Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me. Each autumn, salmon return to the rivers of their birth a€“ there to spawn and once again trigger a renewal of the eternal passion play.
Salmon that do eventually arrive at their destinations must once again compete a€“ this time for mates and to fight for access to the precious and very limited gravels. The profligate expenditure of life and extravagant wealth of biology is there everywhere to behold, as Death dances lightly among the gathering throngs of fish, picking and choosing from among them; who from their number shall successfully spawn and who shall just be food for the gathering predators and scavengers. Spend a day in silence, walking among the spawning salmon, as they dig spawning redds, jockey for position and slash at competitors with those gaping, snaggletoothed, hooked jaws. Jan Bohuslav Sobota has died, while half a world away; I was preparing these etchings of Spawned Salmon and dedicating them to Jan, the lover of fish. The book you hold in your hands has evolved from my simply giving these etchings a second life in book form, to my using them as a vehicle for honoring a friendship of three decades. In 1985, Jan and I had been corresponding for some months without ever meeting a€“ all quite distant and correct. A short bit of background on Jan Sobota to begin, but fear not; Ia€™ll soon be spinning anecdotes and thoughts on books as art a€“ celebrating Jana€™s life of course, telling a few stories out of school, but also straying into the personal and speculative in search of the meaning to be derived from the life and death of a friend. Jana€™s father was a serious bibliophile and collector of fine books, who nurtured that same love of books in his son a€“ an appreciation that steadily grew, until he was apprenticed to master bookbinder Karel A ilinger in PlzeA?. The pivotal event in Jana€™s early life as a book artist was the posthumous retrospective exhibition of fellow Pilsener, Josef VA?chal in 1969.
Jan supported a family, sponsored workshops, exhibited widely, did conservation work on rare historic books, ran a gallery a€“ and on it went. What Jan did for contemporary bookbinding, was to act as a bridge between the traditionally trained masters of the past and innovators of the present. America was a great place to be a book artist in the early 1980a€™s precisely because it was an active zone of hybridization and hotbed of creativity. An instructive contrast to the anything-goes US scene was the icy reception I got when I showed a wooden box containing loose sheets of poetry and etchings to a Prague publisher. Neither Jan nor I had much interest in the book-like objects that often sneak into the museums as book arts a€“ the carved and glued together things that sorta, kinda have a bookish aspect to them a€“ rough-looking a€“ perhaps chain-sawed Oaken boards or granite slabs, slathered in tar and lashed together with jute; but lacking text. When Jana€™s books went beyond function, conservation or decoration, they were subtle statements about binding and the place of books, knowledge and art, as well as statements about the dignity inhering in the handcrafted - with a good dose humor. There are others who know their conservation and those, whose scientific contributions are far greater, but few of them are also artists at heart.
It can sound so pedestrian, these eternal compromises between art and craft, yet what Jan represented was not at all common.
There is an inflection point at which exceptional craft begins to make the transition to art and it is closely associated with surmounting the limitations inhering to the discipline.
Visiting with Jan in his workshop you quickly realized, that he did what a professional must, but ultimately, he just loved messing about with books. A curiously protean hybrid of artist and craftsman, ancient and modern, one cannot think of Jan without seeing an unabashed Czech patriot in a foreign land. Early on in their stay in Cleveland, the Sobotas experienced the quintessential American disaster. Even after their medical debts were retired, money was still an issue for a family of immigrants with three kids a€“ two with special needs. Later on, when they were living in Texas, the massacre at Waco opened Jana€™s eyes to yet another difficult side of his adopted home.
In 1979, I apprenticed with Jindra Schmidt, an engraver of stamps and currency, living in Prague. Schmidt had engraved stamps for Bulgaria, Iraq, Ethiopia, Albania, Guinea, Vietnam and Libya.
In 1992, Jindra Schmidt was honored for his contributions and depicted on the last stamp of a united Czechoslovakia, before it split into Czech and Slovak republics a€“ a fitting tribute. Unlike most children of immigrants, my destiny remained connected to that of my parentsa€™ homeland. My vocation as artist clarified itself in Prague while learning the increasingly obsolete skills of steel engraving. My first book was indeed, modeled after VA?chal, even to the extent of its diabolical subject matter.
Jan showed me a great deal in the following years about the tradition of books as the meeting place of art, craft and ideas a€“ where printmaking intergrades seamlessly with the worlds of language, typography and illustration. One can like these things just fine and admire them from an uncomprehending distance, or you can become engaged. The book you hold was to have been a simple reprint of the Spawned Salmon a€“ something fun for Jan to work his magic upon. Nice sentimental reminiscences, but there is still the matter of getting the work accomplished and out before the public, organizing exhibitions, printing catalogs and paying for transatlantic flights.
The Prague show was reconfigured and curated by Jana€?s longtime friend, Ilja A edo, for exhibition at the West Bohemian Museum in PlzeA?. Quite predictably, I like seeing the kind of work I do honored a€“ the wood engravings and etchings made to shine in the context of crisply printed type and an excellent binding.
