt that) than anything you actually did.
Now, I like to think that I am generally a calm person but for whatever reason my girlfriend and I would always fight. This may sound goofy but I like those women who so strongly believe that they are going to be together with their exes for good that they are willing to try anything. Those are the type of women who work really hard to create that NEW and BETTER relationship. However, one thing that I have neglected to mention so far is that there are certain women (not you) that don’t have legitimate reasons for wanting to get back together with their boyfriends.
The fact of the matter is that you can be perfectly fine without this person if you are citing any of these. Remember how you are going to implement the no contact rule for a month (30 days?) Yes, well you are not going to just sit on your butt and twiddle your thumbs during this time. There is a 100% chance, especially if you are ignoring him, that your ex is going to check up on you during this period and instead of sulking around feeling sorry for yourself he is going to see a strong, sexy, fun-having woman! I know it may be uncomfortable to talk about but in this case you need to suck it up and get the proper treatment if you don’t want them. One of the biggest assets about the no contact period is that it gives you time to calm down a bit from the mental tension that was your breakup.
Careful though, you don’t want to be one of those career first women and lose sight of your goal.
Ok, basically if there was anything fun that you used to do (tennis, golf, puzzles, collecting, hiking, photography, music) renew it. Honestly time is the number one thing that can help you get over a break up but the second best thing is definitely having fun. Instead of being completely miserable and depressed you are doing something constructive and dare I say having a bit of fun? I am not saying it’s going to be easy but doing what I recommended above will really help to heal you.
The last thing you want to be is perceived as creepy or stalkerish and writing a letter the wrong way can definitely hurt you. Well, it just so happens I have come up with the ultimate game plan for getting your ex back. Controlling the conversation is key that means that you should always be the one who brings the conversation to a close, YOU WANT TO BE IN CONTROL.
Typically you want your ex to only think about the most positive experiences during your relationship. Don’t expect him to be receptive of your messages right off the bat, it may take a while.
DO NOT SPAM YOUR EX WITH TEXTS… if he doesn’t respond to your first one just wait a couple of days and try again.


It really sucks and can feel like the end of the world especially if you put a lot of work into getting your ex boyfriend back.
I’ll admit that you will have a distinct advantage here if you had a long relationship and made a lot of great memories. I took out a sheet of paper and wrote down what I thought our best couple experiences were together. Except this time you are going to engage them in a conversation but make sure that you don’t go too fast.
They are either extremely excited by the prospect of moving forward with things and they can sense that you are trying to move things along but this also makes them extremely nervous. You spent that entire time working on yourself becoming more and more confident as the days past. I don’t have any research to back it up but I feel it will work because it worked on me. You just planted a seed of doubt in your ex boyfriends head and now he is going to wonder if you saw a romantic movie with a friend or with a date. This tactic is no different and can definitely earn you some huge brownie points if you remind him about something he forgot. Basically you are going to bring up a stressful event very gently and show that you are going to be supportive no matter what with NO STRINGS ATTACHED.
Except this time instead of slipping in a compliment during a conversation you are going to slip in something that you have always appreciated about your ex. Ok, basically this is a tactic where you tell your ex boyfriend what you miss about your relationship. Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner. Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept. He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal.
Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507. Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain.
For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?. Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator. In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus.
Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus).
At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.
Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis. In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.
The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million. Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe. To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon. He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville.
The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him. After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover. It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St. This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World. The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew. He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin. That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears.
He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522.
That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale.
Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits.
This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking. Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection.
Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries.
The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486. The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr.
The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera.
To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. If they want to give you a credit card # and ask you to send a cashiers check for the shipping,ITa€™S DEFINITELY THE SCAM.The credit card will go through initially but will come back as a chargeback and no big order will ever show up at your door. Shortly after my arrival in the beautiful Appalachian Mountains, Bretney suggested I get involved with NCALC. It will be my administrationa€™s goal to assist members with their questions concerning these complex issues.A  We will also strive to publish helpful and informative literature that might assist our membership in avoiding the complications that these issues will surely bring to our member plants. Some of our members probably remember when Perc was an alternative solvent and when wash and wear crushed our industry, but we have and will persevere. In addition to the Board we have four standing committees that plan and direct the activities, programs and services the association provides to N.C.
