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As collectors, dealers, and curators across the world make plans to attend the Spring 1999 a€?Asia Weeka€? in New York, they will notice that for the first time in recent memory neither Sothebya€™s nor Christiea€™s has scheduled a specialized auction of Chinese paintings.
In my former position as Director of the Chinese Painting Department at Sothebya€™s I devoted much time and energy and more than a decade of my life to establish and maintain New York as a major center of the international Chinese painting market. I remember clearly the first time I set foot in the old Sotheby Parke Bernet on Madison Avenue. The sale was held on November 2, 1979 and was a watershed event for the market for Chinese paintings in America, as well as the beginning of my career as a Chinese art dealer. With the support of James Lally, then head of the Chinese Works of Art Department, we introduced a full range of Chinese paintings and calligraphy, including purely decorative works, modern and contemporary paintings, as well as pre-modern Chinese paintings, to a small but enthusiastic American audience, and in doing so helped to establish a legitimate price structure for individual artists and for the various types of anonymous Chinese paintings. In May 1980, Sothebya€™s Hong Kong held its first sale of modern Chinese paintings, with Paula taking responsibility for the offerings. The decade of the 1980s saw the market for Chinese paintings increase exponentially due to a confluence of a number of factors. In order to accommodate regional tastes, both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s adopted, for the most part, the strategy of offering the best 19th and 20th century Chinese paintings in Hong Kong while holding sales of Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty paintings in New York. The most rewarding aspect of working at one of the major auction houses, at least from the standpoint of an expert department, is the ability to discover and make available to the public previously unknown or little-known works of art. Readera€™s Digest has recently been the subject of many art columns because of the highly successful auction held at Sothebya€™s featuring a significant portion of their corporate holdings of Modern and Contemporary paintings. The international character of the Chinese paintings market encouraged a global approach to marketing, in which Hong Kong and New York auctions complemented rather than competed with one another. Another important work of Yuan dynasty calligraphy appeared in Sothebya€™s New York June 1985 auction of Fine Chinese Paintings. The great majority of works bought and sold at auction are done so anonymously, particularly in a relatively new market such as Chinese paintings.
The most exciting collection I ever worked on, however, was perhaps more interesting because of its owner than for its contents, although the collection did contain several masterpieces. At this time Zhang Xueliang was technically still under house arrest but, as he had already outlived most of his detractors and he posed no threat to the government of the Republic of China, he led a fairly unfettered existence and was even permitted to visit friends and go out to dinner. By the time Zhang Xueliang was finally released from house arrest in 1988, many of his best paintings had already been sold through New York auctions, but he still retained in Taiwan a large number of paintings and calligraphy, including hundreds of fan paintings. The success of the Dingyuanzhai auction was the culmination of a trend which had begun in the mid-eighties--the dominance of Taiwanese buyers in the Chinese art market. Taiwanese buyers were not a factor in the sale of a 17th century masterpiece six months later at Sothebya€™s. The sale of the Wu Bin handscroll in December 1989, was clearly the highlight of my career at Sothebya€™s.
There were many reasons why I resigned from my position at Sothebya€™s in October 1992, after turning down a significant promotion.
In 1995 Christiea€™s began producing semi-annual sales of a€?Fine Classical Chinese Paintingsa€? in Hong Kong, based on the presumption that the majority of buyers were in Asia and that holding sales closer to home would allow Christiea€™s to take advantage of the a€?Pacific rima€? economic boom.
Yet, in the six years that have passed since my resignation, both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s have held auctions in New York and they have continued to offer a number of excellent works. Nevertheless, there is no lack of interest for Chinese paintings in America, nor is there a lack of understanding and expertise. As we enter a new year that finds parts of Asia, including Hong Kong, in the midst of the regiona€™s biggest economic decline in decades, we may question the wisdom and timing of Sothebya€™s choice to put all its Chinese painting eggs in one Asian basket.
If you would like a printable version of this article in pdf format, please request one by email. Shadow Skeletons and New Realitiesa€“Guohua and Cultural Identity (Reprinted from Kaikodo Journal VI, October 1997, pp. As the dawn of a new millenium rapidly approaches, modern and contemporary Chinese art is receiving an unprecedented amount of attention throughout Asia and the West. There is now a thriving art market for contemporary Chinese paintings, done in both traditional and Western styles. As we try to absorb this impressive flood of images and information about 20th century Chinese art we are suddenly encountering, and before we begin to assess the artistic and art-historical merits of these works of art, it is useful to present a brief outline of some of the major issues that have concerned Chinese artists during the last century and identify some of the stylistic trends that have shaped the context in which the art of this period was and is being created. During the past one hundred years the political, social, and economic systems of China have been transformed on an unprecedented scale.
Kanga€™s views represented the prevailing attitude among progressive Chinese intellectuals who associated modernization with Westernization and Westernization with the development of science and technology.
Many artists chose not to abandon completely traditional Chinese painting but tried instead to make adjustments in subject matter or style in order to broaden its appeal and update its appearance, making it more responsive to the perceived needs of contemporary society. Most critics, including Kang Youwei, advocated a synthesis of Western and Chinese art: a€?if we adhere to the old way without change, Chinese painting will become extinct. Kanga€™s approach was based on a formulation that he and the other a€?self-strengthenersa€? of the unsuccessful 1898 reform movement had advocated as a solution to most of Chinaa€™s ills. During the first decades of this century, numbers of young painters took up Kanga€™s challenge in earnest.
Although agreeing on the general premise that Chinese painting needed an infusion of Western artistic know-how in order to advance into the modern age, the three leaders of this Westernizing movement, Xu, Liu, and Lin, did not see eye-to-eye on much else. The arguments among these three and their followers as to which foreign models to follow were as vehement as those waged by traditional painters about whether to imitate the Four Wangs (as did Wu Hufan and his students) or Shitao and Bada Shanren (as did Zhang Daqian and his followers). The decades of the 1920s and 1930s were a period of great creativity and artistic experimentation. By the end of the 1930s the future of Chinese art looked promising, albeit somewhat confused. The politicization of all aspects of the processes of creating, exhibiting, publishing or otherwise disseminating art in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China is discussed in several recent studies and doubtless will continue to be a subject of inquiry for many years to come. Mao Zedong, in his 1942 a€?Talks at the Yana€™an Conference on Literature and Art,a€? had clearly stated his belief that art must serve the people, and that there could not be art for arta€™s sake. Each individual is born into a culture, and its orientations and basic beliefs shape him and remain deeply rooted in his personality all of his life.
LeShan and Margenau are concerned with the inherent limitations of the physical sciences to adequately describe and explain all manner of phenomena, particularly as new scientific discoveries have revealed microcosms and macrocosms for which standard Newtonian assumptions about time and space do not hold true.
In Maoist China the art bureaucracy attempted to condition societya€™s perception of reality by strictly limiting the artistsa€™ range of acceptable themes and styles, and by short-circuiting the natural feedback process through the stringent control of all means of criticism.
Many early attempts to synthesize guohua techniques and approaches with new a€?revolutionarya€? subject matter failed for precisely this reason. Among all artists, traditional painters had the most difficulty modifying or updating their artistic techniques in order to satisfy the needs of the new society as envisioned by the leaders of the Peoplea€™s Republic.
Although the intent of the theoreticians, such as Kang Youwei and Cai Yuanpei, was to modernize Chinaa€™s art following Western models, Xu Beihonga€™s style of academic realism was conservative, perhaps already outdated, by the time it reached China. Western art was of course undergoing its own revolution, reflecting new concepts of reality engendered by Einsteina€™s Theory of Relativity, quantum mechanics, particle physics and other scientific discoveries and philosophical intuitions. It was the Chinese artists working in Taiwan and abroad, including Zhang Daqian (1899-1983), Wang Jiqian (C.C. Working outside the constraints of the Maoist regime in relatively free artistic environments, these artists have made great strides in creating a true synthesis of traditional Chinese and modern Western painting styles. The current exhibition presents the work of a new generation of traditional, guohua painters, active in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and overseas.
This generation of younger artists grew up at a time in which, when political realities renders questions of cultural identity unavoidable.
Even for those who have practiced continuously the discipline of traditional Chinese painting, the period of the 1980s and 1990s seems like a new beginning. One may question the extent to which guohua has progressed in the five decades since the founding of the Peoplea€™s Republic, or for that matter, in the nearly nine decades since the fall of the Qing dynasty, but, given the extent and intensity of the criticism aimed at traditional Chinese painting and everything that it stood for, and with the recent availability of so many other artistic options, it is perhaps surprising that the art form has persisted at all.