Ia€™ve heard printmakers lament that the surest way to devalue prints is to add excellent poetry, sensitive typography and a bang-up binding a€“ and then live to see the whole thing sell for half the price of just the unbound prints. Therea€™s nothing quite like seventeenth century Bohemia, the dead center of Europe, for particularly thorough violence a€“ with the Bubonic Plague stepping in afterwards as mop-up crew. The chapel at Sedlec was rebuilt after the major blood-letting of the thirty-years war as a memento mori a€“ reminder of death. What can you say about the mounds of dead, the ruined lives, destroyed nations and misery multiplied by millions that isna€™t trite or self-evident? But then I pan over to other fields a€“ not the kind where the grass is composting my fellow man, but to fields of endeavor where the ferment is of ideas recombining into ever more refined ways of thinking. I once lived at the Golem house in Prague a€“ at Meislova ulice, number 8, in the old Jewish ghetto. Horoscopes might seem a curious basis on which to select ministers and diplomats, but it is also more common than youa€™d think. Picture the scene before you: Ita€™s a late night in Prague, before the Marlboro man dominated every street corner, even before the neon of casinos and the vulgarity of Golden Arches assaulted the nightwalkersa€™ eyes at all hours a€“ back when darkness, oh yes, that beautiful comforting velvety, all-enveloping and blessed dark, broken only by the moon, stars and late night taxis, still ruled the streets after the sun went down.
The Golem was a mythic being of Jewish folklore, created from clay and quickened by the Shem, a magical stone engraved with an ancient Hebraic inscription, inserted into Golema€™s forehead.
The maternal tongues of these small nations have miraculously survived all the invasions, floods, plagues and foreign occupiers to this day a€“ a gift preserved and delivered to them across the generations.
Minority languages, on the other hand, carry an emotional load that can scarcely be exaggerated. Ishi and his sister were the last of the Yahi tribe to survive the genocidal colonization of California. Those whose language and culture are not threatened can never know the burden under which the carriers of small minority languages labor a€“ nor how those in exile bring up their children to preserve that which is beyond their capacities to save.
Jan was all about preserving traditions and the kind of ancestral knowledge that today is mostly enshrined in books.
Today, the stories of our tribes are less and less passed on as oral tradition and most often read to us from the childrena€™s books wea€™ve learned to treasure a€“ illustrated by fine artists and produced with care for the highly discriminating purchasers of childrena€™s books a€“ for grandparents.
A?epelA?k employed binders and typesetters to present complete suites of his work and in this too, he introduced me to a new world. Later in Prague I missed my flight back, due to the World Trade Center bombing and was delayed by a week. The difficult thing to bear in acknowledging my teachers, models, heroes, suppliers and inspirations, is that these masters of the crafts and industries surrounding and supporting the book arts are mostly deceased.
The fruit we seek is not fast food, but laden with full-bodied flavors, attained by slow natural processes. All of us come from grandfathers who once were wheelwrights, cobblers or instrument makers; men with a profound love of wood and leather, who knew the working qualities of every kind of obscure tree growing in their countryside a€“ men who knew when to reach for elm or hickory a€“ as well as for goat, dog or even fish-skins. Jan spoke fondly of his grandmother, who baked bread every week of the year to feed an entire estate a€“ farm hands, livery people, gentry, trainers and hod-carriers alike. Working consciously is the ultimate goal a€“ and that is the legacy youa€™ll find evidently contained within and upon the boards of every book bound by Jan Bohuslav Sobota. The etchings you see here first came to life as illustrations for the wedding anniversary announcements of MA­la and Jaroslav KynA?l. Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.A  He was an exceptional bookbinder, teacher and promoter of the book arts, but also an exile who successfully returned home after years abroad. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful.
It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book.
8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position. Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity.
In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement.
In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value. Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter. Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome!
The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him.
When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods.
When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy.
That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I.
From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath.
Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth.
Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander.
The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard.
When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth.
Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. ECLIPSE with Two helicopters, a submarine and 114 suites (with balconies) It's A designed and equiped to sail to the Antarctic. Farr Yacht Design has released the first 3D renderings of the new Super 12 yachts that will be sailed in the San Francisco Yacht Racing Challenge beginning in July 2017 on San Francisco Bay.
Britton Ward, the lead designer of the Super 12s, said the renderings are a big step in the process leading to the final design.
Ward said Tuesday that the entire staff in Annapolis, Maryland, is working on the project so tooling production can begin in May.
The Super 12s are a modernized, one-design version of the venerable 12 Meters that were used in the America's Cup from 1958-1987. The San Francisco Yacht Racing Challenge, also known as the Super 12 Cup, was founded by former America's Cup executive Tom Ehman.