Its membership is comprised of all past presidents in attendance, the Treasurer, Sgt at Arms, Allied Trades Representative and At Large Directors and members appointed by the President. Committee members are appointed by the President and include both At Large Directors and interested non-Board Members.
The Department of Labor hired 250 additional investigators to crack down on wage and hour violations and launched a campaign to help employees file complaints against their employers. See the July issue of Carolina Clean a€?Beware the ICEa€? for what you must do to protect yourself from substantial fines even if you employ no illegals. The new hire cannot replace an employee unless that employees departure was voluntary or for cause. Continually outpacing the typical insurance products by providing an exceptional program to its fabricare customers, IWA delivers a program that provides the most comprehensive coverage while allowing its group participants to share in the programa€™s outstanding results. The continued diligence of IWA and Argo in managing claims and safety prevention is evident in its 59 consecutive years of paying back to program participants, an unprecedented accomplishment in this industry. Its comprehensive and cost effective insurance programs are the hallmark for others to be compared against. If you would be interested in attending or sending one or more of your employees to any or all of the classes listed please complete the survey form and mail or fax it to the NCALC office as soon as possible so we can complete our Fall Training plans.
These actions are typically settled with the offending entity, in which settlements require implementation of a comprehensive, written information security program and a third party audit of compliance with that program every other year for 10 or 20 years.
Such as Sears' Kenmore and Montgomery Ward's Signature machines. Check the following list to determine if you have one of these "cross-branded" machines.
When you get in contact, it is critical that you make her feel respect and attraction for you at that point. When she sees that he’s back with her fully, she will say that she feels confused or will create a fight between them that leads to a break up. I've already helped thousands of guys to achieve instant success with women and I would love to help you too. The keyword there being SIGNIFICANTLY and before you get all argumentative I have seen the tactics outlined on this page work time and time again. It is such a complicated process that even the 10,000 words on this page can’t cover everything you need to know.
Yea well, I only took a look at credible sources and every one and I mean EVERY SINGLE ONE recommends the no contact rule. You are constantly complimenting him and giving him acknowledgment that he is wanted by you.
Again, I want to reiterate this point- don’t assume that the reason your ex gave you for the break up is really why they broke up with you. You may have to put in some extra work here but trust me when I say that your physical appearance is easier to improve than your personality so don’t let his thoughts get to you. The last thing they want is to hurt you so they will just break up with you and give you some general reason.
Trust me, your going to have to do a lot of work, perhaps more than the women who were dumped.
First off, your boyfriend surely will feel worried about incurring your wrath whenever they want to do something.
I would say think very carefully if this person is worth getting in a relationship with again. Make sure that you are very serious about wanting to get back with this person before you keep reading.
No, you are going to work towards your goal of a new and better relationship by focusing on the one thing you can control, yourself! Honestly, I am getting excited here because this is where you start taking the first steps of getting your ex boyfriend back.
The first thought I have of our encounter will be based on the choices that you made during the 30 day no contact period. I was dating a girl and after we broke up I happened to run into her at a Starbucks and even though we had a short friendly conversation I couldn’t take my eyes off of her because she just looked so gorgeous. However, even if you are a workout fanatic don’t let your breakup change that side of you. This section is going to be all about how to get through your breakup and heal emotionally.
Remember, focusing on work in this particular case should be used to take your mind of your ex boyfriend.
Don’t worry though because I am going to go through every single step in a very-in depth manner. Every single relationship is unique and may require unique steps that I haven’t outlined. How you approach this first contact message is almost as important as the text messages later in this process. Your best bet in these situations is to simply not respond at all and understand that your ex is still processing their emotions. If your relationship was brief then this part of engaging your ex may be a little bit more challenging. For the sake of this page lets say that me and my ex had an experience where we were watching a football game outdoors and it was really cold. Everything seemed to be going fine until you hit your first road block with a negative response.
