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I have you covered and have the best Christmas gift ideas for your boyfriend’s parents. If you know they like coffee you can get them one with different specialty coffees or if they are more of tea drinkers get them a basket with a variety of flavored teas. Christmas gift baskets range in price from around $15 to up over $100 for the giant stuffed baskets full of stuff.
You can buy them a simple, elegant 8×10 frame or you can get more whimsical with a fun collage frame in a unique shape or design. If you have been dating your boyfriend for quite some time, you can even consider placing a picture of the two of you in the frame for his parent’s to hang in their home. Some items you can consider are snow globes, personalized ornaments, cookie jar, nutcrackers, and figurines. If you just started dating your boyfriend and don’t want anything too expensive or too personal but you still want to get something nice for his parents, consider buying them a nice candle. You can pick up a good quality candle for less than $20 and you can even get a Christmas or winter theme candle for a nice touch. Some people think that gift cards are too impersonal but there are other people who love to get gift cards for Christmas. Get practical gift cards to places you know they eat, department stores they shop at or get an extra special gift certificate to someplace special to them.
DESCRIPTION: These images show 19th and 20th century reconstructions of the world-view of the Greek philosopher Strabo who wrote his famous geography at the beginning of the Christian era and compiled his map from travelersa€™ reports and the a€?writingsa€? of ancients. The contribution of Strabo as a scholar of great stature as philosopher, historian, and geographer, epitomizes the continuing importance of the Greek intellectual heritage - and contemporary practice - to the development of cartography in the early Roman world. Strabo claimed to have traveled widely to bring together an enormous amount of geographical knowledge.
In many ways the most interesting passages relating to cartography in Straboa€™s Geographia are those that, although they contain no maps, give an account, for the first time in a surviving text, of how a description of the known world should be compiled.
In order to avoid the deformational problems of flat maps, Strabo stated that he preferred to construct his map on a globe large enough to show all the required detail. As with all Greek world maps, the great impediment to study for the historian of cartography is that we have only these verbal descriptions, not the images themselves.
It is not clear how we should interpret these familiar graphic similes Strabo employed to describe to his readers the land areas and other features on the world map.
Strabo was a lengthy and discursive writer, but demonstrated good critical power in assessing earlier geographical writers and has given us a verbal picture of the known world of the time. The most detailed examination of a term arising from Homeric geography (#105) is in respect of Ethiopians. The function of geography, according to Strabo, is to be an interpreter, not of the whole world, but of the inhabited world. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?a€?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦.
Strabo has summed up for us the knowledge of the ancient world as it was in the days of the Emperor CA¦sar Augustus of the great Roman Empire, as it was when in far-off Syria the Christ was born and the greater part of the known earth was under the sway of Rome. Strabo begins his book with a detailed account of southern Spain where he tells of her two hundred towns. Large quantities of corn and wine are exported, besides much oil, which is of the first quality, also wax, honey, and pitch . But if anyone disbelieves the evidence of reason, it would make no difference, from the point of view of the geographer, whether we make the inhabited world an island, or merely admit what experience has taught us, namely, that it is possible to sail round the inhabited world on both sides, from the east as well as from the west, with the exception of a few intermediate stretches. Despite the extension of the geographical horizons of the inhabited world since the time of Eratosthenes, Straboa€™s oikumene [inhabited world] was smaller. He goes on to suggest that the quadrilateral in which the Atlantic lies resembles in shape half the surface of a spinning-wheel, and that the oikumene [inhabited world] resembles a chlamys, a Greek mantle. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦.
Those best known are situated on the rivers, estuaries, and seas; but the two which have acquired the greatest name and importance are Cordova and Cadiz. He grows enthusiastic over the richness of this part of southern Spain, famous from ancient days under the name of Tartessus for its wealth.
It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos (#113), a contemporary of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic school of Philosophers, who made the first attempt to construct a terrestrial globe, and that he exhibited the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B. You want to get them something nice but you may not have a good idea what they may really like or you may be on a budget and can’t afford to spend a lot of money.
There are all kinds of different Christmas gift baskets that you can choose from that are great for parents. If you aren’t really sure what they would like, you can always get them a general gift basket full of all types of different goodies and little gifts. There are some really nice smaller gift baskets that you can buy for around $20-$30 and it won’t break your budget but is still a really thoughtful gift.
