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Analysis: Champions Chelsea Most Efficient Side in the League, Terrya€™s Quality Unparalleled and Other Things We LearnedAs they have done with each of their previous four top-flight title wins, Chelsea clinched their latest Premier League crown at the first time of asking with a vintage 1-0 victory against Crystal Palace at Stamford Bridge. In stark contrast to last season, where the new league champions came up short in games such as the one against Crystal Palace on Sunday, Mourinhoa€™s side is one that now finds a way to win even when nowhere near its best. Even as the greatest defender in Chelseaa€™s history prepares to lift his fourth Premier League title later this month as club captain a€“ a record-equalling achievement a€“ there is an ever-growing concern amongst the Stamford Bridge faithful that the club is still a ways away from finding a potential successor to fill the void that John Terry will leave when he eventually hangs up his boots. One could be forgiven for thinking that this would be the season when John Terry would be gradually phased out, but the veteran defender has proved his doubters wrong, and in spectacular fashion. Nevertheless, Terrya€™s quality and leadership have had an immense impact on this title race.
In hindsight, it is now clear that Chelseaa€™s efficiency in the summer transfer window was a sign of things to come a€“ a marker laid down before the season had even begun. The last time Chelsea lost a league game, Manchester City had caught up to the Blues a€“ a remarkable situation where the nouveaux riches of the Premier League were level on points, goals scored, goals conceded and the Stamford Bridge outfit were top of the table only by alphabetical order. Chelsea played some of the most entertaining football in the league in the first half of the season. Maxima Visions Production Company - Production in Texas:MAXIMA VISIONS FILMS BELIEVESNew in 2012! We are seeking now those residents in Middle Tennessee, those individuals who have such experience.
A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia. In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe.
According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business. They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East. An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe. Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans. The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan.
Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns. New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration.
The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained. And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D.
They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory. Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased.
The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored.
The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique. England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy. One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia. One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient. Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand. During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established. Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies. The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524. In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France.
By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War. The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain.
The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean.
After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation. After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs. Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China). Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established. Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats.
And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia. A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe. If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€?? Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts. The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot.
Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant.
Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas.
There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed.
The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language.
The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf.
In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there. Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a. The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C. His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages.
A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas. But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations. But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings? On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees.
Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross.
After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men. Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula.
When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God. Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control.
As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken.
In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration].
In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions.
Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe.
Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America. Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain.
De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward. De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City. He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river. Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines. Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force. The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash. Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda. De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas). From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves. As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery! For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate. The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade. The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain.
Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade. The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands. Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa.
Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands. Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ. The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline.
Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline. The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia.
Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations.
Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce.
Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean. Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands?
What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century?
What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way?
What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner? By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands.
Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed.
Incredibly, it is Jose Mourinhoa€™s third league title in his first five full seasons as Chelsea manager, a record matched by just two other managers in English top-flight history. Even more than the silky, fluid football and the arrogance in Chelseaa€™s play at the beginning of the season when the likes of Cesc Fabregas, Oscar, Matic, Hazard and Diego Costa were in top form, it is this resilience and maturity that will please the Portuguese manager the most. A The tireless Brazilian, in contrast to the likes of Fabregas, Matic and Oscar, has improved in the second half of the season and despite the signing of Juan Cuadrado, has cemented his spot in Mourinhoa€™s starting XI. There was justified outrage about the Englishmana€™s exclusion from the nominees for the PFA Playera€™s Player of the Year award, although the Chelsea stalwart was included in the Team of the Year. For the first time in his career, Terry, at the ripe old age of 34, is on course to play every single game in a Premier League season.
Unlike some of Chelseaa€™s other top players, the former England captain has been consistently brilliant throughout the season, with his performance against Arsenal at the Emirates in particular earning high praise from his manager. Mourinho and the Chelsea board culled players they deemed excess to requirements ruthlessly, whilst adding world class quality to the side, with a net spend the likes of which the club has rarely seen in their time under Roman Abramovich. Thirteen points now separate the sides, and Chelsea have been crowned Premier League champions. As was the case on Sunday against Crystal Palace, in the second half of the season, it has been about grinding out results. Now, all of the production capabilities possible at our home office in Nashville Tennessee & Norfolk Virginia is possible in the great state of Texas. We are seeking not only actors who have done major speaking roles, but also full production crews, from producers, directors, script and screen writers, Dpa€™s, lighting personnel, electric, set decorators, hair and make-up artist, editors, to those with experience in marketing and distribution. Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty). They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf. They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo).