The Fizes Valley and the adjacent tributaries, stretch over 460 kilometers in Transilvania( an historic Principality, once independent, which is currently within the North West of Romania). The District includes nearly two dozen traditional farming villages and is currently under the joint administration of two NGO's - Eco Transilvania and Ecochoice - A under the terms of a five-year contract with the Romanian Ministry of the Environment. When you set up aA CHAPSA transfer you will normally need to visit a branch of your bank and take your bank card and a form of identification such as your driving licence. Before making aA CHAPSA payment it is worthwhile checking your banka€™s value limit for sending a Faster Payment as potentially payments of up to A?100,000 can be sent via this payment system and if this system is an option it is likely to be cheaper or even free. Consumer protection providing immediate refund will apply if you are an innocent victim of fraud a€“ your claim needs to be made within the 13 months of fraudulent transaction leaving your account. CHAPSA payments can be sent to most UK bank accounts and will arrive and can be drawn on the same day providing the funds are released before 3pm. Newly qualified yacht engineers can expect $19 to $20 an hour in South Florida and there just aren't enough of them. Launched seven years ago in a hangar-like building near Florida's Turnpike in Miramar, Broward College's marine program aims to prepare students to handle mechanical and electrical needs on yachts a€” everything from engines to air conditioning systems, electric generators to desalinization units.
The Marine Industries Association of South Florida pushed for the program, and Broward College increasingly collaborates with association members and other businesses to place students in jobs.
In all, the marine industry a€” including yachts and other craft and businesses from manufacturing to sales and service a€” supports more than 136,000 jobs in South Florida, mainly in Broward.
Yacht technicians are just a tiny fraction of that total, which also includes carpenters, captains, salespeople and others. Indeed, demand for yacht technicians is so strong that the Broward College program, with 55 students enrolled, is nearing capacity in Miramar. Alex Thomson (40) and Pepe Ribes (43) A were swapping the jib top for the Headsail and while neither was in place all the stress went on one forestay causing the main steel pin in the the drum to shear. Two years after a putsch against the Irish Sailing Association (ISA) a new five-year strategic plan has put the association on a new tack, reports The Irish Times. If nothing else the blueprint serves as written confirmation the ISA no longer sees itself purely in a a€?national governing bodya€? role but in the same boat as the clubs and classes it was set up to serve.
The plan is based on the views that were put to a a€?Strategic Review Groupa€? in 2013 that assessed how the association needed to adjust to better serve the sport. Its author Neil Murphy, a former ISA president, says the underlying principle is moving from a a€?governance approacha€? to one of the principal stakeholders in the sport a€?working together with a goal of encouraging and developing participationa€?. Ita€™s still just a plan on paper a€“ not yet on water a€“ and for this master plan to work it must first get the buy-in of a 17,000-plus strong sailing community, spread across a network of clubs on lakes, rivers and around the coast.
Ita€™s a major step forward on previous strategic plans but Murphy warns a€?it can only work if there is a joint commitment between the clubs and the associationa€?.
Irish sailing publication afloat.ie reports, a€?This blueprint looks like a positive step forward not least because it makes an attempt to implement measurable targets for the good of grassa€“roots sailors. AYB discovers major A UK art world websites and BBC propagating identical mythical UK law to justify claims to copyright of photos of Paintings in the public domain. A Art A Collections cannot gain and sell or transfer legal Copyright without creating original art.
The PCF a registered charity claims to have digitised the UK's national collection of oil paintings. The photographer uses training and skill to photograph a painting and he or she holds copyright in that photographic image. The Museums Copyright Group ignore this ruling when they report on a case in USA, even though the US Judge relied on Lord Oliver's ruling above.
BBC involvement "Two sets of permissions are required if the artist is alive, or has been dead for less than 70 years (one from the collection, which retains copyright of the photographic image, and one from the rights holder of the painting).
AYB is the British Foundation with the remit to promote best practices in sales and purchase of used vessels. He was brought back to the beach on the River Teign Rowing Cluba€™s safety rib and given mouth-to-mouth and chest compression on the way back to shore. The rower from Salcombe was taken to Torbay Hospital by ambulance and is understood to be making a good recovery.
Brixham coastguards said the incident happened at just before 3pm: a€?Teignmouth National Coastwatch requested assistance to a male being brought ashore at Teignmouth Beach suffering possible Cardiac Arrest from a rowing event. Following hot on the heels of a highly successful 2014 edition of the Singapore Yacht Show, the organisers have received a flurry of high-profile repeat bookings for next yeara€™s event, which will be held 23 to 26 April 2015. Missing yachtswomans lifejacket has no emergency beacon fitted, search goes on regardless after yacht is hit by dredger off Felixstowe on Sunday. Footage here of a Sea King Helicopter such as used in this search, being shown to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II by her Grandson Prince William.
Sunday evening's launch at Anacortes Washington turned into a sidways roll which caused the engine room to flood, despite efforts by the crew to readjust the ships ballast. AYB are constantly pushing the boundaries and highlighting areas where improvements may be made.
In the past whenever we had a mention on national television, the ISP's server would be overwhelmed by the sudden huge volume of traffic and most of the sites visitors justA could not get throughA the log jam.
The beauty of cloud computing is that it is infinitely scaleable, we can use as much bandwith and storage as we need and never need to interrupt our site to move it to a bigger server again.