In an age of rapid information exchange and an increasingly global popular culture, it is very possible that a truly international style of art, in oils, acrylics or, more likely, some yet-to-be-invented digital medium, will be developed in the 21st century.
A multicultural environment will recognize shared cultural values but it will also embrace cultural differences and encourage the preservation and development of traditional art forms.
I discovered a remarkable collection in Germany which yielded a significant number of important works of Chinese painting, calligraphy, and ink rubbings, which were sold off gradually throughout the decade. Sothebya€™s December 1984 auction of Fine Chinese Paintings included several important works dating from the 13th century to the present. France was also the source of an intriguing album of ten leaves ascribed to the great Southern Song dynasty painter Ma Yuan sold in December 1986. Take a direct, simple story, unfold it with exquisite care, and the result is a gem of a play opening Northlighta€™s 37th season. The snapshots, originally photos clutched in their hands, become large projections on the paneled walls before actually springing to life in the form of two incarnations of their earlier selves: Susie and Danny (Megan Long and Nick Cosgrove) and Susan and Daniel (Jess Godwin and Tony Clarno). And what songs they are: 28 drawn from 12 successful musicals a€“ all written by Stephen Schwartz. The cast has remarkable voices, clear and compelling and their dramatic ability marches the timbre a€“ moving from humor to nostalgia with ease as past and present intermingle and advice is exchanged back and forth, neatly breaking barriers as they address their earlier selves. Kudos to Jack Magaw for the multi-level set, Karl Christian for musical staging, Steve Orich for Musical direction and arrangements, A and to the orchestra: Chris Sargent, Scott Reed, Paul Dallas, Jeffrey Handley and Marc Hogan. While Act I is stronger than the slower second act, by playa€™s end the viewers responded to much that reached their hearts.A  On opening night, not a few wiped away tears as they joined the rest of the audience for a standing ovation.
The idea works because of the originality of the set-up, but also because Schwartz's songs, filled with aspiration and quizzical wonder, fit the basic premise so well.
I could go on about many more such inspired musical choices here, most of which are beautifully sung, especially by Long and Clarno. I imagine Schwartz aficionados will enjoy Snapshots as a clever twist on the revue or jukebox musical, but I was impressed that it also works as something entirely new.
Touching musical comedy at Northlight blends new lyrics to familiar Stephen Schwartz music. A At the center of one of the most highly anticipated productions of the Northlight Theatre's 2011-2012 season, Snapshots (music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz, book by David Stern and directed by Ken Sawyer) are Dan (Gene Weygandt)and Sue (Susie McMonagle), a long-time couple that have been friends since childhood, back when they were still known as Danny (Nick Cosgrove) and Susie (Megan Long). When the play opens, Sue, dissatisfied with the state of their marriage, is up in the attic of their home, suitcase packed, in the middle of writing Dan a letter explaining that she has decided to leave him. While puttering around in the attic, talking with Sue, he comes across a box of snapshots on the floor, much of its contents spilled out. Though they do love and care about each other a great deal (therea€™s no doubt about that), therea€™s also no denying that there are real problems in the relationship.
SNAPSHOTS is a new musical by the amazing Stephen Schwartz (Wicked, Pippin, Godspell, The Bakera€™s Wife)!! A group of very talented theatre folk and myself formed a theatrical production company called Cardboard Belt Productions. When a box of old photographs tumbles from a dusty attic shelf, Dan and Sue are flooded with memories of their many years together. In many ways, "Snapshotsa€? marks Schwartza€™s return to smaller, more intimate shows.
Lyric rewrites have made many of Schwartza€™s retrofitted songs more suitable for their new settings, but too often I found myself imagining them in their original contexts. Stern has crafted a book whose well-drawn characters and realistic situations offer something every audience member can identify with. The authors have opted to ignore conventional uses of time and space, a ploy that results in the past intruding on the present and vice versa: a charactera€™s older self giving advice to his more youthful counterpart, and a young girl questioning the woman she fears shea€™ll become. Snapshots will open the 2010-2011 season.A  The remainder of the season will be announced soon. Blending together some of the best-loved music with some of the genuinely wonderful lesser known gems of renowned Broadway composer Stephen Schwartz, this touching romantic comedy exposes a marriage at a crossroads.A  Newly adapted, this musical reveals the humorous twists and unexpected turns of a middle-aged couple's reminiscence of how love brought them together and why life pushed them apart. Relevant Theatricals and Cardboard Belt Productions have been developing this project for the past several years and most recently workedA on the musical with David Stern, Stephen Schwartz and the creative team in preparation for its Chicago premiere. Northlight Theatre aspires to promote change of perspective and encourage compassion by exploring the depth of our humanity across a bold spectrum of theatrical experiences, reflecting our community to the world and the world to our community. Snapshots may be available for licensing in the future, and will be appropriate for groups who need a small show, as it involves only six actors, four musicians, and a single set. Bookwriter David Stern brought Stephen Schwartz the idea of using a compilations of Schwartz songs to create a musical scrapbook of a couple's life. Sothebya€™s has effectively closed the department in New York, referring prospective sellers to their Hong Kong office. The recent decision by the two leading auction houses to eliminate or significantly reduce sales in New York has prompted me to review briefly the history of Chinese paintings at auction and to reflect upon the current state of the market. It was Autumn of 1979 and I had been approached by Paula Gasparello of the Chinese Works of Art Department to assist in the cataloging of a number of important Ming and Qing dynasty paintings from the estate of Ruth Spelman.
In October our fledgling New York department produced an unprecedented sale of 145 works by living Chinese artists, which featured paintings by Zhang Daqian, Cheng Shifa, Huang Junbi, Li Keran, Wang Jiqian, Li Kuchan, Yu Chengyao, Qian Songyan, Xie Zhiliu, Xu Bangda, and others. In the West, particularly in America, academic interest in pre-modern Chinese painting was at a peak and a number of important museum exhibitions--such as a€?Eight Dynasties of Chinese Painting,a€? organized jointly by the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum, Kansas City--provided increased access to an ever-more appreciative public. This allowed for two major sales per year in each location and enabled both buyers and sellers to consolidate their efforts and focus their energies on those works that most interested them. While at Sothebya€™s I had the good fortune to bring to the market quite a few important works of Chinese painting and calligraphy, many with obscure or unexpected provenances. Because the Readera€™s Digest collection of European paintings was so well known, its appearance on the auction block was accompanied by much fanfare and anticipation, but the art world at large is unaware of the quiet role that the collection played in the development of the Chinese painting market in New York.
In addition, collectors and dealers in Hong Kong, taking note of the positive results of the auctions of pre-modern Chinese paintings, began to consign works for sale in New York.
One of the early successes from this consignment was the sale, on June 13, 1984, of an album of twenty-five letters by Song and Yuan dynasty calligraphers). Expertise and administrative support were shared between the two auction sites, as were salaries and expenses. Zhao Mengfua€™s 1303 a€?Record of the Repair of the Three Purities Palace at the Temple of the Mysterious and Marvelousa€? (Xuanmiaoguan chongxiu sanqingdian zhiji), a handscroll written in regular script, was consigned by a young Chinese gentleman who had acquired it in France from a French family who knew nothing of its origin or its potential historical or monetary value. The consignor of this set of landscapes was a wealthy Parisian who was a major collector of modern European paintings and was thus well known to the Sothebya€™s Paris office. Part of the attraction of the process is the element of surprise; one never knows what may turn up in the next sale. I refer to the collection of Zhang Xueliang, known to students of modern Chinese history as the a€?Young Marshall.a€? Zhang is the son of the powerful Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was assassinated in 1928.
An intermediary had brought two fine 18th century paintings into the Sothebya€™s Taipei office. I met him in person for the first time, along with Rita Wong, and for the next ten years we had many opportunities to visit with him and his wife Edith and we shared several meals with them. In consultation with Rita Wong he made the bold decision to offer the remainder of his collection at public auction in Taipei, using his studio name Dingyuanzhai. Collectors and dealers from Taiwan were already extremely active in most facets of the market, especially porcelain, jadeite jewelry, and modern paintings.
Both of these paintings, as well as most of the top lots in the sale, were purchased by Taiwanese collectors.