China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers. Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution.
Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish.


Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents. By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves.
They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China. Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes.
Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time.
It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance.
He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants. At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean. Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education.
Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia. The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain. The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor). We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America.
The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon. Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific.
And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast. A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci. Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he? Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture. In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas.
His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman. Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white. He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland. Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind. Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God. In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely.
He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences.
Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English.
Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank. Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags.
As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts. So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint.
In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy. Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort. On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world.
Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe.
A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years.
Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth.
I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse. It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men. They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific. In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold.
They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business. They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos.
In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa!
The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom. From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe.
The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah. In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain.
What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World? In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal? Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs?
As has been the case for much of the second half of this season, it was a functional rather than aesthetically-pleasing Chelsea on Sunday afternoon, but most crucially, it was a Chelsea that yet again got the job done. The term a€?Mourinho playera€™ is often associated with the former Shakhtar attacker, and it is obvious why a€“ Chelseaa€™s no.22 has an exceptional engine, with the Brazilian covering every blade of grass on the pitch on Sunday against Crystal Palace and making an absolute nuisance of himself with his relentless pressing and pressure on opposition defenders and midfielders. Playing almost as an auxiliary right-back at times, he has provided excellent cover for Ivanovic, whilst helping out defensively every time it is required of him. Not only has he appeared in all 35 of Chelseaa€™s Premier league outings till date, he has also played in all of the cluba€™s important games in other competitions, including the Capital One Cup final at Wembley against Tottenham where he clinched the opening goal, setting his team on the path to victory. Chelsea will never find a like-for-like replacement, but the club need to start looking a€“ preferably from within their own ranks a€“ for someone with the potential to lead the side like he does.
The championsa€™ brilliant season then, started much before that awesome display of attacking, free-flowing football at Turf Moor against Burnley in their league opener. There has been much debate lately about Chelseaa€™s safety-first approach to the top-of-the-table clashes against Manchester United and Arsenal, with critics scornful of the Bluesa€™ lack of attacking intent.
Please see home page and services page to see services that are now also available in Texas.NOW SEEKING ANYONE WITH MAJOR PRODUCTION EXPERIENCE & PROFESSIONAL ACTORS AND ACTRESSES IN TEXAS!
We need to put together two complete production crews to enable us to always have at least one film in pre-production, one in production and one in post year round. Images,snapshots,and pics often capture a sentiment,a mood,a feeling,or even an idea of a person who's at the center of attention.
However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East.
Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe.
It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China.
It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain.
European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia. Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans.
Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants.
This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia.
Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line. Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed.
The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium.
In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec.
In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson.
Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D.
So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed.
Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge. It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal. The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic. Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks. There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble. He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was. A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses. Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river.
Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost. They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it.
And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him.
Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees.
The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade.
They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage.
As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled.
Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away. Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises.
The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church.
Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea.
The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer.
Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans. The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents. Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch. Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. Whilst it is true that he can contribute more in terms of goals and assists, and that he needs to improve his end product, Williana€™s ability to fit into any system Mourinho plays, his selflessness and his willingness to make sacrifices for the team mean that he is a€“ quite rightly a€“ one of the managera€™s most valued players. Chelsea fans will be left wondering how different their cluba€™s fortunes could have been in previous seasons had their captain been afforded more trust and minutes under the likes of Andres Villas-Boas and Rafa Benitez. With a year or two of football still left in Terry, now is as good a time as any for the club to identify and start nurturing a€“ with the aid of Terry a€“ their next captain, leader, legend. What Mourinho will point to, however, is their record since the defeat to Spurs all the way back on the first of January: 11 wins and 4 draws in 15 games.
The league champions have displayed ruthless efficiency, killing all talk of a potential title charge by Arsenal and Manchester United even as itA began. Throughout the years,pictures has become one of the most popular ways to capture memorable moments.
Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans. At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580. Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith.
He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli.
Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe.
But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus. However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants. Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials. They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea. And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology. Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person. Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout.
In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies.
He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land.
In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power.
