GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 8DOMESTIC ICEMAKERS8-1 ICEMAKER TYPESIcemakers are divided into two basic types; flex-tray and hard tray. GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 2TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS AND SAFETYTIPS AND TRICKSLets talk aluminum foil for a minute. If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate.
Usually these are nichrome wire, surrounded in ceramic insulation, with a steel sheath around the ceramic. Inside the oven, the heating element is called a "bake" or "broil" element. Also like manual molds, when it comes time to eject (harvest) the ice from the mold, it invertsand twists, "popping" out the ice.
So when this service manual refers to a particular aspect or function of a cooktop or an oven, the same thing will be true of a range or a stove.3-1 CONTROL PANELTypically clocks, timers and other manual oven controls are located in the control panel.
The tray then turns back upright and refills with water for the next freeze cycle.HARD-TRAYHard-tray icemakers have a metal ice mold which is coated with a non-stick coating.
But even in an oven with natural convection, it can mess up airflow and cooking and even cause burners to malfunction. The main burner or surface unit controls and oven thermostat are usually located at the front of the cooktop area, and selector switches or lighting controls may be located in the console area, at the rear of the cooktop. If you simply must line the bottom of your oven with foil, at least poke holes in it where there are holes in the oven floor.
They're there for a reason.2-1 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) When working on gas cooking equipment, if you've disconnected a gas pipe to replace a valve or other component, always test the pipe joint for leaks when you reassemble it. The amount of time spent in the freeze cycle is controlled by a number of factors depending on the individual design, but it is best explained by knowing how the harvest cycle is triggered.HARVEST CYCLEThe harvest cycle occurs when the ice is ejected from the ice mold. You can do this by coating the joint with a solution of liquid soap and water and looking for bubbles.
Some surface units plug into a receptacle mounted under the cooktop, which makes them more easily removable for cleaning, but also more susceptible to burned connections. Apply it with a brush to make sure you coat the joint thoroughly, and use a mirror to look at the back side of the joint if necessary. If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads.
In gas models with spark ignition, the spark module may be located inside a metal box inside the cooktop compartment.
Your appliance parts dealer has gas leak testing solution, with a brush built into the cap, made specifically for this purpose. 2) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any oven that you're disassembling. If you need to re-energize the oven to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated.
Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!! However, it should be noted that the accumulation of "run" time is, in one way or another, thermostatically controlled. The oven floor usually just lifts out for easier access to work on the burner, ignitor or gas valve. Then the bimetal cools (along with the elements) until the contacts close again. There are also fixed-temperature switches that vary the voltage going to the heating elements to maintain fixed, pre-set temperatures. For example, Admiral-type flex-tray machines have a thermostat in line with the icemaker timing and drive motor that opens at 19 degrees, and doesn't close again till the freezer temperature drops to 15 degrees. It will definitely block proper airflow in your oven, and it will probably disturb burner operation, too!Electric ovens are somewhat different. They have separate broil and bake elements at the top and bottom of the oven, respectively.
There is a reason that it stopped - you can bet on it - and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will fail again. The steel sheath is semi-porous; cleaning solvents can penetrate the steel and damage the ceramic insulation or electrically short the element.
A thermostat pressed against the ice mold senses that it is cold enough to ensure that the ice is frozen. So the bottom compartment is just for storage of pans, and the oven floor is not removable. The broiler or storage pan may be removed as shown in figure 3-C (keyhole slots). In some models, the wiring diagram may be found inside the front leg of the oven after removing the broiler pan or storage drawer. When the harvest mechanism contacts the ice, it stalls until the ice melts enough to release it from the mold. If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control. See section 3-6.3-3 REAR ACCESS (Figure 3-E)In some models, high-limit thermostats, cleaning limit thermostats, oven thermostat probes, convection fans and sail switches, rotisserie motors, and oven spark modules are accessed by removing side or rear access panels as shown in figure 3-E.
Replace the part. 4) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. If you have a problem with burned leads to an electric oven element, sometimes you need to go in through the back to find a lost wire lead. To access these panels, the oven obviously must first be pulled away from the wall.
If there is any carbon or other crusty residue left after that, just scrape it off as best you can. The exception to this is the solid, or "euro-style" surface units. Cubes in the bin might occasionally stick together a little bit because of this liquefication, but they should be easy to separate.In a hard-tray icemaker, the thermostatstartsthe harvest cycle, but it does notendthe cycle. The mold heater would open the thermostat and end the cycle way too early; long before the mold was refilled. When the thermostat begins the harvest cycle, a cam attached to the drive motor closes a "holding" switch. Wear gloves, and be careful not to cut your hands! 6) If you have diagnosed a certain part to be bad, but you cannot figure out how to remove it, sometimes it helps to get the new part and examine it for mounting holes or other clues as to how it may be mounted. 7) When testing for a 110 volt power supply from a wall outlet, you can plug in a small appliance such as a shaver or blow dryer.