Wu Bina€™s a€?Ten Views of a Fantastic Rocka€? is one of the most extraordinary Chinese paintings ever to appear on the auction market. The Chinese paintings market was strong but just as the demand for paintings and calligraphy was reaching a peak, the availability of good quality paintings had greatly diminished. To some extent, I was not happy with the way the company was being run and I was dissatisfied with the direction in which both auction houses were heading. The sales were successful but they had the negative effect of competing with New York for both consignments and resources. Christiea€™s, in particular, has been successful because of major consignments, such as the group of important Song dynasty fan paintings from the collection of Stephen Juncunc. In fact, the level of sophistication among Western buyers (including overseas Chinese) is such that they recognize and demand high quality examples of works by both major and minor artists of all periods. Exhibitions of works in all media by Chinese artists from mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong (once again a part of China after a century of British rule), and overseas have been mounted or are being planned throughout Asia, Europe, and the United States. Auctions of this material are now held on a regular basis in many cities throughout China as well as in New York, Hong Kong, Taipei, and Singapore. Even before the Imperial monarchy that had ruled China for several thousand years was completely overthrown in 1911, the Chinese had begun to assess their inherited traditions and values and to question their very cultural identity. Traditional Chinese painting (guohua)2 especially as practiced after the Song dynasty, was specifically criticized for its lack of realism or naturalism, and the conscious disregard by its practitioners of the harsh realities of contemporary society in favor of a rarefied vision of an ideal Confucian society which had never existed in fact. This colloquialization (to borrow a phrase describing a similar but more far-reaching movement in literature) of Chinese painting is epitomized by the work of the great Qi Baishi (1864-1955), whose colorful depictions of common objects from everyday life enlivened the tradition through the introduction of a colloquial vocabulary of familiar images. Some, like Fu Baoshi (1904-1965) and the Gao brothers (founders of the Lingnan School), traveled to Japan to investigate the process by which Japanese artists were modernizing their native traditions by a selective incorporation of Western techniques and styles. History would note that, at least for the short term, Xu Beihonga€™s academic realism ultimately won out, although more for political and ideological than artistic reasons. Artists were free to work in all media, which they did in an incredible range of styles and with tremendous passion and dedication. 8 Although many questions remain and many individual stories have yet to be recounted, it is clear that one of the casualties of mainland art policy from the 1950s to the 1980s was Chinese traditional painting.
During the 1950s Mao began to make good on his promise by revamping the entire system of art education and production. If he moves into a new culture with other orientations and basic beliefs, the two versions of reality are dissonant within him. The sources from which a field grew remain within it as a shadow skeleton, and they partly define what is real and what is true, what is sense and what is nonsensea€“in short, what is the basic shape or essence of reality. Alternate realities and multiple truths cannot be understood through their physical means alone. In periods when control over the arts was most absolute (during the many anti-rightist campaigns, for example) artists were not only told what subjects to paint but were also given stylistic directives. Obviously, Western and Chinese painting had very different roots and very different evolutions; they are the products of completely dissimilar world views and emerge from disparate cultural contexts. The repressive policies of the PRC ensured that this type of painting, with some ideological a€?improvements,a€? became the official means of artistic expression. Just when Chinaa€™s artists were mastering a style of painting which they thought was modern, Western artists and critics were rejecting both the style and the cultural construct it represented, and at a time when Western artists such as Picasso, Paul Klee, Mark Toby, and Jackson Pollock were recognizing and embracing non-Western artistic traditions, including Chinese painting and calligraphy, the Chinese themselves were declaring some of these same traditions invalid. It is thus upon the foundation of their work that the future of guohua is likely to be built. It is true of course that guohua represents only one aspect of Chinese painting, which, in turn, is only one aspect of Chinese art as a whole. Their relationship to the the historical past of China and its traditional values depends to a great extent on where they were raised. This new generation of artists approaches the tradition with fresh eyes and renewed energy. It has been nearly one hundred years since Kang Youwei issued his challenge to a€?begin a new era by combining Chinese and Western art,a€? and now, a century later, it can be argued that not only have these lofty ideals not been fully attained, but the fundamental questions of artistic and cultural identity remain largely unanswered. It is worth noting, however, that as we enter the 21st century, the global context in which we live is vastly different than the one in which Kang Youwei, Cai Yuanpei or Xu Beihong existed. As popular culture becomes more global it also becomes more homogenized and the unique characteristics of a particular culture or ethnic group become all the more distinctive and significant. I use the terms guohua and a€?traditional Chinese paintinga€? interchangeably, to refer to work painted with traditional Chinese pigments on traditional paper or silk. Kang Youwei, Travels in Eleven European Countries, quoted in Lawrence Wu, a€?Kang Youwei and the Westernisation of Modern Chinese Art,a€? Orientations (March 1990), pp.
Quoted in Michael Sullivan, Art and Artists of Twentieth-Century China, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1966, p. Lawrence Leshan and Henry Margenau, Einsteina€™s Space and Van Gogha€™s Sky: Physical Reality and Beyond, New York, 1982, p. The three couples interact to sing and dramatize specific, emotion-filled episodes that trace the two from their early days in elementary school A a€“ hitting on many rites of passageA  a€” A before moving on to courtship and highlights of their 30 years together. The melodies are recognizable from many of these shows which include Wicked, Pippin, A Godspell, The Magic Show, Rags, Personals, The Bakera€™s Wife, Enchanted, Captain Louie, Working, Reluctant Pilgrim and Children of Eden a€“ but the lyrics have been rewritten to fit the new dramatic situation. The musical logo flashes onto the attic walls.A  Ita€™s a powerful kick-off to the singing revue.
The playa€™s book is by David Stern.a€?a€?Schwartz, a prolific composer and lyricist whose resume includes Godspell, Pippin, The Bakera€™s Wife, Working, RagsA and Wicked, has taken more than 25 musical numbers from these and his other works and adapted lyrics to fit Snapshots. Just as shea€™s almost done, about to make the move and leave, Dan comes up, genuinely confused about what she might be doing up there.A Rather than giving him the letter or informing him of her plans to leave him herself, she comes up with an excuse. While he gathers them up, one in particular catches his eye -- a photo taken during a trip that they took to the Caribbean many years earlier. Much of the time they act as if they expect one another to be mind readers, each expecting the other to just somehow know what they want them to do or say. Ten years ago we began working with Stephen Schwartz and David Stern to bring this fantastic musical to the stage. The playa€™s book is by David Stern.Schwartz, a prolific composer and lyricist whose resume includes Godspell, Pippin, The Bakera€™s Wife, Working, RagsA and Wicked, has taken more than 25 musical numbers from these and his other works and adapted lyrics to fit Snapshots. In addition to capturing a moment in time, they hold myriad memories for those whose images are pictured within. A cast of six portrays Dan and Sue at three stages in their lives: as childhood friends, as newlyweds and as a couple whose 30-year marriage is falling apart.
As they reflect on their past, they recall happier times they spent together, a few missed opportunities and some of the inevitable challenges every couple faces. It shares similarities with Dan Goggina€™s "Balancing Act,a€? a chamber musical with a main character whose conflicting personalities are played by five actors. Who doesna€™t remember a first crush, an awkward first kiss, rites of passage and missed opportunities?
Evans announce the first show of Northlight's 2010-2011 season, A Snapshots, a new show described by the authors as a "musical scrapbook," that includes some of the best-loved music and lyrics by the creator of Wicked, Godspell, Pippin! He collaborated with Leonard Bernstein on the English texts for Bernstein's Mass and wrote the title song for the play and movie Butterflies Are Free.
Ken is a BFA graduate of The Juilliard School.A  He is also an alumnus of the Lincoln Center Director's Lab West and the LaMama Italy International Directors Workshop.
Several theatre groups staged new versions of it in the summer of 2007, including Dayton, Ohio's The Human Race, whose production is pictured in the photo with cast members Kristy Cates and Michael Marcotte. For the second year in a row they waited until the last game of the year to let Bearcat fans know their playoff fate.
Christiea€™s plans to include a small selection of paintings within their auction of Chinese Works of Art in New York, followed by a larger specialized sale of Chinese Paintings in April in Hong Kong. The results of this auction provided compelling evidence that high quality Chinese paintings, rigorously catalogued, could be sold successfully at auction and demonstrated that there was sufficient institutional and private interest in the United States to warrant serious attention on the part of the auction houses.
Many of these artists were unfamiliar to western collectors and few had ever been previously offered at auction.