He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. Chelsea are likely to refresh their squad over the summer with attacking options such as Antoine Griezmann and Pedro being linked with the club. Terry followed that up by scoring a crucial goal against Leicester City in midweek that gave Chelsea the lead late in the second half, leaving them a mere three points away from the title. The Bluesa€™ ability to adapt to their opposition and play different a€?stylesa€™ of football has helped them throughout the season, and is arguably what has made the difference at the business end. Whilst the rest of the league debates whether or not Chelsea are entertaining, and rival managers take thinly-veiled digs at the Chelsea manager and the teama€™s style of play, Mourinhoa€™s Chelsea continue to do what they do best: winning.
Randall Maxwell, who brings his 35 years experience in Hollywood and Wilmington NC in the film industry to Nashville to direct this Nashville Operation.
And certainly,for a tantamount of consumer and shoppers you cant put a price tag on family and holiday pics. The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers.
A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500.
Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines). The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada. Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes. But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way?
At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord. Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church.


Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. It will, however, take a special player to dislodge Willian from his position on Chelseaa€™s right wing.
That goal was his 38th for Chelsea, a record-equalling achievement in the league as a whole for a defender. A A If you are one of those individuals who already have the professional experience necessary to produce quality films and television productions, now is the time to get your working resumes to us to be considered working for our company. Decades after the invention of the first camera, a large number of consumers and shoppers continue to take pics, in a hgh tech fashion. Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road. Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands. This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista.
How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration?
I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all!
Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa.
She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again.
Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. Another rock solid display followed against Crystal Palace on Sunday as the league champions kept yet another home clean sheet and sealed the Premier League title. Instead of the antiquated bulky cameras with huge lenses,consumers and shoppers frequently use SmartPhones and digital cameras to capture images and to take holiday pics. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe.
From family gatherings,to family picnics to traditional weddings to the holidays,consumers and shoppers often seize the opportunity at planned events and during the holidays for instance Thanksgiving and Christmas to take pictures of loved ones,family,friends and co workers.
But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills. From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia.
The prescription medications Kelli uses to relieve her insecurities change both twins lives forever.Over the course of several years, Kellis drug dependency grows. Since founding csaccac Inc in 2010, as Founder and President,I fill many hats including Product Tester and photographer. The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. Kelli comes close to dying several times from overdoses -- accidental and intentional -- leading to many stays in psychiatric facilities. You may want to scrawl down past the next several paragraphs, as they pertain to our professional training. And truthfully speaking,in the beginning I experienced some difficulty;however,after I purchased my first digital camera I began to feel comfortable and enjoy the ease of taking pics with a digital camera. Darla struggles to convince the doctors her twins irrational behavior started only after they began pumping her full of powerful anti-psychotic drugs. The same applies to anyone interested in securing us for any of your professional production needs.
Months after I purchased my first digital camera,I set my sights on a tripod, a universal stand to hold my digital camera. The main reason I purchased a tripod__ at the time, I wanted to create high quality self pics and group pics. Eventhough, I've had my tripod for some months,I am still learning the ins and outs of both my digital camera and tripod. Not that you must come to work for us, as after training you will be more than qualified with professional training, as you will have actually worked on at least four real feature films in your chosen discipline that you can put on your resume, that you can practically chose the production company you want to work for anywhere in the US or abroad. Well,if you havent guessed or envisioned what the featured product for the month of November 2013 looks like or remotely even resembles __then as productor tester I guess I'll do the honors first__it's my tripod.
You may choose the discipline of acting, producing, directing, script & screen writing, editing, business of film making, basic film production, camera operator, director of photography, animation, any discipline within the collaborative art of film making. These are conservative figures and take no considerations for attaching a star to this film in making the film a success. This is a two year certificate program with the top 50% of our graduating class being offered a two year paid internship with our production company, giving you a working resume in your chosen discipline where you can continue working for Maxima Vision Films or choose practically any other production company within the US or abroad. However, we feel the very story is strong enough on its own merit to assure success of distribution of this film, especially considering the number of qualitydistribution outlets available to film makers today. Eventually, I wanted to find out what the craze had been all about and the reason that consumers seemed to ofA  been trading in personal computers for Tablets,_well, at least leaving them at home. We feel certain with the budget of this film being so low, and the quality of story being so good, there is no reason we cannot at least double an investors return on their investment, but quite likely to earn a substantial return.We cannot guarantee the financial success of this venture.