If you have ever bought a photo frame before you probably know just how big of a selection you have to choose from.
Or if you can score a picture of his parents together you can place that picture in the frame and this has an extra nice touch that will definitely hit their hearts.
They most likely won’t have the exact type of decor item you pick or ornament you get them. Choose from decor candles or more functional ones depending on what you find and how much money you have to spend.
Gift cards work great if you his parent’s live in another state and you will be mailing their gift or if he has parents who have just about anything they could want.
For example if they have a certain mom and pop store they love or a special little restaurant see if they give out gift certificates and this will make their day because you did put thought into the gift.
These are bigger priced items but if you are really close to his parents and know them well, these may make great gifts this year. The now lost map by Strabo represented the sum total of cartographic knowledge before the Christian era.
It is generally accepted, however, that he must have compiled much of this information in the great library at Alexandria, where he had access to many earlier texts now lost. His motives for writing such a geography (so he tells us) were that he felt impelled to describe the inhabited world because of the considerable strides in geographical knowledge that had been made through the numerous campaigns of the Romans and Parthians. The first stage was to locate the portion of the terrestrial globe that was known to be inhabited.


And, as to these stretches, it makes no difference whether they are bounded by sea or by uninhabited land; for the geographer undertakes to describe the known parts of the inhabited world, but he leaves out of consideration the unknown parts of it - just as he does what is outside of it.
Although PythA¦s, Eratosthenes, and perhaps Posidonius had fixed its northern limit on the parallel through Thule [Iceland ? He recommended that it be at least ten feet (approximately three meters) in diameter and mentions Crates (#113) in this regard. Nevertheless, apart from the reduced size of the inhabited world, the map Strabo envisaged was similar in its overall shape to that drawn by Eratosthenes (#112). He treats Homer (#105) as the first writer on geography, and defends the Homeric picture of the known world as substantially true.
Thus he says that the legend of the Golden Fleece brought back from Colchis by the Argonauts reflects the search for gold by early Greeks in areas of the Black Sea.
What did Homer mean by saying they were a€?divided in two, some where Hyperion rises and some where he setsa€??
Thus, accepting Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of 252,000 stades for the circumference of the earth, the geographer ought not to include the equatorial zone, since that in Straboa€™s view is uninhabitable. This suggests that the eastern and western extremities of the oikumene were thought of as tapering and convex.
But one needs a large globe, so that the section mentioned, being only a fraction of it, may clearly show the appropriate parts of the oikumene, which win present a recognizable shape to users. But his seventeen volumes -vastly important to his contemporaries - read like a romance to us today, and a glance at the map laid down according to his descriptions is like a vague and distorted caricature of the real thing. A wall-map had already been designed by order of Augustus (#118) to hang in a public place in Rome - the heart of the Empire - so that the young Romans might realize the size of their inheritance, while a list of the chief places on the roads, which, radiating from Rome, formed a network over the Empire, was inscribed on the Golden Milestone in the Forum.
It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!a€?But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. Some had told him it was a third of the whole habitable world, some that it took four months to walk through the plain only. 21, and a century passed before Pliny wrote An Account of Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances, and Peoples who now Exist or Formerly Existed. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. If you can, ask your boyfriend what their decorating style is for Christmas to find something that will fit the style of their home. All his writings were firmly set in, if not direct extensions of, the work of his predecessors. The world map had to be adjusted to take account of these facts, and thus Strabo almost certainly proceeded by taking Eratosthenesa€™ map - and the criticism of it by Polybius, Crates, Hipparchus, and Posidonius - as the basis for his own work.
Strabo reasoned that it lay in a northern quadrant of a globe, in a quadrilateral bounded by the frigid zone, the equator, and two meridians on the sides. And it will suffice to fill out and complete the outline of what we term a€?the islanda€? by pining with a straight line the extreme points reached on the coasting-voyages made on both sides of the inhabited world. 66A° N], Strabo, like Polybius, refused to believe that human life was possible so far north, and he blamed Pytheas for having misled so many people by his claim that the a€?summer tropica€? becomes the a€?arctic circlea€? at the island of Thule. On the other hand, if a globe of this size could not be constructed, Strabo was familiar from Eratosthenes with the transformation necessary to draw it on a plane surface.