Wong as a specialist in Chinese painting and a mutually beneficial rivalry developed between the two houses. In the Asia--especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore--economic prosperity, political stability, and increased education created an environment conducive to collecting art. In cooperation with their regional offices and representatives throughout the United States and abroad, the auction houses took advantage of their broad networks of contacts to locate potential sellers and to attract potential buyers. In June of 1982, when the Chinese painting department was struggling to gain credibility and recognition, Sotheby Parke Bernet offered for sale an extremely important painting by the most significant living Chinese painter of the time, Zhang Daqian.
By 1984 the increased supply of good works, coupled with evidence of a modest but increasing demand internationally, justified semi-annual specialized sales of Chinese paintings and calligraphy accompanied by the publication of separate catalogues.
Included among the leaves were examples of writing by the Song dynasty writers Liu Wuyan, Wang Sheng, Wu Ju, and Fan Chengda, and the Yuan dynasty calligraphers Zhao Mengfu, Xianyu Shu , Qiu Yuan, Zhang Yu, and Ni Zan. Signed Hengshan Wen Bi, and inscribed with a date corresponding to October 30, 1499, this short handscroll was accompanied by a most impressive series of colophons written by many of the luminaries of late 15th-early 16th century Suzhou, including Shen Zhou, Wu Kuan, Zhu Yunming, Wang Chong, Chen Shun, Peng Nian, Wang Guxiang , Wen Peng and others. The system required cooperation and coordination and it succeeded because the individuals involved were firmly committed to the success of the enterprise. The new owner knew little more, except that it bore the signature of the famous Yuan dynasty literatus and he purchased it on the chance that it might be genuine.
She could not remember where or when she had acquired the album but since it did not fit in with the rest of her collection she decided to sell it. Buyers are always looking to acquire a€?fresh goodsa€? that have not appeared on the market before.


After his fathera€™s death, Zhang Xueliang took control over much of northeastern China and was a major player in the subsequent period of warfare, politics, and intrique which shaped the face of modern China. Prior to this occasion I had seen very few good Chinese paintings in private hands in Taiwan. He was always excited to talk about Chinese art, collecting, and his longtime friendship with Zhang Daqian, who had died in 1983.
Although I had already resigned my position at Sothebya€™s, at Zhanga€™s request I assisted in the cataloging of the sale. During the late eighties and early nineties they became increasingly prominent bidders in New York sales of pre-modern paintings. Measuring more than thirty feet in length, the painting consists of ten sections, each depicting a specific view of a scholara€™s rock, as viewed from different angles.
We had developed an international interest in an art form that had previously seemed to many to be unapproachable and unsaleable. Many of the new buyers--I hesitate to call them collectors--seemed to be in a hurry to buy a€?masterpieces,a€? major paintings by major artists.
The nature of the auction house and its role in the art market had changed over the years; it had become much more of a retail outlet and had lost much of its exclusivity. The establishment of regular auction sales of Chinese painting and calligraphy in Beijing, Shanghai, and elsewhere within mainland China, as well as in Taiwan, has further diluted the supply of quality works available to the New York-based auctions. The Chang Family Han Lu Studio Collection, sold by Christiea€™s New York in September 1996, featured a rare group of letters by Song dynasty writers in addition to several fine paintings and calligraphic rubbings. If the market rejects poor works of questionable attribution, that, in fact, is a positive indication for the field of Chinese paintings as a whole.
In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art has recently opened their renovated Chinese Galleries and, for the first time, thanks to a generous gift from Robert H. Specialized galleries have been established all over the world and several dealers in ancient Chinese art (including Kaikodo) have begun to feature contemporary paintings as well.
The type of guohua practiced by the literati (wenrenhua) was severely attacked by many critics, among the most vocal of whom was the reformer Kang Youwei (1858-1927), who accused: a€?Four or five hundred years ago Chinese painting was the best. However, Qi did not sacrifice such traditional aesthetic values as excellence in brushwork, simplicity of form, and directness of expression; on the contrary, his work may be seen as advancing the art form in each of these aspects. Some of the most famous, including Xu Beihong (1895-1953), Liu Haisu (1896-1994), and Lin Fengmian (1900-1991), went to Europe to experience Western culture at first hand and to learn what they could about European art. Liu Haisu, renowned for being the first in China to employ nude models for life drawing in his art school, was enamored of the Impressionists and post-Impressionists. Realistic oil painting, primarily figural themes, gradually incorporating more and more elements of the Soviet Socialist Realist style, became the new orthodoxy in China. Even after he is a firmly functioning member of the new culture, the orientations of his beginnings still influence him. When the field develops so that new data contradict these old beliefs, a basic conflict develops in the field of knowledge. Art, parapsychology, ethics, and consciousness all play a part in comprehending these new realities. Only a chameleon-like illustrator could successfully create in such an environment, so it is not surprising that much of the propaganda art of the period, in style as well as function, is closer to advertising in the West than it is to fine art.
That the two worlds should come together in this age of instantaneous global communication should not surprise us, but one of the most curious, even ironic aspects of this cross-cultural exchange is the way in which contemporary Chinese and Western artists and audiences tend to view the othera€™s culture.
No attempt was made to keep up with new developments in Western science and art; in fact, these were suppressed just as strenuously as traditional painting was being repressed. While many European and American artists explored alternate views of reality, through investigations into Eastern spirituality and art, (assisted, in some cases, by mind-altering drugs), the mainland Chinese artists found themselves mired in Marxist dogma and bound to a tradition of painting that was trapped in a reality-warp. Artists working in mainland China today are, at least for the time being, more free to express themselves than they have been for many decades.
Perhaps they have not all attained the same level of technical prowess that painters of Imperial China would have developed through years of copying calligraphy and old master paintings, but neither are they burdened with the unenviable task of upholding Chinaa€™s artistic legacy and maintaining her outmoded cultural values.
Western domination of technology and the world economy is a remnant of her colonial past, and economists, politicians, and businessman now increasingly look eastward for expanding economies and emerging markets. Cross-cultural artistic exchanges will be so commonplace and will occur so quickly, and stylistic influences will be so vast and complex that regional or even national characteristics will be difficult, if not impossible, to discern. As cultures co-mingle rather than collide the purity of each artistic tradition is free to be rediscovered.
Andrews, Painters and Politics in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China, 1949-1979, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1994, p. Laing, The Winking Owl: Art in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988. What might be clunky in other hands, flows smoothly under the expert direction of Ken Sawyer. He shows up from work, oblivious as ever, and the two end up looking back through their lives as lovers, parents and take-each-other-for-granted spouses, with the wife's impending exit providing the requisite tension. Press about this show has revealed that Schwartz has re-written some of his lyrics to fit the new narrative, but other than noting such changes in a couple tunes from Wicked, I have no idea what was altered or to what extent. Ita€™s a creative endeavor that works well.a€?a€?The show, featuring a pitch-perfect cast bursting with talent, opens in a cluttered attic where middle-aged Sue (Susie McMonagle), packed suitcase in hand, is poking through keepsakes. While they are up there, Dan starts to go through the items that have gathered over the years, pointing out what he feels they can get rid of.
It is also through these glimpses, these memories, that we learn about what really happened versus how they remember certain events in their lives happening, how they went from childhood friends to married couple, to married couple on the verge of breaking up after decades of being together. Indeed they go to great lengths not to talk about anything of substance, to avoid any unpleasantness or arguments. We then teamed up with Relevant Theatricals (Million Dollar Quartet) and have workshopped SNAPSHOTS at Theatre Works, The Village Theatre, The Human Race Theatre, Seaside Music Theatre and more to come.
Schwartz has taken his most famous songs and brilliantly reworked them into an entirely new powerful book written by David Stern. Ita€™s a creative endeavor that works well.The show, featuring a pitch-perfect cast bursting with talent, opens in a cluttered attic where middle-aged Sue (Susie McMonagle), packed suitcase in hand, is poking through keepsakes. They also have the power to rekindle powerful emotions years, even decades, after they were taken. Schwartz has rewritten many of the lyrics to even the most familiar songs, to stay true to the fascinating story and characters of this new work.A  Funny and bittersweet, Snapshots brings into focus all the wonders and frustrations of trusting your heart and believing your memories.
Schwartz was intrigued by the notion, and gave permission for the concept to be developed further. Last year, they won their last game but lost out on the playoffs when Granbury snuck in upsetting O.