This switch keeps the drive motor turning until the ice is harvested and the mold refills with water. The pressure regulator should be located under the cooktop as shown in Chapter 5, figure 5-B. When the ejection mechanism is reset, the mold is refilled and the cam reaches the proper position, the cam allows the holding switch to open.
The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments. In a wall oven, you may need to open up the control panel to get to the pressure regulator. If you can, shut off the manual gas valve at the wall. If you're testing for 220 volt power you need to use the VOM. 8) When splicing wires in an oven, remember that you're dealing with high temperatures. This ends the fill cycle and begins the freeze cycle.FILL CYCLE AND FILL VALVETowards the end of the harvest cycle, a cam on the drive mechanism closes the fill switch.
This switch opens a fill solenoid valve, usually located on the back of the fridge, at the bottom. This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur. If so, open the oven door to the first notch (nearly fully closed) and lift the door straight off its' hinges. Your parts dealer has high-temp connections, porcelain wire nuts and fiberglass-insulated wire for this purpose. I want to impress upon you something really important.
Knowing what's operating and what isn't, in conjunction with a wiring diagram, can point you towards the failed component. In a moment, we'll talk about the general steps to follow. The shape of the cam that closes the fill switch controls the length of time the valve stays open.
A flow control washer within the valve adjusts the flow for variations in house water pressure, so that the same amount of water flows through the valve regardless of water pressure.
Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below. If you are replacing the oven glass or door seal, disassemble the door carefully and note how everything comes apart so you can get it back together. DO NOT TEST LIVE 220 VOLT CIRCUITS. Unless you are dealing with an obvious, simple repair like a burned element, isolating the problem in a 220 volt cooking circuit basically boils down to shutting off the power, testing each component for continuity, and looking for burned or chafed wires. It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good. Electric oven or cooktop repairs can be broken down into 3 categories:4-3 (a) ONE ELEMENT NOT HEATINGIn surface units, this is usually caused by a burned out element, terminal, or receptacle.
After a repair, you can't stand there with the freezer door open, waiting for the next harvest cycle, to make sure the machine is working properly. To replace the door seal in these ovens, you sometimes have to open up the back panel of the oven and loosen the whole oven inner liner.3-5 NAMEPLATE INFOThe metal nameplate is usually found inside the door or under the cooktop as shown in figure 3-G. It may also be fastened to the top edge of the door itself, on top of the console, or inside of the broiler compartment or pan storage compartment. If you cannot find the nameplate, check the original papers that came with your oven when it was new. Turn the breaker off or pull the fuse, and inspect the element, terminals and receptacle. Most receptacles are mounted to the cooktop by one or two screws.
Most icemakers are temperature-sensitive, and as the freezer temperature rises and falls, this sensitivity can cause symptoms to be intermittent.Icemakers can behave erratically, and be difficult to diagnose because of it. They should contain the model number somewhere. In any case, and especially if you have absolutely NO information about your oven anywhere, make sure you bring your old part to the parts store with you. Some receptacles can be disassembled as shown in figure 4-D to inspect and replace the internal terminals. Usually the burned or melted area of terminals or elements will be visible, but test for continuity, even if it appears to be OK. But a basic understanding of how a particular design operates can go a long way towards removing the mystery of intermittent malfunctions.
Sometimes they can match it up by looks or by part number. 3-6 WIRING DIAGRAMIn older models, wiring diagrams may be pasted to the back of the oven. In newer machines, they may be in a plastic bag inside the console or inside one of the front legs of the oven.
Knowing how the icemakershouldoperate may point you towards whatisn'toperating correctly.Has the fridge or freezer seemed warmer or colder than usual? This can point towards refrigerator problems other than the icemaker, such as defrost or sealed system problems. Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11). If those are OK, the break is usually where the wire attaches to the element, inside the back wall of the oven.
Any higher, and the ice may not freeze fast enough or the thermostat may not trigger a harvest cycle. However, you don't want to badger them with too many questions, so know your basics before you start asking questions. Some parts houses may offer service, too. Turn the breaker off or pull the fuse, remove the screws holding the element into the oven, and pull the element away from the back wall a little. Any lower, and the cold may migrate into the refrigerator compartment.Has the freezer or refrigerator door been opened a lot? There is a little bit of extra wire in there to allow you to access it from the front, but do not pull out any more wire than you need to work on it.
