The following was recommended by a customer as a source of definitions for traditional sea terms. Lumber or other wood products that have been either dried by exposure to natural atmospheric conditions outdoors or in an unheated shed. Thin semi-rigid strips of wood or synthetic material inserted into pockets in the sail in order to maintain the shape of the sail. Width, generally the widest point on the hull, but beam could be given at any point in the hull. Rope sewn along one or more edges of a sail to strengthen it and take some of the stress of the cloth when it is stretched tightly. A term in veneering, where successive pieces of veneer from a flitch are arranged side by side.
A term used to describe wood that is finished natural, using varnish or other clear coating. A seam in a sail, in which the edges of neighboring panels are cut in a convex curve, so that when sewn together the panels force fullness into the sail.
A longitudinal structural member at the cockpit perimeter supporting the inboard side of the side deck.
Solid wood planks, butted together, fastened to the frames, with a flexible caulking between the planks. The fore and aft and up and down point on a sail at which the pressure of the wind is concentrated. Longitudinal separation of the fibers in wood that do not go through the whole cross section. DOUBLE CHINE – Having an additional planking junction between the chine and the sheer, giving the hull a more rounded look.
MULTI-CHINE – Having one or more additional planking junctions between the chine and the sheer. More commonly, in a boat, this refers to the outside working or seating area below the sheer. A non-structural longitudinal member at the cockpit perimeter; a decorative piece fastened to the carling, usually protruding above the side deck to prevent water from entering the cockpit. A line device or cringle located several inches above the tack of the sail; used with a downhaul to control the tension along the luff and hence the shape of the sail.
The traditional dory is a small, flat-bottomed fishing boat with high flaring sides, and considerable sheer.
Curved uprights projecting over the side of larger boats for suspending, or raising and lowering a smaller boat. The process of beveling the stem, chine, sheers, keel, and frames so that the planking will have flat surfaces to glue and fasten to. A semi-thixotropic, air-inhibited, usually pigmented resin that is applied to a waxed mold surface over which subsequent fiberglass layup is made.
This is one of two conditions in the bottom of a planing boat that can lead to performance problems.
A wraparound mast fitting used to secure the forestay and other fittings to the mast on a jibhead rig. A propulsion system that uses an inboard motor, mounted at the transom, with a propeller assembly, similar to the bottom of an outboard, mounted on the outside of the transom, bolting to the motor with the transom sandwiched between. A centrally mounted inboard, with the prop shaft usually coming directly off the engine or transmission; in-line with the engine.
In a jibhead rig, the forestay does not attach to the masthead, but at a point lower on the mast where the top of the jib meets the mast. The junction of the bottom planking along the centerline of the boat or the inside member backing this junction aft of the stem.
FIXED KEEL – Usually associated with a sailboat, this is simply a non-retractable keel.
In lumber drying, a kiln is a room or building where temperature, moisture, and the amount of air circulating are controlled to dry wood.
These are paddle-shaped boards installed on the outside of the gunwale on each side of a sailboat. A condition in which the tiller must be held toward the downwind side of a sailing vessel in order to maintain course.
Lofting is the process of drawing the hull lines full size from the designer’s scale drawings. After debarking and before a sawmill cuts lumber, it saws off the outer four slabs to reduce the log to a square or rectangular shape. Weight of the water within a piece of lumber measured as a percentage of the weight of the dry wood. A structure in which the outer covering (planking) carries all or a major part of the stresses.
A combination of sailboat and motorboat; a compromise, neither the ideal sailboat or powerboat. When an outboard motor is mounted on the transom, a motor well is a box-like structure in front of the motor that catches water that may wash over the outboard cut-out and allows it to drain over the transom and not into the boat. Measurements supplied by a designer for the builder in order to lay down the lines of the hull.
The line used to pull a sail toward the end of the boom, or the grommet at the corner of the sail to which that line attaches. Sometimes applied to a sharp sterned skiff, but more properly to a stern projection of the gunwales to a sharp point above a narrow transom, originally to carry a coat of arms or other decoration.
Plunging forward, the rising and falling of the bow and stern of a boat; a fore and aft motion as opposed to roll.
A hull that lifts and skims the surface of the water causing the stern wake to break clean from the transom. CARVEL – The planks are laid close together on their edges, attached to the ribs to form a smooth exterior. CLINKER – The edges of the planks are overlapped to form an irregular exterior, much like siding on a house. Sheets of wood consisting of three or more sheets of wood glued and bonded by heat and pressure with the grain of each sheet running perpendicular to adjacent layers. The ratio the hull displacement bears to the displacement of a shape which is the same length as the waterline length of the boat and has the same constant cross-sectional area as the greatest cross-sectional area the hull. A method of cutting lumber where the annual rings are relatively perpendicular to the face of the board.