Nevertheless, if you get a response like this you just have to be polite, positive and collected. Some of you may not agree with this but everywhere I researched said that using your ex boyfriends jealousy to your advantage is one of the most powerful things you can do.
I am recommending that you drop certain hints in your communication with your ex boyfriend that you are out meeting new people.
One thing that always made me a bit jealous (even though I never voice it) was when a girl I felt really strongly about has a bunch of pictures with a bunch of different guys on her Facebook profile. Knowing when to slip them in will depend on your gut feeling and the context of the conversation you are having. Your ex boyfriend might not be as receptive to meeting you somewhere extravagant and out of his way. The obvious advantage to this is that he has time to clear his schedule and make time for you ;). This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author. Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers.
While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians.
He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?.
The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent.
Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans. Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri. A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography.
Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection.
The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era.
In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored.
By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands.
The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity. Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned.
In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr.
Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work. Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved. In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond.
The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi.
In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib.
Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him.
It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world. In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe.
In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores.
In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license. The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received.
WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist. WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps.
By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St.
References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. Bush after he was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal in the Oval Office at the White House. Ia€™m not sure he knew where that road would lead because before I knew it I was off to Washington D.C.
I strongly urge you to pay particular attention to articles in Carolina Clean that deal with these items.
It is responsible for financial oversight, Bylaws, Board Policy, Association Objectives, Decorum and dispute resolution. In addition, the President appoints Regular and Associate At Large Directors and interested non-Board Members to serve on this committee. Your customers and potential customers are predisposed to trust you because they can establish a personal relationship with you-so cultivate it.
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View customer success stories, browse my products or watch this mind-blowing video about success with women. It isn’t necessarily a fast process but there is proof out there to back up the claims being made. I have been running this site for quite some time and get an incredible amount of emails and comments every single day. This may sound a bit mean but you are going to have to be completely honest with yourself and possibly look at things that may make you uncomfortable. Personally, cheating to me is a big no no and I don’t think I could forgive that so easily. Careful though, don’t let them talk you into calling him before the no contact period is up. The second your ex boyfriend picks up (if he even picks up) you have to be on your toes and there is a lot that can go wrong. To make matters more complicated you can’t get into a full blown conversation with him yet. It doesn’t necessarily mean that all hope is lost it just means you may need to be more patient and try again in a week or so.
However, that doesn’t mean anything bad it just means you might have to get more creative. This just means you misread the situation and you moved a little to fast to start bringing up your relationship. The obvious disadvantage is that you are laying a lot of your cards on the table and rejection will certainly hurt your feelings.
I suggest getting coffee at Starbucks with chairs and couches where the two of you can just sit and talk.
The key is to just do something that the two of you will both enjoy where you can have fun and talk.
But even in an oven with natural convection, it can mess up airflow and cooking and even cause burners to malfunction. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait.
Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose.
Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail. This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude.
All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319). From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth.
A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name.
Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo.
Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish. Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller.
WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use. Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name.
Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there. Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind.
The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago. Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean. Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed.
Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable. Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541.
He founded the Honor Air ProgramA  in Henderson County in 2006 which spawned other programs across the southeast and merged with the Honor Flight Program in Ohio in 2007 to form the Honor Flight Network which has now made it possible for 36,000 vets to make the trip to visit their memorials from over 100 hubs in 39 states.
REMEMBER THAT YOU MUST HAVE A STANDARD WORK WEEK (beginning and ending on the same days) & PAY OVERTIME IF THE EMPLOYEE WORKS MORE THAN 40 HOURS IN ANY WORK WEEK EVEN IF PAID EVERY TWO WEEKS.