These workshops also get you working immediately with our professionals who are making movies each and every day. Ultimately, I placed online an order for a NookHD+ then opt to pick up the tech item from the store instead of waiting for it to be shipped to my place of residency. These workshops can be either taken over weekends, camps, taken one day a week at 3 hour classes, or two days at 1 hour and half, both of which you will also be involved in a three hour workshop on the weekend at our production facilities.
AA  few weeks with the NookHD+, I was hooked_eventhough, IA  wasna€™t a fan of touchscreen only. Frankly, the overriding qualification for prospective investors in this or similar projects is that they must be fully accredited, and able to lose all or part of their investment, incurring no significant financial damage as a result of loss. And in all honesty, since the beginning of the Smart Phone craze, I had insisted upon that all of my primary tech gadgets used for work, research and blogging had to be equipped with a QWERTY keyboard. That said, we can guarantee thatMaxima Visions Films and Productions has developed and sold compelling stories with universal relevance, and has assembled a team of production professionals who are completely dedicated to, and competent in,delivery of a high quality product.As entertainment appetites and accessibility grows, the industry is begging for high quality product to fill the ever-increasing demands. However, in this particular instance,The NookHD+, again, touchscreen only, I made an exception. Given current worldwide economic conditions, the entertainment industry stands virtually alone as a growth industry. If you are an aspiring actor, you need to at the very least know how to prepare for a casting interview, as you only have one shot in this business to get it right!A Do you know how much work goes into the production of a film or television production? As I continued to learn the ins and outs of my newly purchased NookHD+ , at the same time, I began to inquire about the accessories compatible with the tech gadget.
In doing so, I foundA  the tech item had a Stylus Pen specifically made to use with the NookHD+. This is an absolute in this business & like preparing you for a casting interview, these are all a part and included in any of our camps, workshops and classes.If you are an aspiring actor?
Weeks later, I purchased a different kind of Stylus Pen , I noticed while standing atA  the checkout counter at Walgreens,pictured next to this article is that Stylus Pen. Quite astonishing the Stylus Pen worked wellA  with both of my tech gadgets ( Smart Phone & Tablet). Maxwell is going to be spending so much time here, to do a large amount of productions here in Texas, as opposed to traveling to either the east or west coast.
Remember, a demo reel is just what the name implies, it is a demo of your acting abilities. A frequent question a tantamount of consumers and shoppers find themselves entertaining especially during the holidays when manufacturers and retailers offer what they consider to be great deals and bargains. After giving the device a run for its money as well as a brief critique of the various apps and functions,I stated in my review of the Nook HD+ how pleased I was with the tech gadget.
Further into the critique, I also commented that I was soooo pleased with the tech gadget that I wanted to protect my investment.
At your own school or church, we can even make available a after school program for the cost of basically any other after school program, but you are learning what you are passionate about, making movies. Based on my income and budget,I considered the purchase of the Nook HD+ to be a major purchase of the year.
Randall Maxwell will act as the Executive producer on any of these projects.This particular investment group has chosen to use the same success formula Dr. Each of these programs will ultimately produce a short student film that you may use on your resume for your chosen discipline, entered into competition with other Christian schools and churches in our upcoming 2015 film festival. Shortly after, I purchased the Nook HD+,I began to look at the recommended accessories for the tech gadget.
Maxwell used back in his secular film production days, which is basically, production by the numbers. Eventually, after I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange 14 day trial period,I chose to protect my investment with a Nook HD+ cover. What this means is simple; with the number of quality venues of distribution now available if one can keep a production fewer than 3 million dollars, one is practically assured to at least break even on a film, if the story has any merit what so ever. As I began to search and think of different items that could be the product of the month for September,I began to heavily weigh in on August's product of the month,the Nook HD+cover. Hours later,I arrived to the assertion that there's more than one way to protect your investment. This means, they especially like projects where they spread their risk, that they simply match dollar for dollar of the projects budget. We are not interested in the number of times you have had an extra spot in a film, or even a speaking role in a student film at some film school. With the assertion___, there's more than one way to protect your investment, I made the final choice to make Smart Phone covers as the product of the month for September. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! Furthermore, within the past five years,Ive purchased several Smart Phones from Virgin Mobile. We do already have two projects which this investment group has expressed interest in producing in Texas. As mentioned, we are as committed to quality product, films that will help to shape our culture positively, as we are to hiring as much local talents as possible. To be truthful, I've even purchased Smart Phone insurance,a good choice because a few months later my Smart Phone had an accident. We are absolutely committed to producing such quality that in the near future that anyone who has any interest in producing a redemptive story idea, there is only one logical solution as to what company one is to come to for producing such a product, and that is Maxima Vision Films.