Gasparello, who introduced me a few of her colleagues, including James Lally and Carol Conover. Chinese Painting began to solidify its position in the art market, and was listed as a separate expert department at Sotheby Parke Bernet beginning in 1979 (although internally Chinese Paintings was under the jurisdiction of the Chinese Works of Art Department).
Although neither sale was a financial triumpha€“the entire New York auction grossed just over $100,000a€“they paved the way for specialized sales of modern and contemporary Chinese paintings in both Hong Kong and New York and established the precedent for holding regular auctions in both locations.
For the next decade auction became one of the primary sources of Chinese painting and calligraphy for private collectors, dealers, and institutions.
Twentieth century painting, in particular, satisfied a demand on the part of new collectors for art that was both Chinese and modern. The success of Sothebya€™s Chinese Painting Department was linked, to a great extent, to the overwhelming dominance of our worldwide Chinese Works of Art Department led by James Lally in New York and Julian Thompson in London.
The monumental six-panel work a€?Giant Lotusa€? had been purchased by Readera€™s Digest in 1963 from an exhibition of the artista€™s work held at Hirschl and Adler Gallery in New York.
The album was of great importance, for both artistic and historical reasons, but since no work of this type had ever been offered at auction before, the presale estimate was a conservative $30,000-50,000. The inclusion of the painting in the Imperial Collection of the Qianlong and Jiaqing Emperors, attested to by the six Imperial seals affixed to the painting and its appearance in the catalogue Shiqu baoji sanbian, added luster to its provenance. I had the good fortune to work directly with many capable and dedicated individuals, including Tammy Mui and Maria Chu in Hong Kong, and Angela Hsu and Laura Whitman in New York, all of whom began as administrators and became specialists in their own right. Based on the collectorsa€™ seals and colophons, the scroll displayed a magnificent provenance.
There was much presale discussion among scholars as to the authenticity of the paintings, four of which bear the signature of Ma Yuan.
Sellers, on the other hand, appreciate the ability to dispose of works in a discreet manner.
He is most renowned (or notorious, depending on your point of view) for his participation in the Xia€™an Incident of 1936 whereby he captured Guomindang leader Chiang Kai-shek and forced him to negotiate with the Chinese Communist Party to create a united front to fight the Japanese.
Although there were no collectorsa€™ seals on the paintings, my experience told me that such high quality works, beautifully mounted, must be from a serious collection.
The auction of Fine Chinese Paintings from the Dingyuanzhai Collection was held in Taipei on Sunday, April 10, 1994. The ten images of the rock are interspersed with elaborate written descriptions composed and transcribed by the scholar-official Mi Wanzhong. Even as I revelled in a genuine sense of accomplishment, I was wary of the future of the department. They were generally more interested in the artista€™s name than in the quality of the work.
Both Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s had undergone a gradual but undeniable shift in emphasis from expertise to marketing.
During the nineties, the New York auction rooms have been increasingly dominated by international dealers, such as Paul Moss, Harold Wong, and Kaikodo, representing themselves, institutions, and private clients all over the world.
To blame every poor sales result on a€?the marketa€? shifts attention away from the real issues, which are the quality and quantity of the offerings. Ellsworth, Chinese paintings from the 19th and 20th centuries are prominently displayed alongside masterpieces from earlier periods. They all progress along with the progress of science.a€?4 This emphasis on progress and the sincere belief that Western art (as the Chinese perceived it) was inherently more scientific and modern (and therefore more desirable) presented a serious challenge to advocates of literati painting and nearly signaled the end of the guohua tradition altogether. The degree of Qi Baishia€™s success is indicated most clearly by the fact that his style forms the basis of much of the guohua produced during the past fifty years. There is great difficulty and struggle in recognizing, organizing, and solving the new problems presented by the conflict of the new data and the old beliefs and basic orientations. While much of the booka€“which deals primarily with scientific theorya€“is likely to be incomprehensible to most specialists of art, its observations are relevant here for at least two important insights. Not since the 1920s and 1930s, have young Chinese artists been able to explore such a broad range of stylistic and theoretical options and goals. Guohua need no longer be seen as the only medium capable of expressing the cultural identity of China because it is now clearer than ever before that there is no single identity and no single tradition that represents all Chinese. Many aspects of popular culture have become globalized and most large companies have internationalized.
Artists from all over the world will be able to express their individual perceptions of new global realities in a truly international, multicultural forum.
Traditional Chinese painting can coexist with works in other media, as they exist today or as they will appear in the future, and it need not replace nor be replaced by any other art form. Compare my naive and overly optimistic study Painting in the Peoplea€™s Republic of China: the Politics of Style, Boulder, 1980.
Their younger selves, variously played by Megan Long, Jess Godwin, Nick Cosgrove and Tony Clarno, act out vistas from their lives, singing Schwartz as they go, often with lyrics newly penned by the composer himself. Feeling distant from her workaholic husband Dan (Gene Weygrandt), she is ready to call it quits after 20 years of marriage to her childhood sweetheart in order to chase a dream of intimacy that has eluded her.a€?a€?Before Sue can get out the door, Dan comes home early from the office and joins her, and the pair spend time pouring over old photos.
Feeling distant from her workaholic husband Dan (Gene Weygrandt), she is ready to call it quits after 20 years of marriage to her childhood sweetheart in order to chase a dream of intimacy that has eluded her.Before Sue can get out the door, Dan comes home early from the office and joins her, and the pair spend time pouring over old photos.
A Snapshots, with book by David Stern, music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz, A direction by Ken Sawyer, musical staging by Karl Christian, and musical supervision and arrangements by Steve Orich, will run at Northlight Theatre, 9501 Skokie Blvd in Skokie, September 16 - October 23, 2011.
For films, he collaborated with Alan Menken on the songs for Disney's Enchanted as well as the animated features Pocahontas and The Hunchback Of Notre Dame and wrote the songs for the DreamWorks animated feature The Prince Of Egypt. Early versions were produced in the mid 90s, and over time, it evolved in terms of the story and the lyrics. The following year I joined Paula Gasparello as a full time specialist in Chinese painting and we began to hold regular auctions of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. Although the art market as a whole was not particularly strong in the early 1980s the Chinese department, fueled in part by a burgeoning Hong Kong economy, held its own. Sothebya€™s early entry into the market in Asia, particularly Hong Kong, gave us a distinct advantage in cultivating new buyers and sourcing potential consignors of paintings as well as ceramics and works of art.
The curators of the Readera€™s Digest collection had no knowledge or interest in Chinese art, even contemporary Chinese art, and they decided to sell the work at auction. After intense competition, primarily among overseas Chinese collectors, the album sold for $297,000, nearly ten times the presale estimate and easily a world auction record for Chinese calligraphy at the time.
The scroll had been consigned by a young Hong Kong collector and it was finally hammered down for $187,000 to a new North American collector bidding against stiff international competition.
Additionally I received tremendous support from my colleagues in the international Chinese Works of Art Department and in Sothebya€™s regional offices, especially Rita Wong, Suzanne Tory, Meeseen Loong, Tony Omura, Timothy Sammons, Jonathan Bennett, David Priestley, and Patti Lam, all of whom were helpful in finding consignments as well as in assisting collectors and cultivating new buyers. Opinions ranged from a€?genuinea€? to a€?Southern Song, but not Ma Yuan,a€? to a€?Ming Academy work,a€? to a€?17th century copy,a€? but in the end the album was sold for $319,000 to a Chinese-American collector who believes it to be a genuine work of the Song master.
In the case of famous works or well-established collections, however, the auction houses can also capitalize on the cachet and reputation associated with the individual work or collection. Chiang did give lip-service to the united front effort and flew back with Zhang to Nanjing where Chiang was given a heroa€™s welcome. The presale exhibition was extremely well attended and the salesroom was packed with serious collectors of Chinese art as well as dozens of unfamiliar faces and first-time buyers who were not really art collectors but were aware of the identity of the owner and hoped to come away with a piece of history. Following the painting are lengthy colophons by Ming and Qing dynasty writers, including Dong Qichang. I found it increasingly difficult to procure enough authentic paintings and calligraphy to satisfy their needs.
But to dwell on these philosophical differences would present a negative picture of what I saw as a very positive decision and a logical career progression.
Taiwan buyers are not as active as they once were but they are beginning to be replaced by a new generation of collectors in mainland China.
Selectivity is the key to survival, for auction houses and dealers alike, because selectivity is the key to collecting.