If you process transactions on a stand alone terminal through a dial up phone line, you need only consult with your credit card processor. You will also be eligible for an additional tax credit on your 2011 income tax return for each qualified worker kept on the payroll for 52 consecutive weeks of no less than $1,000. In addition, Mississippi recently became the 46th state to enact a law requiring businesses experiencing a security breach to notify affected individuals if their personal information is impacted (North Carolina adopted its version in 2005).


It will almost certainly get her to contact you, at which point you need to let her know that you still love her and will give her space if she wants.
Each person wants me to give them a detailed step by step plan that they can follow to get their ex back. Every time you have a good experience or something of that nature you are putting money into the account. A lot of times women make the mistake of picking up right where they left off whenever they do get their ex back. The further away from the breakup your ex gets the more nostalgic he will become about your relationship. So, from this point on I am just going to be focusing on that method and the best practices using it. So, if your gut is telling you that a particular tactic I have outlined won’t work for you I would definitely trust it. Because, if you screw this part up you can kiss your chances of getting your boyfriend back goodbye.
This is simply a small baby step that you are using to test the waters and gauge where you are at.
If your ex boyfriend would get jealous every time you would talk to another man or every time you went out then I would say you should really revisit your thinking on getting back together with him. Do you think you will get very far if you rub the fact that you are out and about with other guys? More specifically, setting up a date with your ex boyfriend for the first time since your break up. If you simply must line the bottom of your oven with foil, at least poke holes in it where there are holes in the oven floor. The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian.
Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future. On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it.
To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans.
The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem.
Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries. In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two.
Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World. Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller. Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D. It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage.
The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship.
In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000.
Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes.
In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P.
The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg. He was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal in 2008 for his leadership in sending older veterans to visit their memorial. Board members are elected by the general membership; committee members are appointed by the President and include members who are not Board members.
Why not join us at our Fall Board and Committee Meetings in Asheville October 1st and 2nd (Details are in this newsletter)? YOU MUST OBTAIN A STATEMENT FROM EACH ELIGIBLE NEW HIRE CERTIFYING UNDER PENALTIES OF PERJURY, THAT THEY WERE UNEMPLOYED OR WORKED LESS THAN 40 HOURS FOR ANYONE DURING THE 60-DAY PERIOD. The fact of the matter is that it is such a complex process that I really can’t give you everything you need in a post, email, comment or Facebook chat.
However, every time you have an argument or a fight you are taking money out of the account. Every expert (myself included) seems to have a different opinion on the method you should use for contacting an ex. However, I would say the biggest advantage to text messaging would be the fact that you can take your time and think everything through.
The main takeaway here is that you are going to have to get creative and sometimes even skip entire skips depending on how fast you are moving. Honestly, the dates I have enjoyed the most wasn’t anything super romantic it was just when I was enjoying the company of someone else and walking around. They're there for a reason.2-1 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) When working on gas cooking equipment, if you've disconnected a gas pipe to replace a valve or other component, always test the pipe joint for leaks when you reassemble it. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names. But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s).
It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery.
In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages.
On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored. He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus.
Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban.
For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol.
In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade.
The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived.
In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract.
37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume.
Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950. The committees meet during each of winter, spring and fall Board and Committee Meetings and by conference call between meetings when needed. That letter may be read with interest by regulators, plaintiffsa€™ attorneys, the media, and, unfortunately, potential investors or customers. The key thing here is to have more green deposits than red withdrawals in your relationship bank account.
Some recommend writing a get your boyfriend back letter, some say you should give them a call and some even say you should text.
There is a subtle art to incorporating jealousy texts into your conversations and I am going to teach you that art. The key is to be really subtle about it but trust me if your man has a Facebook I promise you he will check your profile from time to time.
The truth of the matter is that if you played pretty close to the game plan I laid out for you, your ex boyfriend will probably have suggested to meet up IN PERSON by now. You can do this by coating the joint with a solution of liquid soap and water and looking for bubbles.
There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east.
While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement.
According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara. Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage.
One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time.
Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business.
To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection. And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map.
Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen.
The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million).
Whether youa€™re responding to government enforcement or containing a security breach, productivity and cash flow will both be adversely affected.
Apply it with a brush to make sure you coat the joint thoroughly, and use a mirror to look at the back side of the joint if necessary. A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic. In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared.
The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America.
Your appliance parts dealer has gas leak testing solution, with a brush built into the cap, made specifically for this purpose. 2) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any oven that you're disassembling. And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century.
A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia. If you need to re-energize the oven to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!!
The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages.
These machines were sold as GE, Hotpoint, and "private-labelled" as JC Penney and Penncrest brands. In 1995, GE redesigned their dryers. There is a reason that it stopped - you can bet on it - and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will fail again. WCI's machines were sold under these original brand names, as well as Westinghouse and White-Westinghouse brands. In the '90's, WCI was bought by Swedish giant Electrolux, who changed the company name back to the Frigidaire Home Products Company.
Replace the part. 4) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. They have continued to manufacture these "Herrin" machines as Maytag "Performa" models and high-end Crosley brand machines, but they have gone through a LOT of evolution. Wear gloves, and be careful not to cut your hands! 6) If you have diagnosed a certain part to be bad, but you cannot figure out how to remove it, sometimes it helps to get the new part and examine it for mounting holes or other clues as to how it may be mounted. 7) When testing for a 110 volt power supply from a wall outlet, you can plug in a small appliance such as a shaver or blow dryer. You can find them in the yellow pages under the following headings:APPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, MAJORAPPLIANCES, PARTS AND SUPPLIESREFRIGERATORS, DOMESTICAPPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, REPAIR AND SERVICECall a few of them and ask if they are a repair service, or if they sell parts, or both.
If you're testing for 220 volt power you need to use the VOM. 8) When splicing wires in an oven, remember that you're dealing with high temperatures. Your parts dealer has high-temp connections, porcelain wire nuts and fiberglass-insulated wire for this purpose. I want to impress upon you something really important. However, you don't want to badger them with TOO many questions, so know your basics before you start asking questions. Some parts houses may offer service, too.
It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good. They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath "guide" you to their service department.
They should contain the model number somewhere. In any case, and especially if you have absolutely NO information about your dryer anywhere, make sure you bring your old part to the parts store with you.
However, you don't want to badger them with too many questions, so know your basics before you start asking questions. Some parts houses may offer service, too.
If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service.
An inexpensive one will suffice, as long as it has both "AC Voltage" and "Resistance" (i.e.
On some models, you will also need the lot number to get the right part, so if there is one on the nameplate, write that down, too.2-3 TOOLS (Figure 2-A)Most of the tools that you might need are shown below. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
Remember the rule in section 1-5 (1); while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair. You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter. In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM.
When testing 220 volt circuits (usually in electric dryers) make sure you always follow the precautions in rule 1 of section 1-5!Figure B-4: Testing Voltage1-4(b) TESTING FOR CONTINUITY (Figure B-5)Don't let the word "continuity" scare you. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. Remember the rule in section 2-1; while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair. You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter.In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM.
It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" scale. If the meter does not read zero resistance, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero.
You can touch the ends of the wires and test leads with your hands if necessary to get better contact. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source.
If there is GOOD continuity, the meter will move toward the right side of the scale and steady on a reading. This is the resistance reading and it doesn't concern us; we only care that we show good continuity. If you do not, the switch is bad.   1-4(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory.
It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" or "ohms" scale. If you own an ammeter, you probably already know how to use it. If you don't, don't get one.
If the meter does not read zero ohms, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero. If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.
The greater the current that's flowing through a wire, the greater the density of the magnetic field, or flux, it produces aroundthe wire. The ammeter simply measures the density of this flux, and thus the amount of current, flowing through the wire. To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the cur rent going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do). If you need to re-energize the dryer to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. If you do not, the switch is bad. 2-4(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. I want to impress upon you something really important. It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good.However, 220 VOLTS CAN KNOCK YOU OFF YOUR FEET.