Despite all of the stuff I tried, sampled, tasted and tested during the recent months, as a result of a long review and critique besides from featuring the Smart Phone as a product of the month,I began to think of the different ways Ia€™ve used to protect my Smart Phone as an alternative product of the month. For instance,Smart Phone insurance has been one the ways I protect my investment from unexpected accidents. The league champions have displayed ruthless efficiency, killing all talks of a potential title charge by Arsenal and Manchester United even as they began.
We feel after viewing how serious we are about those talents we hire above, you will realize how serious we are in producing for you the most professional production money can buy.
Ostensibly, there's more than one way to protect your Smart Phone from accidents such as, for example, you accidentally drop and break your Smart Phone or in some weird, odd, freak accident as you rush out the door you accidentally step on your Smart Phone or heaven forbids the same thing happens to you that happen to me, a few months ago, I dropped my Smart Phone in the toilet. Whilst the rest of the league debates whether or not Chelsea are entertaining, and rival managers take thinly-veiled digs at the Chelsea manager and the teama€™s style of play, Mourinhoa€™s Chelsea continues to do what it does best: winning.
During this scen her demmons rebel, crying out to her, it is them who are her friends, it is this pastor who is trying to manipulate her and take advantage of her.
Without a question, eschewing further debate, Smart Phone insurance is a great investment for consumers and shoppers who use their Smart Phone daily and for work.
URGENT NEEDSAs already mentioned, in order for Maxima Visions Films to go past pre-production and go into actual production of films here in Texas, we have need of finding the talents needed to have at least two feature films going at any particular time. A A Come now to get involved in our celebration of our opening up our home office in Nashville, Tennessee.
Best of all, Smart Phone insurance usually saves the consumer from digging deep into their pockets.
If one has read our home page, you will find we also have serious interest in developing a film school as well, and we might just find that Texas is the ideal place to have such a school. Get involved now with a company who is committed to harnessing the power of the mediums of film and television to help shape our culture positively verses negatively, as Hollywood has for decades. So, what about before those mishaps and accidents, if you havena€™t figured it out__ there's more than one way to protect your investment.
Please see below the talents we are seeking immediately, and as you read through, please also consider if you would also like teaching on a collegiate level in our film school. Even though, at first, I might of skipped over protecting my investments, I am more open to the idea of investing and protecting my major purchases. Here's an example of what I am talking about, I currently have several Smart Phone covers to protect my Smart Phone from breakage, moisture, and malfunctioning. You may also call our Executive Producer at (757) 636-8163 to discuss your experience and any ideas you may have with him. Varying in price,color,size and shape, most of today's Smart Phone manufacturers and retailers offer to consumers and shoppers Smart Phone covers as an accessory. From passwords, to anti-theft apps, to screen locks and codes, there's more than one way to protect your investment. About Us Contact Us A Tribute to Ben Fisher and Jack Thompson Bill Keato the Lad from Liverpool Old Newspaper stories and photos from the 1960's VALE Laurie Bruyeres VALE Nev Charlton. Regardless of the price, and hopefully it is within your budget, a true frugal savvy shopper knows the importance of protecting their investment.
VALE Bill Keato VALE Vince Karalius VALE Bob McGuiness VALE Denis Meaney VALE Johnny Mowbray Vale Kel O'Shea Vale Mark "Snow" Patch VALE Bob Sargent Vale Ken "Nebo" Stonestreet. At present, we are seriously seeking those who have a very similar look to the photos below, as we are seeking to do trailers for each of the above films immediately and need those who look like the photos below.