In describing its detailed geography, however, Strabo did not employ, at least overtly, Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into irregular quadrilaterals or sphragides, but he often used geometric figures or comparisons to everyday objects to describe the general outline of a country. In some cases, where alternative descriptions are provided, he may have been attempting to collate the outlines of more than one map.
But within the Homeric chapters he has a section in which he attempts to analyze navigation of the oceans over the ages. When Homer made Hera say: a€?For I shall see the bounds of fertile earth and Oceanus, father of the godsa€?, what he means, says Strabo, is that the Ocean touches all the extremities of the land.
Instead he should start his analysis with the Cinnamon Country [near the mouth of the Red Sea, Somaliland], about 8,800 stades north of the equator, in the south, and with Ireland in the north.
Again, he estimated the length of the oikumene as 70,000 stades and its width as less than 30,000. He tells us of a people living north of the Tagus, who slept on the ground, fed on acorn-bread, and wore black cloaks by day and night.
It seems to have been Cratesa€™ idea that the eartha€™s surface, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like habitable regions. Thus his Historical Memoirs in forty-seven books, now lost, was a continuation of Polybius. For a graticule, Strabo adopted the straight forward rectangular network of parallels and meridians. It is also probable that students were expected to consult the text of the Geographia with the help of maps, so that the shapes thus enumerated may have served as a simple mnemonic. Or again, when Homer describes Odysseus as seeing land as he was on the crest of a great wave, he must have been referring to the curvature of the earth, a phenomenon familiar to sailors.
He categorizes regions from south to north according to greatest length of day in equinoctial hours.
If one cannot make it as big or not much smaller, one should construct a map of the oikumene on a plane surface at least seven feet long. He does not think Britain is worth conquering - Ireland lies to the north, not west, of Britain; it is a barren land full of cannibals and wrapped in eternal snows - the Pyrenees nun parallel to the Rhine - the Danube rises near the Alps - even Italy herself runs east and west instead of north and south. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us. The Geographia is of key importance to our whole knowledge of the history of Greek cartography as well as to the history of science in general. The so-called quadrilateral, bounded by half of this arctic circle, half of the equator, and segments of two meridians, is a spherical quadrilateral, a portion of a sphere.
He defended his projection on the ground that it would make only a slight difference if the circles on the earth were represented by straight lines, a€?for our imagination can easily transfer to the globular and spherical surface the figure or magnitude seen by the eye on a plane surface.a€? The dimensions of this flat map were also to be generous. Similarly, Strabo compares the shape of Iberia to an ox-hide, the Peloponnese to a plane-leaf; and the northern part of Asia, east of the Caspian, to a kitchen knife with the straight side along the Taurus range and the curved side along the northern coastline.
Yet if such suggestions must remain speculative, there can be little doubt that by the early Roman period world maps and globes drawn by Greek scholars were encouraging a distinctively geographical way of thinking about the world. The problems of the armchair geographer are revealed in the journalistic trick of quotes from quotes on an important exploration: a€?Posidonius, says Herodotus, thinks that certain men sent by Neco completed the circumnavigationa€™.
Some of this was polemic against Eratosthenes, who would not have if that early epic poetry could contribute anything to scientific theory.


Cratesa€™ view was based upon an unorthodox view that the division was north-south rather than the obvious interpretation of east-west. This list, starting at Meroe with thirteen hours and ending at an area north of the Sea of Azov with seventeen hours, is similar to that given by the elder Pliny. A vast number of people dwell along the Guadalquivir, and you may sail up it almost a hundred and twenty miles from the sea to Cordova and the places a little higher. Through the formulation and expression of such a theory the idea of the existence of an antipodal people was put forth as a speculative problem, an idea frequently discussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the day of great transoceanic discoveries. But he gives us a fuller account of Great Britain, based on the fresh discovers of Roman generals.
Armando CortesA?o states that as a source it was a€?second to none in the history of geography and cartographya€? of this period. In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly.