Not only were Chinese artists and intellectuals largely cut off from their own past, they were also isolated from artistic and scientific developments in the rest of the world. In the struggle confusions arise, and there is a loss of communication among many of the students of the field of knowledge.
1936), and others, who discovered and pursued the underlying intellectual and spiritual connections between traditional Chinese painting and 20th century Western art, particularly abstract, non-objective painting.
An accurate assessment of the visual arts in todaya€™s China would require investigation into an unprecedented variety of media including oil painting, acrylics, watercolor, gouache, sculpture, woodblock prints, ceramics, textiles, film, graphic design, and installation art in addition to the traditional forms of Chinese painting and calligraphy.
Hong Kong and overseas Chinese have had to grapple with complex questions of identity on a daily basis. It is equally clear, however, that, in spite of all attempts to suppress it, traditional Chinese painting is both resilient and relevant. Young people the world over listen to the same music, eat the same hamburgers, and wear the same sneakers. Guohua will survive because of its unique and timeless artistic qualities: expressiveness of line, simplicity of form, and purity of spirit.
These snapshots trigger memories of when they first met, birthday parties, family gatherings, a€?best palsa€? during their college years, dating experiences (with one another and others) and eventually their engagement and birth of a college-age son. Growing up Susie had her own dreams, wanted her own career, all of which now seems to have taken a backseat to raising a family, while Daniel spent much of his time away, often working 70 hours a week.
Wyatt There would be no such drama this year as Aledo rode the hot hand of junior guard Dawson Gates. Ma, Director of Chinese Paintings at Christiea€™s, is determined to maintain a market presence in New York, it would appear that a corporate decision has been made to eventually shift the sale of virtually all Chinese paintings, both classical and modern, to Hong Kong.
I readily agreed to research and catalogue the sixteen paintings and one calligraphy, which included works by Wen Zhengming, Lu Zhi, Wang Wen, Wen Boren, Ju Jie, Lan Ying, Wang Duo, Wang Jian, Fa Ruozhen, Wang Hui, Wang Yuanqi, Gao Qipei, Huang Shen, Zheng Xie, Li Fangying, and Luo Ping.
By early 1982 economic pressures led to a significant number of layoffs at Sotheby Parke Bernet. It allowed elderly collectors to dispose of works they no longer needed and families to discreetly disperse inherited private collections.
The entire auction totaled nearly $800,000, well below the $1,200,000 presale low estimate for the 126 lots, but encouraging nonetheless because nearly 80% (by value) was sold and a number of pieces brought strong prices. Later, the Ming scholar Chen Jiru attached a colophon and the painter Cheng Zhengkui affixed his seal, and it then found its way into the hands of two of the premier collectors of the 17th and 18th centuries, Liang Qingbiao, and An Qi, who recorded it in his Moyuan huiguan.
Nestled amongst the leaves of the album was a short note written in French which indicated that the work had been purchased from a soldier who had fought in China, presumably during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900.
Paintings that have been exhibited in museums or have appeared in serious publications tend to be more marketable. Zhang Xuelianga€™s efforts to unify China against a common enemy, however, were rewarded with a swift court-martial and more than five decades of house arrest.
Without commenting in detail about either of the works I said simply: a€?The owner of these paintings must have many good things. The sale was a tremendous success and Zhang Xueliang, along with his loving wife Edith, moved to Hawaii where they remain today as Zhang begins his second century on this earth. Wu Bina€™s name does not figure prominently in traditional Chinese accounts of painting history but he is highly regarded by Western scholars. There was now firm evidence that the right Chinese painting in the right economic environment could sell for more than a million dollars, but it had to be just the right painting offered at just the right time.
Perhaps my own notions of quality were too high and my standards for judging authenticity were more strict than the current market necessitated, but I found myself rejecting many works that were later sold successfully elsewhere. Ma the autonomy to structure the sales in a way that is most beneficial to the company and to his clients.
Guggenheim Museum is planning a major exhibition of 5,000 years of Chinese art which will include modern and contemporary works in a variety of media, and the Asia Society is organizing a show of contemporary art by Chinese artists living outside of China for the fall of 1998. Artists in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and abroad have of course had many more artistic options open to them and they have already made significant contributions to the field contemporary art.
However, it is interesting to observe that these individual Chinese artists of diverse backgrounds have found common ground in their choice of medium. It is worth noting that most of the Chinese painters who worked in both Western and Chinese media demonstrated a distinct preference for the latter in their late years. In cyberspace, national borders do not exist and information is constantly exchanged across continents at lightning speed. While those long hours were necessary early on, when they were young a€“ they wouldna€™t have been able support a family without that job a€“ he long ago could have scaled back to a much more reasonable, manageable schedule that would have allowed him to spend more time with Sue, yet somehow he never did, leaving her to feel essentially alone. His first opera, Seance on a Wet Afternoon, premiered with Opera Santa Barbara in the fall of 2009. Paula Gasparello was one of the casualties and I was given responsibility for all sales of Chinese paintings in New York and Hong Kong. Sothebya€™s and Christiea€™s performed the traditional auction house role of providing a secondary market for dealers, museums, and collectors and, in the case of some contemporary works, occasionally played the unfamiliar role of developing a primary market through the introduction of new artists into the marketplace.
I was astounded to be asked by the curator whether the six large hanging scrolls, which are clearly meant to be hung together as a single work, could be sold separately. The scroll subsequently entered the Qianlong Imperial collection and it is dutifully noted in the Shiqu Baoji xubian. This album must have been looted from the Imperial Palace when the combined Western military forces were called in to quell an anti-Christian, anti-foreign Chinese peasant uprising. I would like to see them.a€? The intermediary left, saying that she would talk with the owner.
Not surprisingly, this long handscroll was hotly contested by two dealers bidding on behalf of American private collectors, and it was finally sold for $1,210,000. The few buyers at the top were unpredictable, buying in what seemed to me to be a rather indiscriminate manner, often paying high prices for works of dubious merit while ignoring what I considered to be high quality examples.
For whatever reasons, my competitor was extremely adept at finding works that suited the tastes and budget of the new clientele and Christiea€™s consistently won the battle of market share, which is a house-to-house comparison performed by auction house accountants, like a bizarre postmortem ritual wake, after every series of auctions. The auction houses are large international corporations with tremendous costs and huge overhead.
An examination of the current state of guohua as a distinct type of Chinese art, however, is useful because the limited focus of the investigation brings heightened clarity to larger artistic issues. Their conscious decision to work with traditional brush and ink applied to absorbent paper, at a time when so many other options are available, indicates at the least a tenuous link to Chinaa€™s artistic past.
Modern communications and transportation have made all markets international, including the art market. But what really brings them to life are four hard-working cast members who re-enact these various milestones in song and dialogue. Compounding the problem is that Dan has fallen into a familiar pattern of long hours spent at work, not recognizing that there is any sort of problem at home, whatsoever.
After beginning the season 4-0, they hit some hard times the second half of district with five of seven games on the road. This afforded me a unique opportunity to build up a new market but I was faced with the daunting challenge of trying to make sense out of a very complicated subject. I was relieved to land the consignment and to receive permission to sell the painting as one lot!
In spite of the impressive pedigree of the handscroll, two of the leading authorities on Chinese calligraphy in America initially expressed doubts about its authenticity, perhaps confusing it with a well known related work in a Japanese collection. As a result of the suppression of the Boxer Uprising, not only did the Qing government suffer the indignity of agreeing to pay a huge indemnity to the foreign powers, but a number of European, Japanese, and American soldiers helped themselves to what they considered to be war booty and souvenirs from the Forbidden City. Landing an important collection or estate creates an opportunity for promotion and also enhances the reputation of the department within the field and within the company. Later that day, while Rita Wong, then head of the Taiwan office, was driving me home it occurred to me that the most logical source of the two paintings had to be Zhang Xueliang.
The results of the June 1992 New York auctions of Chinese paintings, however, proclaimed Sothebya€™s the victor in market share, winning by a substantial 53% to 47% margin. As was the case during the first half of this century, the decision to paint guohua will be made for different reasons by different artists. But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals. From his perspective, he doesna€™t recognize that a problem exists, therefore there isna€™t one, all of which leads up to the point where the play begins a€¦ the point at which Sue must decide whether she is to leave or stay and try to work their problems out together. Tony Clarno as Daniel, Jess Godwin as Susan, Nick Cosgrove as Danny and Megan Long as Susie are shadow figures from the past, younger versions of Ken and Sue with whom they often interact.