The Society of Automotive Engineers is a professional organisation and standards body for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds – cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and more.


ROACH – The part of the sail that extends beyond the straight line between the head and the clew.
STARCUT – Sails in which the panels of cloth radiate from all corners, along the warp. VERTICAL CUT – Sails in which the panels of cloth run vertically or parallel to the luff.
JIBHEAD RIG – In a jibhead rig the forestay does not attach to the masthead but at a point lower on the mast where the top of the jib meets the mast.
SPRIT RIG – A sprit is a boom that extends upward from the mast to the topmost corner of a quadrangle sail. A formula used to compare potential speeds of displacement or semi-displacement hulls; not used for full planing hulls.
A large triangular racing sail located forward of the jib, attached to the mast and a spinnaker pole (boom). A projection or addition to the side or bottom of the boat to help stabilize or provide lift. A planking method that uses strips of wood installed longitudinally and edge-glued and fastened together.
The housing on a sailboat deck that supports the heel of the mainmast, with a hinged fitting so that the mast can pivot and be lowered easily when passing under bridges and high tension wires. One of a pair of wood or metal pins set vertically in the gunwale of a boat that serve as oar locks. An adjustable line from the mast to support the aft end of the boom and to support in when the mainsail is lowered or is being reefed. A gear box that reverses the direction of the drive train to allow the use of a standard prop shaft and prop with a rear mounted motor. Rotary-cut Veneer – Veneer cut in a lathe which rotates a log or bolt, chucked in the center, against a knife.
A lumber defect referring to the absence of wood or the presence of bark along an edge or corner.
A condition in which the tiller must be held toward the windward side of a sailing vessel in order to maintain course. A vessel which will not hold a steady course, but swings from side to side of it, is said to yaw. After the epoxy is cured there will usually be a noticeable oily residue on the surface called amine blush.
The purpose is to prevent the hard chine of the boat catching a wake or small wave on a sharp turn. Maximum speed will be achieved when the bottom of the boat that forms the planing surface is flat. The purpose being to increase the amount of sail area without raising the center of effort. When used in conjunction with a reverse curve at the chine, it usually makes sheet materials impractical requiring other planking methods in the forward section.
These are sleeping accommodations, cooking facilities, a toilet, some lounging space, and fuel and water tanks. Additional power will only allow a hull to maintain hull speed against a head wind or under load.
The commercial fishing dories of New England were stacked on a larger boat and transported to the Grand Banks where they were off-loaded with a fisherman, and later retrieved. Dry rot needs extended periods of moisture (fresh water), oxygen, and dry rot spores to thrive.
Also, the body part between the head and the body of a goose; most often used for making gravy. External halyards are located outside the mast; internal halyards pass through the inside of a hollow mast. The harpin may be only a portion of the sheer (usually the forward section) or the complete sheer. Drying wood in a kiln is an art to ensure that the wood dries evenly to retain its strength and aesthetic properties. On our boat designs, knees are used to reinforce the junction between the bottom and the transom, between the sides and transom. In the days of sailing ship warfare, you wanted your opponent in your lee (to leeward) which took his wind and gave you the advantage. Limbers can be through frames, usually at the keel or other longitudinal, can also be cut through longitudinals. Traditionally produced from very large diameter logs, lumber is now often made from logs as small as 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 cm) in diameter.
The theoretical ideal shape for planing over the water surface is one of constant (mono) section.
When a motor is mounted in front of the transom, motor well refers to a box-like structure that surrounds a hole in the bottom of the boat.
Pitch is measured as the distance a propeller would move forward with a single rotation, if there was no resistance.
Uses strips of plywood or solid wood veneers laid over the hull in layers of opposite diagonals, glued together, most often with epoxy.
Quarter-sawn lumber tends to be more dimensionally stable than other forms of lumber, such as plain-sawn.
A cut or groove along or near the edge of a piece of wood that allows another piece to fit into it to form a joint. It is a product of the distance between the centers of gravity and buoyancy and the total weight of the boat. This method of peeling is used to produce decorative veneers and is a common method of manufacturing veneers for plywood. The most familiar to the average American consumer are its standards for measuring automobile power in units of horsepower (SAE Net Horsepower). Similar to a sloop except that there are at least two triangular sails forward of the mast. Has a main aft of the mast and a triangular sail (jib) forward of the mast, usually attached to the forestay. Sawn frames are assembled from separate pieces, either lapped or gusseted together to form the station contour. If the BRAKE HORSEPOWER is known (normally the rated horsepower), multiply by .7 for the approximate constant SHP. When building a boat, there may or may not be frames or bulkheads at all or any of the stations.