To make this available to all marine companies we have set up Hosting.AYB to provide cloud hosting at lower rates then normally paid for traditional shared hosting. Modern, Easy and A intuitive, it includes One click installation of Two Hundred mainstream software packages.
However, you can't help feeling sorry for the German guy who was refused entry to the A Honokohau Small Boat Harbour by the Harbourmaster because all moorings there are A reserved for local boat owners. The Harbour master directed him to nearby Kaiula bay which was clearly marked as an anchorage on the local cruising guide as well as the chart. The classic yacht was stripped to the hull, totally rebuilt and lavishly re-equiped with zero speed stabilisers, state of the art A entertainment systems and superb built-in solid wood joinery. Rolly Marine of Fort Lauderdale and Rybovich Shipyard in Palm Beach collaborated in this re-creation.
James Male's father Graham read out a statement beside the British Foreign and Commonwealth office, thanking US coatsguard, the British Government and all thos who tokks considerable risks to seek their lost family members. For three hours on Saturday a qualified instructor led the trainees in sailing tasks and games in brand new dinghies, all this was funded by Sport England. Taiwan International Boat Show Kicks off with 60 luxury yachts to celebrate the first 60 years of yacht building in Taiwan.
Tens of thousands of visitors visited this grand show that features 168 foreign and domestic exhibitors.
The largest yacht at the show was the RP110 model designed by Horizon Yachts, the fifth-largest custom luxury yacht builder in the world, which is also a winner of the 2014 Taiwan Excellence Awards.
Meanwhile, Kha Shing Enterprises presented its latest Monte Fino CAT 45 Sports Fish model, with ample space for fishing and recreation that's specially designed for fishing fans or taking buddies on fishing voyages.
Taiwan yacht builders have returned from all over the world for this first boat show that's packed with prestigious international guests.
Taiwan yacht parts and components suppliers have also attracted the interest of many international shipbuilding companies. In addition to overseas visitors, the Boat Show has also attracted visitor registration of executives from over 500 well-known companies in Taiwan. Simon Talbot the skipper and his hard-working crew battled hard to beat close rival Henri Lloyd.
They are now top of the 2013-14 Clipper Race overall scoreboard and hot favourites to win the prize. 11pm Saturday night Cranston Firefighters called to the Rhode Island Yacht Club marina, where they discovered a group of yachters cut off by a raging fire. US coastguard and A Department of Environmental Management also attended, A one fireman sustained a back injury. New Zealander Todd Veroe 36 took a leak on Saturday night while the two crew were sleeping.
Enter a large wave and Todd is washed off deck and finds himself swimming as the yacht motors away. All Schooners have at least two masts which were originally gaff rigged and built in Holland in the Fifteen hundreds.
It is still in early stages, but the idea is that if you use readily available basic cheap diy materials and avoid fancy-priced sea-going marine fittings It is possible to build a simple solar powered floating home with electric drive and basic home utilities, suitable for use on inland lakes and canals. The design is modular, so that a small home can be dis-assembled and transported in a standard Ford transit van. There is currently a DIY manual and various Kits and components to supplement your local supplier. A Yachtsmen from 23 countries came together to put their all in thrillingly close competition all enhanced by the glorious Carribean sunshine andlocal festive atmosphere which was rocking for five days and nights! A luxury yacht is lifted from the water in Kaohsiung Harbor and transported to the Kaohsiung Exhibition Center in preparation for the launch of the Taiwan International Boat Show, May 2. Taiwan's first international boat show, will exhibit 60 boats with a combined market value of NT$7 billion (US$233 million) starting May 8. The vessel was built by the Horizon Group, the leading Taiwan-based luxury yacht builder and the only Asian company among the top 10 brands of the global luxury yacht market. The show will provide an exceptional opportunity for visitors to see various yachts, either at sea from a ferry or by purchasing tickets to enter the indoor exhibition center, Kaohsiung Marine Bureau director Lai Jui-lung said. According to a report carried in the Financial Times last July, Taiwan overtook Germany to become the world's sixth-largest yachtmaker, yet sales are much lower than before the 2008 financial crisis. Most of the world's top yacht makers capitalize on the fact that they are European by trading on their nations' famous histories in seafaring and design, however, the Financial Times quoted a market research firm as saying that Taiwanese boat builders have seen their reputations improve over time. The four-day Taiwan International Boat Show is one of just three luxury yacht shows that are exhibited indoors, along with Boot Dusseldorf and the Genoa International Boat Show, according to Chuang Ming-liao, a board member of the Taiwan Yacht Industry Association.
The annual three day event, which is organised by Jersey Marinas on behalf of Ports of Jersey regularly attracts in excess of 30,000 visitors over the weekend and is the largest free-entry event in the Channel Islands and enjoyed not only by the Islanda€™s large boating community but residents and visitors alike.
Although the event has grown in size and popularity since those early days our commitment to support and promote Jerseya€™s valuable marine leisure industry has never waived and remains as strong as ever.