Under the auspices of the ASCAP Foundation, he runs musical theatre workshops in New York and Los Angeles, and is currently the President of the Dramatists' Guild. Aledo had lost four straight and were 1-5 in the second half of district.The Bearcats reached back and did what they needed to turn back a hot South Hills team. At the time Chinese paintings were occasionally sold by Sothebya€™s London as well, where they were included as a postscript to Japanese print sales. The image of a€?Giant Lotusa€? appeared as a wrap-around cover for the June 1982 auction of Chinese Works of Art and Paintings and it attracted interest from across the globe, selling to a collector in Taiwan for $77,000, at the time a world-record auction price for a contemporary Chinese painting.
Fortunately two astute overseas Chinese collectors recognized the scrolla€™s importance and they bid it up to a final price of $77,000. A significant number of paintings and large quantities of Imperial ceramics and other works of art must have found their way into Western collections during the early part of this century in this manner, although the casual note found in this album provides rare documentation of the phenomenon. In his youth, well before the Xia€™an Incident, Zhang had been known as a collector of Chinese art. On the other hand, the size of the operation can render the fundamentally simple process of selling individual works of art overly complicated and expensive.
For some, the impetus will be to continue to be part of an unbroken artistic tradition which they can trace back into antiquity, thus reaffirming their own cultural identities.
Even today, there is something about using brush and ink, like eating food with chopsticks, that feels natural to a Chinese artist. As the events play out, they dona€™t always match how the principal characters remember them.A A A  Many of the rekindled events are hilarious.


It was gut check time for the Bearcats and they fulfilled the promise they showed earlier in the year in tough District 7-4A. The Spelman paintings were significant in that they presented to the market a group of excellent works with generally reliable attributions. I was gradually able to wrestle control from the Japanese Department and for a time we experimented with selling Chinese paintings through the London Chinese Department. The sale of the painting received significant publicity in Taiwan and Hong Kong and it helped to bolster Sothebya€™s reputation in Asia for expertise in Chinese paintings.
In a relatively small but extremely specialized market, like Chinese paintings, there may be other, more efficient ways to match buyer with seller. For others, the choice of guohua may be primarily a reaction against the repressive artistic policies of the Communist regime, ostensibly denying their ties to the recent past.
In the first apartment that he will share with Sue, Dan has a number of surprise female visitors, baggage from his past, who literally pop up from the most unexpected places. Schwartz has recently been given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and inducted into the Theatre Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Carl Williams scored 11 and Luke Bishop was also in double figures with ten points.The Bearcats will face District 8-4A Champion (24-3) Everman Bulldogs Tuesday February 18 at Brewer High School. The market there never developed and to this day collecting interest for Chinese painting in Europe remains limited. In early publications on Chinese painting his name is often listed as the owner of specific works which had not yet resurfaced. For still others, the immediacy and sensitivity of the traditional medium and its unmatched ability to respond to the subtlest of touches, may be reason enough to adopt the art form, affirming the individuala€™s artistic identity, irrespective of his political viewpoint. Even funnier is a bedroom scene where more ghosts put in an appearance (Godwin, changing wigs and intonation in rapid succession). Other awards include three Academy Awards, four Grammy Awards, four Drama Desk Awards, and a tiny handful of tennis trophies. Everman is currently ranked # 14 in Class 4A.It will be a repeat performance for the Bearcats in the playoffs under Coach Steve Smith.
However, perhaps because of this quirk in the market, Europe became for me a significant source of paintings for sale in both New York and Hong Kong. Over the next few years I developed a peculiar relationship with Zhang Xueliang, through his intermediary, who initially did not acknowledge his identity but realized that I knew who the real owner of these works was. She began showing me paintings on his behalf, some for sale, some not, and she would relay back to Zhang my comments about the works.
If not, we are witnessing the close of a short but intense chapter in Chinese painting history. We began selling the less important scrolls, which did not bear his collectora€™s seals, but gradually he consigned, always through a friend in the United States, major paintings by artists such as Shen Zhou and calligraphy by as importantt a writer as Zhao Mengfu. If the major auction houses decide that it is no longer financially viable to continue to hold sales of Chinese paintings in New York, it will be up to a few committed and knowledgable dealers to try to pick up the slack. This year, Aledo is in the driver’s seat and can control their own playoff fate with just one more victory over surging South Hills. Granbury has been eliminated at 5-8 with a 47-45 loss to South Hills last night. How can those who paint just for fun in their spare time capture the true character of all things on earth.
The victory for the Scorpions was their third in the last four games and has propelled them into the do-or-die final showdown with Aledo on Tuesday night. Aledo got off to another slow start against Arlington Heights.
The Bearcats could only manage 19 points by halftime and were down 27-19 at the end of the first half. The Bearcats have been a second half team all season and Friday’s Senior Night home finale was no different.
Arlington Heights pulled away in the fourth quarter to spoil Aledo’s Senior Night with a 52-43 victory. The game was delayed one day due to bad weather Friday night. It was the final home game for Aledo seniors Josh Bell, Sean Church, Chandler Dean, Matt Dunn, Alex Stockdale, and Carl Williams. Leading Bearcats vs.
Southwest (8-5) and Arlington Heights (8-5) are currently tied for second place in the district. But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years.
The two teams could still tie.For Aledo (6-7), it all comes down to the final game against South Hills (6-7). Unfortunately for the Bearcats, these are two teams going in opposite  directions in the second half of district play. Since Aledo beat South Hills at home 56-44 on January 17, the Bearcats are 1-5 while South Hills is 4-2. The Bearcats will be playing their fifth road game out of seven in the second half of district. The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing.
One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known. With Williams in the lineup for that game, we would most likely be talking about the Bearcats already clinching a playoff spot. It is what it is and what it is isn’t that bad at all. It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare.
If you recall last year, the Bearcats had to win their final game on Senior Night to have a chance at the playoffs.
Nick Losos will miss the remainder of the season with a knee injury. The Bearcats are already going through a rough stretch on the schedule playing their third straight road game and four of the last five away from home. Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. On top of the schedule, they had to play undefeated district leader Trimble Tech. This will be the last trip for Aledo to the historic Billingsley Field House in Fort Worth as a member of District 7-4A. Unfortunately, the Bearcats did not leave on a winning note as the Bulldogs defeated Aledo 64-54. The Bearcats stayed with the quick and athletic Bulldogs in a fast paced first quarter. Carl Williams tipped in the Dunn miss. Moments later, Matt Bishop snaked through the lane and scored on a nice drive through the lane. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits.
The Bulldogs scored five more consecutive points giving then an 18-0 run to end the second quarter. The Bearcats have a few games where there have been some offensive lapses, but nothing compared to Wednesday night at Billingsley Field House. Spencer Franklin is a space eater in the lane and an intimidating presence as a shot blocker in the middle.One word this Bearcat team just does not have in their vocabulary is “quit”. Aledo fought back in the second half and solved the relentless full court pressure by the Bulldogs. Braxton McCoy hit three long range bombs in the third quarter and Matt Dunn added another as Aledo won the third quarter 16-14. In the fourth, Carl Williams came alive with ten points and Dakota Fisher played excellent basketball on both ends of the court.
The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer. In the jumbled District 7-4A playoff race, all that has really happened is Aledo dropped from second to fourth in the district. It is a dubious position to be in because two games remain on the schedule and five teams have a shot of getting the last three playoff spots.
Trimble Tech has clinched first place. Aledo (6-6) has another huge game at home Friday night against Arlington Heights (7-5). It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore.
Emotions stayed in check but some Granbury fans acted like they just don’t get out that often. It was at times a rough and ugly game held in check somewhat by the officials. Aledo was fighting from behind the entire game but kept clawing back to almost win the game. After Bishop’s basket, Granbury scored six of the next eight points with a Nick Losos basket sandwiched in between. Granbury led 13-8 and increased the lead to 15-9 at the end of the first quarter. Aledo started a comeback beginning in the second quarter. The Bearcats went to work on the offensive end with two free throws by Stockdale. Granbury scored on a nice finger roll after the two Stockdale free throws. Nick Losos scored a basket and Carl Williams got his first basket of the game with 4:29 left to play in the first. Braxton McCoy missed the front end of a one-and- one, but Alex Stockdale got an offensive rebound and scored pulling Aledo within one 21-20. Luke Bishop sank two free throws to give Aledo its first lead of the game 21-20. Granbury was already in the one-and-one and hit both ends to go up 43-36. Aledo went on a 7-0 run to tie the game at 43-43.