Moisture content of air-dried wood fiber depends on relative humidity, temperature, and length of drying period.
When the planing surface is a vee, the boat will have a softer ride but less potential speed, and will take longer to come up on a plane.
When cavitating, the propeller will speed up, but power is lost; the rudder may lose steering action.
On a center console, the inside area could be called a cockpit, but this term is more often used to define a more limited area. The terms sedan, express, and day are loose categories meant to place emphasis on certain capabilities. A fillet is made with activated epoxy resin, thickened with various fillers, to a putty consistency. There are different styles, sometimes with the pintle on the rudder, sometimes on the transom. Hardwoods have traditionally been used in making such products as furniture, strip flooring, interior trim, boats, cutting boards, novelties, etc. Heartwood may contain phenolic compounds, gums, resins, and other materials that usually make it darker and more decay resistant than sapwood. The purpose of this member is to keep the wind from blowing the boat sideways from its forward course. Single leeboards are used as a way of converting a non-sailing boat to sail without the necessity of cutting holes in the hull or installing permanent outside keels.
Thus monohedron describes a hull that has a running surface of constant section; in practice the sections may not be exactly the same.
In our Inboard Hardware catalog a propeller might be described as a 12 x 15 x lh x 1, 3-blade propeller. The more common method uses strips fitted, glued, and fastened on edge with optional fiberglass on the outside only (See WHITEHALL, HARBOR MASTER, AMIGO designs). This type of sail is used on a free-standing mast and is held on the mast with a downhaul line or is attached to the gooseneck. A sloop is more maneuverable than a cat rig, and more versatile for reducing sail in a blow.
There are some hardwoods, such as Balsa, which are softer than some softwoods, like Southern Yellow Pine.
Tillers for underwater rudders are usually short and are operated by some sort of mechanical device (steering wheel). In a vee bottom boat, the keel fastens to the bottom of the stem and chines at a point above this junction, the higher, the more the vee. Some boats require lead (a more expensive material) because the space available will not allow sufficient lighter material to achieve the required ballast weight. When there is more than one sail, CE’s will be given on the drawing for each sail plus a combined CE. A sedan cruiser has more glass and more lounging area,express is faster, and a day cruiser has minimal accommodations and usually only practical for limited overnight stays. Wood used in making these products is typically in the form of relatively small and defect-free pieces which are subsequently glued together; it is also generally more costly than wood from softwood species.
Newer mills that process softwood logs combine scanners, computers to calculate optimium sawing sequences, and high speed, thin-kerf saws designed to obtain maximum lumber yield. This type of motor well allows the handling of nets or fishing lines over the transom without having to work around the motor.
Because of the large area, multiple, smaller sails, are easier to handle than one large sail.
The ketch generally has its mizzenmast (aft mast) farther forward than a yawl allowing for a larger mizzen.
Under most conditions the sapwood is paler in colour and more susceptible to decay than heartwood. I found the wooden pontoon free plans and I pretend I could make the pontoons longer simply was lacking to stimulate approximately dissimilar ideas wooben pontoon plans.
The amine blush can affect the bond of subsequent coats of epoxy or paints and should be removed.
Over the years the dory has evolved to encompass various types of boats, usually characterized by flat bottoms and flaring sides. Because of these factors, hardwood lumber is manufactured to non-standardized length and width dimensions which will minimize trim waste. Product standards for lumber manufactured in the United States are developed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. The rig allows more versatility than a single large sail but is less powerful in light airs.
Generally less efficient for top performance, but does have less windage aloft when sail is reduced. Although a variety of solvents have been used to remove amine blush, in the shop we use denatured alcohol (shellac thinner), laquer thinner or acetone. Power catamarans usually require deflectors when a single motor is used, to direct a flow of water to the propeller.
Frames can be lapped with a piece of plywood filling the interior frame space to form a bulkhead. For the same reasons, such lumber is measured relatively accurately, with rounding of measurements in small increments. Such products have more uniform strength properties than solid-sawn wood and can be made to large sizes even when using small trees as raw material. Amine blush can be sanded off, but will require a lot of sandpaper as the paper tends to clog quickly. Measurements are affected by moisture content and, in the case of hardwoods, by whether boards are surfaced or unsurfaced.
Most hardwoods manufactured in the United States are produced to standards developed by the National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA).
No single moisture content, however, is specified for hardwoods because the uses are more specialized. The moisture content must be specified by the buyer and agreed to by the seller; a 10% moisture content specification is common.



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