RYA is sponsoring "Push the Boat Out", a National Weekend of sailing and windsurfing with open days across the land. A a€?Push the Boat Outa€™ will take place over the weekend of 17-18 May and will see sailing clubs across the country holding open days and inviting those who live locally to come and a€?have a goa€™ at sailing and windsurfing with an experienced sailor. Whether you are a regular sailor, new to the sport or simply want a day out with the family, Push the Boat Out provides the perfect opportunity for everyone to get out on the water and celebrate a national weekend of sailing. The biggest sailing competition ever in Bulgaria, happened in Bourgas Bay over the last five days. DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen. The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive. The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder.
The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub).
For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim.
The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder. At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P.


The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.
1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed. The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China.
The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful. Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder.
Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian. Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan]. Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers.
A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels.
The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507. According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°. Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°. Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer.
Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment.
Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype.
But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V. Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages. Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared. In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers.
Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author. Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade. Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world.
But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom.
Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250.
The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait. The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany.
Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further.
The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead.
On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non. Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north.
Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red. Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery. Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish.
Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339).
Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs. The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo. Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe. In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written.
There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones. Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey.
The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas.
Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it. The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii. Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia. The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia.
On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba).
On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv. Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him.
In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors.
Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester. The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian.
All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them.
Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others. Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones. Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity. But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame. Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay . Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim. No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement. Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America.
Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America. An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife).
This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along.
Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship. Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean. The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible.
That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S.
Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination.
Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch. Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp. Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St.
The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself.
The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography. Paul went out into the front row at Lincoln High School for this shot of a Youth Speaks slam poetry session, pedal powered by Rock The Bike.
Paul's at all the Rock The Bike events, which he faithfully documents as well as his own custom Soul Cycle creations, including his ongoing tall bike project, El Arbol. Leif stopped to take this series of our intern Jeff bending the boom tube of a Fender Blender Pro. Fossil Fool caught this video of Pete Brandt The Bike Rapper and Rock The Bike's senior bicycle customizer, Fossil Fool's YouTube videos are quick edits of fresh material from the life of Fossil Fool. The bike is about so much more than transportation or environmentalism or physical fitness. We're developing a new school of bicycle advocacy, working off of the old writer's adage "Show, don't tell." If you want more people in your community to ride bikes, then get out their and show them how fun, cool, and sexy it is. On the BART on the way home, we sat across from a couple of stylish hipsters on fixed gear bikes. A few minutes later I noticed the couple was holding their Kryptonites, passing them back and forth, comparing the size.
So I was thinking about this and wondering, is it beneficial for cyclists to even think along these lines.
I want to emphasize that this phenomenon is very rare, but has happened often enough to people in my direct circle of friends, that I think it is a real phenomenon.
Unfortunately, each of these attacks fit a similar pattern -- a group of guys in their young 20's steps out of a car or off the sidewalk, blocks the way of the biker, and then either verbally hassles or physically attacks them. As long as you're going to involve tandems in your cruiser ride, you might as well seek out a "Buddy Bike" or Side-by-Side tandem. Thao and I rode a Side By Side tandem at the Oregon Country Fair and the experience was so much nicer than any other tandem I've been on. I am hoping to build up a side-by-side tandem in the next year and put a sweet little sound system on it for the SF Cruiser Ride. Built from the ground up as the ultimate expression of human power, this Fender Blender can hold its own at schools, festivals, trade shows, fundraisers, and events of all types. With a frame as stiff as a tree trunk, and a riding position that's comfortable and upright, this simple cargo bike will win you over with its good looks and utility. Bring the element of Social Biking to your next event with the Biker Bar, now available for event rental in San Francisco, and for sale as a complete unit or as a DIT (Do It Together) kit. The Pedal Power Education Rig is a hands-on way for you to teach energy conservation without guilt trips. Adds cargo and passenger capacity to the bike you already own while improving the comfort and handling. The Down Low Glow light tubes are 12.75" long and have approximately 10" of wire connecting them to our power driver box.
The simplest way to mount the DLG on an unusual bike is to purchase our single tube system.
For other types of vehicles, such as electric wheelchairs, longboards, and golf carts, the fit will depend on what your vehicle offers for mounting points.
If you want to go with a dual tube system on an unusual vehicle with frame tubes of larger than 1" in diameter, please special order your DLG so that we can send you only the large diameter mounts. If you have questions or aren't sure, please call us at 888-354-BIKE or email us your question. We've been selling the Down Low Glow since 2003, and waterproofing has been our number one durability challenge since day one.
We kept working on the waterproofing epoxy seals and did another test in the summer of 2007. Our own friends were showing up to social rides with batteries that would last 10-15 minutes. Our current waterproofing isn't perfect, but we are now seeing far fewer water-related failures than even 6-12 months ago. Content boxes are a great way to grab your visitora€™s eye and direct them to important content within the post. There they encounter resident trout and bass a€“ even sunfish, chubs and dace, all keyed into the increasingly plentiful and highly nutritious bounty of salmon eggs. Situated 90A km south-west of Prague at the confluence of four rivers, PlzeA? is first recorded in writings from the tenth century.