Braxton McCoy followed with a tremendous drive down the lane scooping in a left handed layup. The good crowd helped the atmosphere for the Bearcats. Granbury scored again to go up by two points.
The bad news is there are a lot of teams now who can strip Aledo of a playoff spot. Whoever designed the schedule for the second half of district was a mean person. The Bearcats have to play five road games in the second half and will play their third road game in a row Wednesday night t Billingsley Field House. Aledo has lost five District 7-4A games by a total of 19 points. Aledo lost that game by six points without the services of their top scorer and rebounder Carl Williams. The Bearcats have a tough schedule the rest of the way. They return home on Friday to play Arlington Heights who defeated Aledo 57-53 in the first half. The final game is against South Hills who have shown some improvement in the second half of the season. Aledo defeated South Hills 56-44 in the first meeting at home. Here are the remaining games for teams either 6-5 or 5-6 in district. Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution?
They play at Granbury on Friday and stay on the road for a Tuesday night showdown with district leading Trimble Tech (10-0) Tuesday at Billingsley Field House. District 7-4A is like a soap opera. All the teams are so evenly matched the games are close making predictions almost impossible.
Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. The loss puts Granbury at 4-6 in district.The game Friday at Granbury is the biggest game of the season for Aledo’s playoff hopes. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States).
It would clinch a playoff spot for Aledo if the Bearcats are tied with Granbury at the end of the season. Arlington Heights is at 5-4 in district.
It was the largest margin of victory so far in district play and the best defensive performance limiting the Cougars to 28 points. Three Bearcats were in double figures scoring led by senior Matthew Dunn with 15 points. Point guard Luke Bishop had his best game since coming back from football with 10 points. There are no easy wins in District 7-4A. Even though the Cougars are dragging the bottom of the district, they have played some teams tough this season.
Western Hills only lost to Granbury by three and played much better in the first game against Aledo when the Bearcats won 54-50. Friday night, the Bearcats made sure there would be no late game drama outscoring the Cougars 28-15 in the first half.
Al the other teams in district have at least an outside chance at the playoffs. Aledo is currently in second place and control their own destiny at 6-3.
The Bearcats are 1-2 on the road this season in district play. This is a huge week for the Bearcats playing two teams on the road who are still in the thick of the playoff hunt.
Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. Aledo would own the tie-breaker over both Southwest and Granbury with two game sweeps of both teams. Arlington Heights was in the state tournament last year and are playing strong again with a 5-4 record and tied with Southwest for third place in district.
Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out.
So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress.
Last year Arlington Heights, third place in district, made it to the state tournament. Despite losing three senior starters, Aledo had reason for optimism entering the 2014 season.
All-District players Travis Gough, Alex Riner, and Kyle Gromann all graduated off a team that tied for a playoff spot but then lost out when Granbury upset second place O.D.
Taylor Johnson also led the team in rebounds, steals, and assists. Coach Smith still had some solid players returning from varsity but replacing Johnson left an unexpected big hole to fill. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone. A high school team does not usually lose their star player before his senior year. Coach Smith already knew he would be without the services of point guard Luke Bishop until football was over.
Little did he know Bishop would quarterback the Bearcat football team all the way to the Class 4A State Championship. The Bearcat basketball team also had another setback when senior Alex Stockdale decided to play football during his senior year. One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats.
It was a heartwarming story about a player who never played football in his life deciding to suit up during his senior year. With Travis Gough and Matthew Ogden gone to graduation, Aledo was already a little “short” in the post position.
Stockdale is a physical player who has no problem guarding taller opponents using his strength and creating position on taller players with his wide body. Bishop and Stockdale missed the first 13 games of the season including the first two district games. It takes players a few games to transfer from a football mentality to a basketball regiment. Despite all the adversity, the Bearcats finished the first half of District 7-4A in second place with a 5-2 record. It was an amazing accomplishment considering all the obstacles. The key player for Aledo during their renaissance this season has been high flying senior Carl Williams. He leads the team averaging 15 points per game while shooting 64% from the floor and leading the team with a 78.9 free throw percentage.
In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats.
Aledo had to play the first game of the second half of district without their star player. The Bearcats easily defeated the Chaparrals in the first half of district 73-63 with Williams pouring in 31 points. Every game counts in the tough district race. Coach Smith has found a way to make lemonade out of lemons his entire tenure as the Bearcat head basketball coach. We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make? Alex Stockdale is getting his basketball legs back and has averaged 4.7 rebounds per game in six district contests.
I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance. A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others. Luke Bishop leads the team with four assists per game in district play. Catch the Bearcats at home this Friday at Bearcat Gym against Western Hills. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy. Worth, TX—The Aledo Bearcats went on the road and lost their second close district game in a row 57-53 against the Arlington Heights Yellow Jackets. Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy.
The loss comes on the heels of a heart breaking loss to Trimble Tech 48-46. Aledo started out the season 4-0 and still is in great position for a playoff spot in District 7-4A especially if they can get back to their winning ways against South Hills at home on Friday night. Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser. A win would put the Bearcats in a commanding position for the playoffs with a 5-2 record during the first half of district play. Aledo took a 23-33 lead into halftime before being outscored 19-13 in the third quarter. You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him. Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing. Aledo’s first basket came on a three-pointer by Matthew Dunn with 4:30 left to play in the first quarter.
This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source.
He made one of two free throws sending Alex Stockdale to the bench with his third foul. Nick Losos came in and crated some excitement for the crowd with a blocked shot and steal. To make matters worse, a horrible charging call on Carl Williams with 5:36 to play waived off a basket for Aledo. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. The Bearcats came up with the ball after a mad scramble and a tie ball with the possession going to the Bearcats. Besides being down by two points, the other problem for the Bearcats was the clock. That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while. While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view. The clock only resets to seconds, not tenths of seconds. In the pandemonium over the clock, fans and some players from Trimble Tech drifted over and would not leave the Aledo bench area.
Aledo scored seconds later putting the Bearcats up by three.Bearcats Complete Improbable Fourth Quarter Comeback to Defeat Granbury 41-37Behind by six with under three minutes to play, Aledo goes on 9-0 runBig game vs. Nick Losos kept Aledo in the game with six first quarter points off the bench. Alex Stockdale did the heavy lifting in the third quarter with five points as Aledo’s defense shut down the Pirates allowing only six points.
The basket and free throw not only cut Granbury’s lead to one, the foul was on Granbury’s big man Mitchell may sending him to the bench after fouling out.Aledo made a defensive stop and Coach Smith was able to call a time out retaining possession for Aledo before the referee called a jump ball. Matt Dunn put the game on ice hitting one more free throw to give Aledo a 41-37 win.It was a huge win for Aledo to keep them undefeated this season at 4-0.
The Bearcats play undefeated Trimble Tech at home Friday night for sole possession of first place in District 7-4A. Arlington Heights is also a factor in district play at (3-1) and still have Aledo and Trimble Tech in the first half schedule. Aledo still has Heights, Trimble Tech, and South hills in the first half of District 7-4A.
Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. Trimble Tech Cedar Park- Game 1 Bishop Amat- Game 2 Monterey Tech- Game 3 Joshua- Game 4 Burleson Centennial- Game 5 Everman- Game 6 Crowley- Game 7 Burleson- Game 8 Granbury- Game 9 Cleburne- Game 10 Byron Nelson Scrimmage Tanner Heppel # 3 Sr.
So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday.
The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions.
Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition. Boswell Playoff Game # 3- Canyon Playoff Game # 4- Wichita Falls Playoff Game # 5 Ennis Playoff Game # 6- Brenham Denton Guyer Scrimmage 2013 Game 1-Highland Park Game 2- Stephenville Game 3- Prepa Tech Game 4- Arlington Heights Game 5- South Hills Game 6- O.D. It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat.
Wyatt Game 7- Western Hills Game 8- Southwest Game 9- Granbury Game 10- Trimble Tech Brock Parker # 1 Sr. A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group. Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage. When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations. This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs. The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs. Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan.
The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy. Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR.
My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you. Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war.
We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals? I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians.
By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj. The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just. Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop. Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote. And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society.
Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem.
Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way.



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Category: Will I Get My Ex Back



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