VALE Doug Walkaden 1966 Season 1967 Season 1968 Season 1969 Season Noel's Dream Team What a game Wests Photos from the Old Days Case of the Missing Goal Posts A Visit to Old Pratten Park Peter Dimond Book Launch Interview with ------ Noel Kelly Interview with ------ Tony Ford Interview with------- Mick Alchin Interview with Jim Cody Interview with ------ Colin Lewis Interview with ------ John Mowbray Interview with ------ Noel Thornton Interview with ------- Bill Owens Interview with John "Chow" Hayes Arncliffe Scots 1969 Un-Defeated Premiers Arncliffe Scots 85 years reunion 2003 Pratten Park Reunion 2007 Pratten Park Reunion 2008 Pratten Park Reunion 2009 Pratten Park Reunion 2010 Pratten Park Reunion 2011 Pratten Park Reunion 2012 Pratten Park Reunion 2013 Pratten Park Reunion. Above everything else,both I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange process,quite remarkable,I even have the receipt to prove it. For Sister Surrendered we need almost an identical match, as the actor who we are seeking is a twin sister to Darla above. Unlike sooo manyA  items, I ve returned and exchanged in the past,__it,meaning my Nook HD+ survived the fourteenth days as printed on the receipt. In Rachels Grace we need a close look alike for Rachel at present age, and her as a child, a teen, then a 20 something.
A business practice that's part of Barnes and Noble store policy that allows customers fourteen days to return an item. We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
In short,the 14th day, adhering to store policy was the final day that I couldA  actually return my Nook HD+ and get cash back.
Maxwell is also available in Texas to work as either a producer or consultant on any feature film production. He is also available to do most any kind of crew work, from script writing, producing, directing, and assisting in any phase of a film or television production.Dr.
It goes without saying ,I readA  the instructions,totally unavoidable with a new tech gadget,as well as,downloaded apps,and,uploaded wallpapers.
Maxwell is also available to assist in teaching any area of film making;Are you interested in getting into film or television productions? Not quite sure,on the day I purchased my Nook HD+__ifA  in fact, I would be satisfied with my purchase,I chose at the time not to purchase any kind of accessories.
Maxwell is certified and qualified to teach or tutor in many areas, especially Script Writing for film and televisionand producing, and directing.
As it turns out,I was soooo pleased with my purchase of the Nook HD+,I wanted to protect my investments. We offer either group workshops or private lessons.Do you have a story idea that you think is hot for the time and need help in the development of the story into a feature film script or television script, and finally have it made into a feature film or television production? I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? It doesnt matter if you're on lunch break,on a mini vacation,at a webinar or conference,filling out an online report or having to send emails can be a hassle if you don't have a wifi connection,a Broadband device is just one of the many tech gadgets that consumers and shoppers frequently use to get an internet connection. Constantly,on the go,I wanted to have access to wifiA  while away from my place of residency. MaxwellI would sincerely love to help any young person aspiring to break into the entertainment industry in any way I can. Because,I perform an arrary task that frequently requires wifi access ,I purchased a Broadband to Go device from Virgin Mobile. Before being called to the ministry back in 1999, I had spent most all of my adult life, 20+ years in the secular film industry. I have witnessed firsthand what a corrupt industry it can be, so, I would love to be able to coach a young person in ways to avoid some of the costly mistakes I made when I was young.Back in 1999 when first called to ministry, I had actually thought I would never again be involved in the film industry, as I could not see how ministry and the film industry could co-exist, because of the very nature of the industry.
Egregiously,as a Virgin Mobile customer and fan,I live by Virgin Mobile products except in the case of Virgin Mobile wifi devices. Had it not been for my desire to return to school so that I could teach on a collegiate level what I had done all my life, I would have never come to the conclusion I have today, that we can actually use this medium to shape our culture positively.
I came to realize that Satan has certainly used this most powerful medium to shape our culture to fit his agenda, so why couldnt we. I had wanted to teach, so I did not have to take funds out of this ministry I had been called to live on.While back in school seeking my degree I came to realize more and more, just how much power this medium has to impact. Recently,I purchased Virgin Mobile's MiFi 2200 to conciliate my worries about not being able to access wifi home.
I began to realize what more powerful medium could there be to at least share Gods message, to at least plant a seed to get a viewer to at least begin to seek truth, in hopes that they may find the real love Christ my Lord has for a hurting world.
Aside from very slow internet speed,the device could only connect to one tech gadget and,the 3G USB plug n play stick broke too easily. I hope to lead young film makers down the right paths, many of which I missed along the road during my secular days in film making.
I hope to make such an impression that will inspire young people to realize that if they truly have some talent within the entertainment industry, that they at least owe it to our Lord to do it with all their heart for His ultimate glory!Talent & Model Management CompanyUn-Like so many other agencies!