To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do). If the meter shows any reading at all, something in the oven is using power.2-5 WIRING DIAGRAMSometimes you need to read a wiring diagram, to make sure you are not forgetting to check something.
And if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will stop again.
The symbols used to represent each component are pretty universal. Wire colors are abbreviated and shown next to each wire.
Replace the part. 3) If you must lay the dryer over on its side, front or back, first make sure that you are not going to break anything off, such as a gas valve. GR or GN are green, GY is gray.A wire color with a dash or a slash means --- with a --- stripe. Lay an old blanket on the floor to protect the floor and the finish of the dryer. 4) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. And NEVER EVER remove the third (ground) prong in the main power plug! 5) When opening the dryer cabinet or console, remember that the sheet metal parts are have very sharp edges. In some wiring diagrams, wiring and switches inside a timer or other switchblocks are drawn with lines that are thicker than the rest of the wiring. The small white circles all over the diagram are terminals. Wear gloves, and be careful not to cut your hands! 6) When testing for your power supply from a wall outlet, plug in a small appliance such as a shaver or blow dryer. These are places where you can disconnect the wire from the component for testing purposes. If two wires cross on the diagram without a black dot, they are not connected. Switches may be numbered or lettered. Usually the terminals on the outside of the timer or switch are stamped or printed with markings that you will see on the wiring diagram. To test a switch, mark and disconnect all the wires. For example, in figure 2-F, if you want to test the door switch, take power off the machine, disconnect the wires from it and connect one test lead to COM and one to NC.
If it does, you know that contact inside the switch is good. Remember that for something to be energized, it must make a complete electrical circuit. You must be able to trace the path that the electricity will take, FROM the wall outlet back TO the wall outlet. In this simplified circuit diagram, notice that only the heating elements operate on 220 volts. Since the locking mechanism is interlocked with the heating circuit, the oven will not reach cleaning temperature either.Let's start at the lock motor and find out which switches feed electricity to it. Tracing the other lock motor lead, we first end up at the "C" terminal of the 4-position selector switch. Looking at the switch for the chart, the "C" to "LM" contacts are closed when the "clean" button is depressed on the switch. Power then leaves the thermostat through the "5" terminal, so we need to check for continuity between terminals "5" and "6" of the thermostat. Since it is a thermostatic switch, only heat will open the switch, so we only need to test it for continuity. They are shown in the diagram in their "normal state." So continuing with our circuit, if the locking motor is not turning, you need to check switch "B" for continuity between the "COM" and "NC" terminals.
If there is no continuity, it might mean the switch is bad. It might also mean that the switch was not returned to its "normal" state the last time it was activated!You need to examine the switch carefully to determine what the problem is. If the locking motor stopped turning before the switch unlocked, you've got other problems.
You will need to trace other circuits in the diagram to figure out what. From the "COM" terminal of switch "B," the circuit goes back through the door switch to L1.
The door switch feeds several other oven circuits, too, so unless there's something else not working, we can eliminate that as the problem. The door must be closed to close the switch that feeds electricity to the thermostats and heating circuit.To check for a wire break, you would pull each end of a wire off the component and test for continuity through the wire. You may need to use jumpers to extend or even bypass the wire; for example, if one end of the wire is in the control console and the other end in underneath the machine. It will then be up to you to figure out exactly where that break is - there is no magic way. An ammeter is a safer way to test energized circuits if you have one, especially testing 220 volt circuits. Occasionally, if the component is inexpensive enough, it's easier to just replace it and see if that solves the problem. Following is a primer on how to test each individual component you might find in any given oven. Take all wires off the component and test continuity across it as described in section 2-4(b). Switches should show good continuity when closed and no continuity when open.
NO means "normally open" and with the switch at rest, you will see no continuity through it. SELECTOR SWITCHBLOCKS A selector switchblock, located in the control panel, is a group of switches all molded into one housing.