He estimated the latitudinal extent of the inhabited world as less than 30,000 stades (compared with Eratosthenesa€™ 38,000 stades) and reduced its length to 70,000 stades instead of Eratosthenesa€™ 78,000 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by various authors]. Strabo envisaged that it would be at least seven feet long and presumably three feet wide, which would suit the length of the inhabited world (70,000 by 30,000 stades), one foot being equivalent to 10,000 stades. India, with two adjacent sides (south and east) much longer than the two others, he described as rhomboidal; Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, he saw as being like a boat drawn in profile, with the deck on the Tigris side and the keel near the Euphrates. And it is likely, among the educated group at least, that an increasingly standard image of the inhabited world had come to be more widely accepted through the use of these maps. This is all he reports, so that we have to beware of using all his work as scientifically worthy material. As mentioned earlier, in the extreme north, Strabo denied the existence of a Thule Island [Iceland?]. A considerable quantity of salted fish is exported, not only from hence, but also from the remainder of the coast beyond the Pillars. That Strabo, at a later date, had this Pergamenian example in mind when stating certain rules to be observed in the construction of globes seems probable, since he makes mention of Cratesa€™ globe.
Many of the earlier treatises that touch upon maps are known to us only through Strabo, while the interest of his commentary on these writers is in its critical handling of their theories, albeit he sometimes fails to advance truth by this process. Strabo repeats that the river Nile was described by Eratosthenes as a reversed N, and that its mouth was named after the Greek capital letter delta. Perhaps because he is drawing on an account at second hand, he is afraid to support what may have seemed like science fiction. To him the most northerly inhabited area was Ierne [Ireland], itself a€?only wretchedly inhabitable because of the cold, to such an extent that regions beyond it are regarded as uninhabitablea€?. Let the equator be conceived as a circle on it, and let a second circle be conceived parallel to it, delimiting the frigid zone in the northern hemisphere, and through the poles a circle cutting these at right angles.
The eye is also delighted with groves and gardens, which for this district are met with in the highest perfection. Formerly they exported large quantities of garments, but they now send the un-manufactured wool remarkable for its beauty. Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as we find in use at the present day.
He does not deal extensively with Hanno the Carthaginian, instead spending much effort on questioning the explorations of Eudoxus of Cyzicus, who must have added to the accumulation of knowledge about the remote parts of Africa.
Straboa€™s own view is that there were two groups of Ethiopians, one living in Asia and one in Africa; and that Homer thought likewise, though not to the extent of placing the eastern group in India, of which he had no knowledge.
Likewise, if one were to go not more than 4,000 stades [500 Roman miles] north from the center of Britain, one would find an area near Ireland, which like the latter would be barely inhabitable.
For fifty miles the river is navigable for ships of considerable size, but for the cities higher up smaller vessels are employed, and thence to Cordova river-boats. He thought that a globe to be serviceable should be of large size, and his reasoning can readily be understood, for what at that time was really known of the eartha€™s surface was small indeed in comparison with what was unknown. However, this idea of eastern Ethiopians living in some area of India and resembling Indians in appearance and customs persisted throughout antiquity. These are not constructed of planks pined together, but they were formerly made out of a single trunk.
There is a superabundance of cattle and a great variety of game, while on the other hand there are certain little hares which burrow in the ground (rabbits).
Should one not make use of a sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions, in comparison with the eartha€™s entire surface, would occupy but small space. A chain of mountains, rich in metal, runs parallel to the Guadalquivir, approaching the river, sometimes more, sometimes less, toward the north.
Surprisingly, though, it seems not to have been read in Rome in the first century, judging from the fact that it is not even mentioned by the elder Pliny. Whoever would represent the real earth, he says, as near as possible by artificial means, should make a sphere like that of Crates, and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart of geography is to be placed. It is said that formerly the inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca sent a deputation to the Romans requesting that a new land might be given them, as they were quite driven out of their country by these animals, being no longer able to stand against their vast multitudes.
For this purpose however a large globe is necessary since the section mentioned, though but a very small portion of the entire sphere, must be capable of containing properly all the regions of the habitable earth and of presenting an accurate view of them to those ho wish to consult it. But it should have a diameter of not less than ten feet; those who cannot obtain a globe of this size, or one nearly as large, had better draw their charts on a plane surface of not less than seven feet. They feed on the fruit, of stunted oak, which grows at the bottom of the sea and produces very large acorns.
We can easily imagine how the eye can transfer the figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to he that is spherical.
So great is the quantity of fruit, that at the season when they are ripe the whole coast on either side of the Pillars is covered with acorns thrown up by the tides. The meridians of each country on the globe have a tendency to unite in a single point at the poles; nevertheless on the surface of a plane map there would be no advantage if the right lines alone which should represent the meridians were drawn slightly to converge. The tunny fish become gradually thinner, owing to the failure of their food as they approach the Pillars from the outer sea.



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