First and foremost, because our Talent and Model Management Company is actually married to our own production company, we will always strive to use as much of our own talents in our own productions as is possible to still keep the integrity of the production its self. By using our own talent for our own productions, this gives our talents actual work, which they can add to their resume. This of course makes an individual talent more marketable for us to sell to other production companies. It has a domino effect.We are now taking resumes, head shots, and portfolio shots from any aspiring actors or models that are aspiring to get involved in the entertainment industry. Affordable,great to have on hand for shopping emergencies,the latest in recycling,a recyclable tote makes shopping less of a hassle. A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? Ditching the old biodegradeable plastic bags for a recyclable tote,it's a smart move and a great investment for frugal,savvy,and environmentally conscious consumers and shoppers.Available in most local chain stores and at grocery stores,recyclable totes are becoming the better choice than leaving stores with the traditional biodegradeable plastic bag.
Maxwell is here on assignment with the ministry he has been called, we feel that the ideal would be to find a property that both Maxima Visions Films and Hope Retreats International, which is Dr.
Part of a movement to get consumers and shoppers involved in recycling and to think about going green,consumers and shoppers now have the option of trading in those plastic bags for a recyclable tote.
A frequent shopper,I usually purchase a couple of recyclable totes to hold store purchases and other stuff. Eventhough,I like having the choice to purchase a recyclable tote,I havent completely stop using biodegradeable plastic bags. However,I have to point out the fact that when a consumer and shoppers purchase a recyclable tote they're not limited to using the tote only in that store,that's why they're called recyclable totes because they can be used more than once.
AS a part of the program for troubled youth, there is an element of a work program, thus making as many students as needed to help around the studios as far as assistant, general house- keeping and maintenance of the areas, keeping cost down. In fact, most recycable totes last for more than a week,I should know because I still have a few leftover from the previous month. We are also looking into working with the manufacturers of log homes and module homes, so as to use our facilities as model homes to use to market other homes in the area, thus bring in another source of income for the joint project. The ministry is of course a non-profit venture as well, thus this could be used as an advantage in a joint venture to be able to write off most all losses.We have particular interest in both the production company and film school working as one identity. A great deal,a really good find,a price you wont find anywhere else,and the best price among competitors,I love a great sale and I love rewards for shopping. Savings and Rewards,for most consumers and shoppers,it's all about getting the best price for items purchase daily. From household supplies to groceries,anyone who shops frequently knows consumers and shoppers love a really good sale_,the economic recession of 2008 could be the culprit. Secondly; A student intern makes for less expensive labor cost while benefiting the student at the same time, as the student can then put this on their professional resume as real work done. In fact,since the 2008 economic recession savings and rewards has become extremely important to American families on a budget.
To steal some of the thunder from the school page to demonstrate here the advantages of a student coming to our school verses a tradition college, we will add some of those benefits here.The greatest danger most of us face is not that our aim is too high and we miss it, but that our aim is too low and we reach it.
For many American consumers and shoppers,the unexpected downturn of the American economy caused a disruption in their daily activies thus forcing consumer and shoppers to rethink the way they shop and how they shop.
As a frequent shopper and consumer,I am constantly looking for a great deal and sales on items I purchase regularly,mainly because I do live on a strict budget. Many universities and film schools do a very good job in training their students in the art of film making, but then it is completely up to you to go out into this competitive world of film making to find your own job. Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando?
Admittedly,after the 2008 economic recession,I rediscovered coupons,and began clipping coupons frequently. First words that come out of your prospective employers mouth is; What experience do you have? In addition to clipping coupons,I also began to check sale ads at home and at the door of stores before shopping. Well, if you are like most, you have never done any actual work on a real film set, other than the few simple student films you did with your class mates in college. Along with making a shopping list,clipping coupons at home,checking sale ads at the door and comparing prices,these days one of the best ways to save and get the best deals,I feel without a question has to be with a savings and reward card.
And speaking honestly, a savings and rewards card from your local chain store should be a consumer or shoppers BF(bestie). A must have for consumers and shoppers who seriously want to save,a savings and rewards card. Upon fulfilling that agreement you may be given a new contract or you may choose to go elsewhere, but at least now you will be going with a very real, producer, director, screen writer, actor or editors resume, and not just a resume stating all the things you did in film school.Because of the very nature of our school, we are only seeking the serious minded film makers, those who are willing to pay the price for excellence.