In your oven, a switchblock might be used to allow you to choose a cooktop heat setting, for example, or a cleaning cycle instead of a baking cycle. You must look at the wiring diagram to see which of the terminals will be connected when the internal switches are closed. Keep in mind, however, that you must also know which of the internal switches close when an external button is pressed.
When you press one button on the switchblock, several of the switches inside may close at once.To test a switchblock, in addition to the wiring diagram, you must have a chart that gives you this info. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. Usually this is a part of the wiring diagram. Using the diagram and chart in figure 2-J, lets say we want to test contacts "T1" to "FM" for proper operation.
We see that with the "clean" button pressed, these contacts inside the switchblock should be closed. Although error (fault) codes for most major brands may be found in Chapter 7, usually diagnosis consists of simply replacing circuit components until you find the bad one. Usually the problem turns out to be a bad oven sensor, stuck or defective keypad, ERC (clock) unit or a circuit board.
These can be tested and rebuilt or replaced as described in this chapter.2-6 (c) THERMOSTATIC CONTROLSA thermostat is simply a switch or a gas valve that opens and closes according to the temperature it senses.
If there is an automatic oven cycle, main control thermostats must also be wired through the timer.
And if there is a cleaning cycle, they must be either bypassed or adjusted for the higher temperatures of that cycle. That's where you start to get dual-control thermostats, thermostats with twelve leads, and other complexities. Some even control two levels of the same pilot. Main control thermostats are about the most expensive commonly-replaced parts in an oven. It should be the last thing you conclude, after you have checked out everything else in the system.The liquid inside the bulb and capillary of an oven thermostat is usually a mercury or sodium compound or some other such nasty and dangerous stuff.
So when you replace an oven thermostat, do not cut open the capillary or bulb, and dispose of the old thermostat properly.
The definition of "properly" varies between jurisdictions, but check with your appliance parts dealer or local fire department hazardous materials professionals.ADJUSTING THERMOSTATS The oven is adjusted by a small adjusting screw in the center of the oven thermostat valve stem.
In other words, if you set the thermostat at 350 degrees, you want the heating system to cycle on if the temperature is below 340 degrees, and off when the temperature reaches about 360 degrees.
With nothing else in the oven, place it in the middle of the oven, where you can see it through the oven door glass. The important thing to remember about clocks in an oven unit are that often the thermostat controls are first wired through the timer.
Also, if you are troubleshooting a no heat complaint in an oven with an automatic cycle, the first step is always to check the timer controls.
The greater the current that's flowing through a wire, the greater the density of the magnetic field, or flux, it produces aroundthe wire. The woman who greeted me was the ultimate Susie homemaker; everything was spotless in HER kitchen. Including the oven, which looked new, but this gal swore she'd owned it since it was new 35 years before, and by golly she knew it inside and out and didn't know why two ovens out of three suddenly didn't work.
You must have a wiring diagram to determine which terminals are connected when a switch inside the timer closes. Put a resistance meter across those terminals and advance the clock to determine if the switch is opening and closing. If the clock motor doesn't run or the switches don't open and close as they are supposed to, replace the timer. If there are any special wiring changes, they will be explained in instructions that come with the new timer. Clocks and timers can usually be rebuilt.
Ask your appliance parts dealer for details.2-6 (e) ELECTRIC HEATERS AND IGNITORSElectric heater elements and ignitors are tested by measuring continuity across them as described in section 2-5(b). Replace heater elements if they show no continuity.2-6 (f) RELAYSHeating elements use a lot of electricity compared to other electrical components. The switches that control them sometimes need to be built bigger than other kinds of switches, with more capacity to carry more electricity. The switches involved in running a heater or ignitor can be too big to conveniently put inside the control console or timer.
Besides that, there are safety considerations involved in having you touch a switch that carries that much electricity directly, with your finger. The way they solve that problem is to make a secondary switch.
A little switch activates an electromagnet, which closes a big switch that carries the heavier current load. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!! It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good. If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.



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