That vision was about innovation and creativity within the context of an historical tradition. This is what youa€™ll see in a Sobota binding a€“ exceptional attention paid to context and relationships, using materials and technical means that do indeed function and last. He knew his work was valuable and documented it fastidiously a€“ confident that it would be last.
There was, however, nothing about his nationalism that demeaned anybody elsea€™s traditions or origins. That smallish incident within the parade of American fringe politics elicited an insanely violent level of suppression.
Masaryk a€“ and the cute little girl with a bouquet of flowers, is my mother Eva, at the age of three.
Schmidta€™s income from the federal mint far exceeded anybody elsea€™s in the extended family and supported a network of cars, cottages and rent-controlled flats. Schmidt, as he preferred to be called, was a man of conservative demeanor who preferred polite and reserved forms of speech and address.
While visiting their unassuming engraver and extending my tourist visa 30 days at a time, I was quietly becoming qualified for life as a counterfeiter a€“ a vocation within which, one is set for life, however it may eventually turn out. Jan allowed several binders to have their way with it a€“ amo boxes for slipcases with shell casings for hinges and so forth. This next incarnation of our exhibit in PlzeA? was all just a bit more prosaic and provincial. Is it the binding we consider and exhibit a€“ or is the binding there to conserve a text, which is ultimately the point? There are also binders to whom everything else is merely the text block, who care little if it is an offset trade edition or a book made by hand. The tales therein recorded reflected the accreted wisdom and wit of a people as they retold them across the highlands in modest log cottages after the harvest was in. The way of working belongs to the Sobota vision I addressed earlier a€“ the honor and soul to be found in conscientiously made handcrafts.
I dona€™t feel that accomplished or ready to assume their mantle and yet with every generation that is what must happen.
Gravels, with just the right flow of fresh water running up through stones of the right size are but a tiny portion of the riverbed.A  The salmon must struggle past cities and sewer pipes, farms and irrigation systems, dams and turbines, fishermen and waterfalls a€“ just to reach the streams of their birth. At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts).
Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. They have been described as having a classic look above the waterline while having a modern appendage package with a deep lead bulb with wings and a trim tab to provide exceptional upwind performance. Banks themselves useA CHAPSA to move money around the financial system but there are several situations where individuals use it too. Ita€™s only used for Sterling transactions and payments are unconditional a€“ once theya€™ve been made they cana€™t be recalled without the recipienta€™s consent. That's up from roughly 92,000 jobs in the area in 2010, the association said in an October report. Thomson was right beside the furling drum when the pin sheared watching in dismay as the mast hinged backwards, carrying the sails with it and breaking as it landed.
The association lost a quarter of its members in the recession and key yacht clubs are still in choppy financial waters. That rule was something lacking on a now scrapped 2020 vision document suba€“titled a€?grow the sport, grow the membership, grow the organisationa€™.
It saves them money and helps propagate our fine art heritage on the internet to many who might not see it elsewhere. From superyacht builders and yachting lifestyle accessories to brokers and dealers of superyachts, multihulls, day cruisers and sportfishers, a wide variety of companies have already committed to returning again in 2015.
The A US coastguard investigation into the cause is ongoing and the usual preventitive measures A have commenced to keep the diesel in A the tanks and out of the sea. Our latest research led us to abandon traditional hosting services and move into Cloud Hosting. With so many servers carrying the load, even with our large number of sites, we never have to worry about increasing the number of yacht listings, or sudden increase in traffic again.
What that means is, you don't have to search the web for your package, then download it, then install it, then set it up. There were vessels and gear of every shape and size including 40 yachts, sailboats and power-driven boats on display in the column-free North Halls. Over one thousand international media and VIP guests A registered online or accepted invitations to visit the show.
Procurement personnel from shipbuilders are here from key players including Sea Ray Boats under the world's largest yacht-making group Brunswick Corporation, renowned U.S. Through the ibon kiosks at 7-Eleven convenience stores, over 10,000 tickets were pre-sold before the show opened. The fire department recue boat was quickly deployed and the people were saved without injury. The 33.5-meter, 100-tonne Horizon RP110 will be the biggest one on display, according to officials from Kaohsiung City's Marine Bureau. Production at yards in Taiwan reached just US$148 million in 2012, down from US$357 million in 2008. Staging such an event of this scale requires dedication and commitment by all parties involved and we are delighted with the continuing support and enthusiasm for the show, not only with our local business partners and exhibitors but by an ever-increasing number from across the British Isles, Guernsey and France.
He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G. It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented.
This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore.
In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether.
Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth.
The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507. The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries.
Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited. Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China. We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map. The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized. Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him. He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers. Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions.
One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design.
This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay.
He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world.
Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese.
Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior.
Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer. He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them. Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St.
Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present. The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land. The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart. Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible. As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense.
It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread.
Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil. Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim. These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries.
Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country. The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland. And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others. This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand. But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country. It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii. This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings. Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John. Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards.
The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo.
Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493.
Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits. The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route. 12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country. The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent.
If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author.
However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars. We're inventors and advocates working away in a sweet little workshop in Berkeley, California, pushing the limits of bike culture. Help promote Rock the Bike's innovative products to schools, bike people, event planners, and musicians.
All of these went through an extensive editing process, so we pick and choose our projects. We did the obligatory mutual inspection of each others' bikes for a few moments and then settled into the ride under the tunnel.
Both of them had one of the smaller U-lock models, about 6 inches in length and 5 inches wide. I won't go into the obvious ones right now, but I want to share one of the ones that's not so obvious. And the music doesn't have to be turned up as loud when everyone is close enough to hear it.
I should be careful using the term "Buddy Bike" because it's now a company making special-needs tandems (bikes that a 'normal' adult and a special needs kid can ride together.) "Buddy Bike" used to be a small company making side by side tandems. Most bicycles, including kids bikes, recumbents, tricycles, fixed gear racing bikes with tight front-wheel clearances, and full-suspension mountain bikes can be fitted up with no problem.
But don't forget about safety, because rainy nights are when you most need good lighting.
We dunked and thrashed a dozen of our light tubes in a trash can to test how well the epoxy seals are doing at keeping moisture out.
These buttons all stem from a single tag, but vary in color and size (each of which are adjustable using color=a€?" and type=a€?" parameters). The ElegantThemes shortcode pack comes with five box variations, all of which stem from the [ box ] shortcode and are adjustable using the type=a€?a€? parameter. This widely beloved stamp was re-issued in 2000 and mother continues to receive philatelic fan mail to this day.


He died the day I was composing a colophon for the Spawned Salmon with words of praise for his lifea€™s work.
She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. It is primarily used for very high value payments and is used by corporates who make large numbers of these payments but it can be used by individuals too, although there is normally a charge of A?25 to A?30.
Solicitors will useA CHAPSA payments to transfer the purchase price of a house between the bank accounts of those involved.
If you give the correct information and your payment goes astray your bank must make immediate efforts to trace the transaction and notify you of the outcome.
Broward College is the only college in the tri-county area training them and working with American Boat & Yacht Council, which sets standards and issues certifications.
Having just set a new record for sailing Barcelona A to Gibraltar and setiing a new Barcelona World Race course record to the equator, they have now become the slow boat to Brazil with almost enough fuel to complete the limp to Port at Savador de Baha some 370 miles distant.
Bookings have been coming in from all over the world, including: Alloy Yachts, AXA Insurance Singapore, Axis Group Yacht Design, Funair, Kingship, Luxury Yachts, MarkAgain, Premium Nautical, Princess Yachts, Reel Torque, Rossinavi, SG Boating, Simpson Marine, Sunbrella and Sunseeker, with many more key players due to sign up in the coming weeks. With dozens of servers and distributed processing, none of our sites can now be interrupted. Just select from our list, click to install and have a cup of tea while it is uploaded to your site and installed for you! From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland. Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim.
Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces. The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492. Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere. The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands.
All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries.
No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe. To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage. The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus. Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior. A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe. The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°. That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C. Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548). In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith. But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is. Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca. His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea.
There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller. Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither. It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland. We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444. Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter. It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island. Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish. 1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar. Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa.
8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols. The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others. He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment. It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more. It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts. The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer. It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals. As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer. However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed!
The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated. It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer.
Our dream is to help spread the spirit of the bike into the broader culture by organizing, entertaining, inspiring, educating, and inventing new ways to get the message out there.
Next thing I know, the guy was demonstrating how to punch someone by using the lock as extra weight in his fist.
Recently I was on my way to West Oakland, I didn't like the way a group of guys was walking across the road, because one of them wasn't crossing with the others. One of my friends was able to escape a threatening situation by yelling "WHERE is the LOVE in your HEART?!!" at the top of his lungs. It's an idea that has never 'caught on' but will, once there is a healthy bike cruising scene in every city and town in this country.
Keeping your lights dry between uses, and using a fully charged battery are good ways to combat this phenomenon. We also recently redesigned our battery packs so that customers wouldn't have to plastic bag them in the rain.
Furthermore, advanced option buttons have been integrated into the post page text editor, allowing you to instantly generate buttons of any type without having to write the shortcode markup yourself. These boxes have a fluid width that automatically adjusts the the size of its parent element. The engraving was masterfully done by Schmidta€™s long-dead colleague, Bohumil Heinz (1894-1940). The state security apparatus was surely aware of my presence, but if they kept tabs on me, I never knew.
Ita€™s also sometimes used by people buying or selling a high-value item, such as a car, when they need a secure, urgent, same-day guaranteed payment.
Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles.
It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days. The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000. On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one. The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°. Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn. Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g.
An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°. Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492.
It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112). These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable. Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara. It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480. Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125. In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India.
Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate. Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian. At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea. Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia. Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported. He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St. It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live).