Throughout the years, my experience with last minute shopping in most instances was not too pleasant. In fact, our tuition is less than practically any other film school, and if you are serious and you are in at least your top 50% of your graduating class and you do receive the two year contract, your education actually cost you nothing, as the amount of money you make on your contract for two years will pay you back your tuition and you will have actually earned money for getting educated.Unfortunately, many who go to college to receive a degree in film making spend so much more time in studying every other subject that is required to get a degree, so little time is ever available to truly learn the craft of film making. Admittedly,I empathize as well as concur with consumers who express sentiments that last minute shopping makes the shopper(consumer) feel uncomfortable and forlorn with the just thought of buying a gift at the last minute.
Often tight on funds to purchase a gift ahead of time,last minute shopping for an overwhelmed consumer with a limited budget could cause the consumer to be late and in some instance not to attend the event or special function. This is not a school for those who have hopes of teaching film and television.By combining the school to the production company has many advantages to the production company as well. Subsequently, over the years, I have come to realize that last minute shopping it's not the best of fun.
As a result, I definitely would not recommend last minute shopping to a consumer as a shopping tip.
Many production companies during times when they themselves are not doing a production, the cost is the same and continues even in down time. Unequivocally, shopping for special events and functions such as finding an appropriate could take several visits different stores. With the school attached, there is always production going on.Finally, the source of income coming from tuition is a continuous source of income, even in down time in productions. Finding the appropriate could mean spending an entire day in a Hallmark store reading cards, it could also mean spending all day on the phone with friend or relatives discussing gift registry,preferences,stores,likes and dislike of the recipient. The production company can also make these students available to other production companies who lease our facilities. Ostensibly,the older you get the adults in your life expect two things from you one not to embarrass them in public and two if you don't have a gift to bring at least show up at special functions on time. Not necessarily because we feel this is the ideal place to produce feature films, but because there is a much needed service needed here is our main reason for being here. Indeed, an earnest shopper as well as a meticulous shopper knows finding the right gift or card for a special function could require hours of shopping and visiting different stores. That service is, what our Executive Producer is here to accomplish.This whole area is in much need for a Christ centered resident recovery program for troubled youth. Shopping done precipitously could result in purchasing the wrong size,color, or something way out in left field.
Though this program is a much needed service and a perfect way for the Christian community to get involved in sharing the real love Christ our Lord has for a hurting world in a very practical way, if their church does not have a desire to get involved, they do not either. Don't wait until the last minute to shop for a party,baby showers,bachelorette bash,birthdays,holidays ,and anniversaries avoid uncomfortableness and the feeling of being inadequate,plan the week before. Unfortunately, so many of this Christian community are so involved in their own Churchs denominational agenda, and keeping their own Churchs mortgage paid, they do not have the time to devote to making this happen.In fact, all across America today, the average church spends 90% of their income in just paying their mortgage and administration cost, leaving very little for outside ministry. On certain days, I have even shopped the day of the event that often leaves me feeling embarrassed ashamed, and guilty about my finances even worse depress. This is the ministry who will end up paying a large portion of the expenses to support this youth retreat.
The vision of our parent mission leads and guides everything that we do, both at Hope Retreats and Maxima Visions films. Incontrovertibly,last minute shopping in many instances could causes the consumer to become distraught,exasperated, and disconcerted not surprisingly all the emotions take away from the planned day. What's more important being punctilious for the planned event or arriving with a hand picked gift for the recipient or recipients? Maxwell, Maxima Visions Films, and our investment group are so committed to making a success here in Texas. Ultimately,the answer remains with the shopper (consumer) The answer should be non bias and based on the event as well as the recipient and not the shoppers wallet .
The meticulous consumer that normally keeps track of birthdays, holidays,and anniversaries with calendars,through emails,P DA's ,Smart phones and other tech savvy gadgets of courses would not necessarily share the same feelings of a last minute shopper . Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.
Please readOur most pressing news as of September 2015, something I hope all readers might read before searching other pages on this site. Maxwell will be deciding upon and after this illness passed we will take a look at producing these scripts into feature films or television productions. Maxwell is spending this time taking care of his wife, and not in production, he has plenty of time to read scripts. Now, all the services offered at our other production facilities will be available to serve Tennessee.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS!
At present we have two major investment groups, one of which has already committed funding four feature films or television productions every year over the next five years.
A Ask any professional in the film or television industry how difficult it is to obtain the funding for a feature film or television production.
No one in Nashville is even producing a film per year, let alone cranking out four feature films or television productions each and every year, not until now. HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?



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