On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America. Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. If you want to see them in their high-def glory, pick up a copy of our "Bike Culture Blowin Up" DVD, published in December 2008, free when you order a Down Low Glow, Fender Blender, Mundo, Xtracycle, Incredibell, you get the idea. In my immediate area around Berkeley, San Francisco, West Oakland, I have heard of several muggings happening to cyclists for no apparent reason. One of my friends was carrying vinegar to a dinner party and the attackers demanded it, thinking it was liquor. The batteries are water-resistant and no longer have a power switch that is vulnerable to water damage.
Using an all-nighter battery (especially if you plan to use a dual-tube system) is another way to keep the system voltage high when riding in the rain with the DLG.A  What follows is information about our waterproofing efforts from 2007 and before. If you're one of the few customers with a DLG system that has been damaged by water, we'll replace it, as long as it's within the 1-year warranty. Everything is just so wonderful and everybody so creative, but suspending judgment long enough to actually look at some artwork and then giving it a chance isna€™t so bankrupt, is it?
Human body parts are again flying and the Baron is at his best defeating Turks and evading friendly fire from buffoonish generals.
Farmers would occasionally find their possessions and take them as souvenirs, unaware that the last Indians still lived in their midst.
Damn the cost; ita€™s who we are and the last material vestiges of soulful encounters with our elders a€“ onea€™s whose stories are slipping inexorably away, thinned by each passing year and generation. Their kids were grown and they were by then slipping into that last, reflective phase of life a€“ done competing.
Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement.
Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. If you give incorrect information and the payment goes astray your bank must make a€?reasonable effortsa€™ to trace the transaction but may charge for doing so.
It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council]. The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design.
Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy. There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west.
It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla. But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256). To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea. As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted. The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587. Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan. His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr. Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact.
This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all. Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v. We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327). This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S. Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering. I wonder whether I should even write this on a web site where we are explicitly encouraging people to ride their bikes at night. These scraps turned out to be a deck of medieval playing cards - the second oldest such cards known. A book is so much more than the sum of its parts a€“ and yet each of us tends to have our own bailiwick in which we shine and to which we look first. During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal.
The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably.
The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply. The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude. Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command. MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean.
Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310). It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe.
Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688.
In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia. He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe. Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v. The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there. This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief.
However, the danger of being hit by a car is well-documented and easily preventable with lights.
It also made it harder for people to recharge the battery, because they had to remember to keep the switch in the ON position. These plates have been inked and wiped by hand, employing methods that woulda€™ve been familiar to Rembrandt.
A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara.
This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot.
Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly.
One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe.
A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible.
The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book.
Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem. His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores.
A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer.
As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest.
They crashed with my wife Jana and me in Kalamazoo, while taking the a€?orientation coursea€?nearby.
I can confidently report back to my English reader, that Jan would only grow in stature for you, if you could have fully understood the subtlety of his thoughts in his own maternal tongue. Once the money is in their account, it cannot be recalled without the recipeinta€™s consent. The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow.
This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean.
On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him.
We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559.
The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon. It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt.
Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367). Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative. He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed. Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. Perhaps right for those who shouldna€™t have sharp objects, for fear of hurting themselves. That show was purchased whole by Special Collections at Western Michigan University and constitutes the largest collection of Sobota bindings and the most complete archive of my work. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil.
The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity.
Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey. The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him. Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy. Anyway, it's about shining our light brightly and spreading a positive message in the community.
Few people would have cast a second glance at that glued-up mess of moldering old papers before pitching it, nor would they have recognized what they had in hand or known how to restore or sell it. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.
It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge. Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them. This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia. Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound.
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors.
These folks were a profound blessing to a family facing some truly rough sailing a€“ a Godsend.
Schmidt had worked was signed with warm dedications to him and thus worth real money to collectors. He wanted to see the printmaker in me come to full fruition and I wanted to be worthy of his attentions.
The family has dwelled within sight of the seats of power, pushing copper plates through a press and outlived the Hapsburg Monarchy, First Republic, Nazis and Communists. The intact packages were still there on their shelves, all duly graded, labeled and priced, awaiting an owner who was never to return. We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape. This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved.
This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it. This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known. Back home, their Czech neighbors would have envied them and accused them of theft or worse, but people here seemed to be pleased as punch to see them prosper a€“ genuinely happy for them.
Those items too, kept trickling out the door, until there came a sad, sad day, when the golden eggs were all gone. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification.
Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others. Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century. They bashfully admitted their foolishness and went back to making beautiful books a€“ and their American friends were so relieved to see them regain their sanity.
You take time to grieve and then pick yourself up by your bootstraps (by God a€“ get a grip) and get on with it (Rome wasna€™t built in a day you know).
StrejA?ek was still working, but it was all coming to an inevitable end, as he grew shaky of hand and hard of seeing.
As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support.
Enriched by my days of being nurtured by Prague, Matkou MA›st (Mother of Cities), I moved on to meet my destiny with art.
Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid.
The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends. Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.



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