In some circumstances, this can keep the freezer temperature too high and cause slow or no ice production, or "shelling," where the cube has not frozen completely before the harvest cycle begins.Do not yet discard any "slabbed" ice. If the wire is broken or burnt completely off the terminal, you may be able to fish the wire out of the hole with needlenose pliers, as long as the power is off. If there is a burn in the element, usually it will be visible, but test the element for continuity, even if it appears to be OK.
They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath "guide" you to their service department. It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge. The ice cubes are "shelling," or not freezing completely before the harvest cycle tries to eject them from the mold.
They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult.
If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service. See section 8-2(b).D) The fill tube keeps filling with ice and blocking the flow of fill water. When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes. Keep in mind that if one leg of the circuit is out due to a house wiring problem, you might have 110 volts but not 220. See section 8-4.8-2(a) SLABBINGThis generally occurs when the ice is not ejecting from the ice mold properly. On some models, you will also need the lot number to get the right part, so if there is one on the nameplate, write that down, too.2-3 TOOLS (Figure 2-A)Most of the tools that you might need are shown below.
If there are cubes left in the ice mold after a harvest cycle, the new waterfill will overfill the mold for the next batch.
Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan.
It also means you still have power, and you can still get zapped. If you're sure you have no power, we need to figure out if the problem is in the house wiring or inside the oven or cooktop.
Depending on the design, this may cause the mold to overflow, or it may just cause a thick sheet of ice to fuse together the tops of the cubes too solidly. In this case, the icemaker can jam and the problem can compound itself rapidly.This can be caused by a number of factors.
Next we need to test for power where it enters the oven. This can sometimes present a problem. An inexpensive one will suffice, as long as it has both "AC Voltage" and "Resistance" (i.e. This can simply prevent the ice from dropping into the bin, (Figure S-1) or it can interfere with the ice level sensor arm, preventing the icemaker from shutting off when the bin is full. If this is the case, turn the breaker off or pull the fuse, pull the oven or range away from the wall, pull the plug out of the wall, turn the breaker back on, and test the wall outlet as described in chapter 2. Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14). Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem. Both hard-tray and flex-tray machines are prone to this problem; it is caused by impurities in the fill water. The problem can get so bad that you may see black or gray flakes and sediment in the cubes. If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad. In both hard- and flex-tray machines, the solution is usually to replace the ice mold, or just the entire icemaker.
Then remove power again at the breaker or fuse. If power is not getting to the terminal block, the problem is in your house wiring. If you do this, rinse the mold with a weak chlorine bleach solution and flush with copious amounts of water before you put the mold back into service. If so, open the oven door to the first notch (nearly fully closed) and lift the door straight off its' hinges. During the 70's some houses were built with aluminum wiring, which is notorious for not being able to handle oven currents.
It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
The next fill will then cause overfill, and slabbing symptoms may develop.Low water pressure can also cause the valve to leak, sometimes badly enough to overfill or overflow the ice mold.
Remember the rule in section 2-1; while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair. Find your wiring diagram, isolate the problem and repair as described in section 4-3(c). 4-3 (c) COMPONENT PROBLEMSOne fairly common failure with confusing symptoms occurs when an infinite switch or a fixed-temperature switch shorts internally to ground. See Section 8-2(c), section 8-3 and Figure S-4.8-2(b) SHELLINGHollow cubes, or "shelling" can occur if the ice cubes are not fully frozen when the harvest cycle begins. Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor. You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter.In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM. If this occurs, replace the defective switch. Let's say that you have power to the surface units but none to either the bake or broil element. Depending on the design, either the harvest cycle is being triggered prematurely, or the cube is not freezing in the allotted time.Shelling may be an early sign of defrost, sealed system or other cooling problems of the refrigerator itself, especially in flex-tray machines. The freezer vents in flex-tray machines must direct cold air directly at the surface of the water or the mold, to insure that it will freeze in the alloted time. Check that nothing is blocking the airstream and that the freezer vent directing air over the icemaker is not damaged, missing or misdirected.In hard-tray machines with shelling symptoms, ice or water left in the mold after harvest may cause overfill and slabbing problems.
Shelling is usually a sign of low waterfill, which allows the mold to get colder faster, triggering the thermostat into a harvest cycle too quickly.
The wiring diagram can be very complex and difficult to follow, but the general objective is to trace the malfunctioning circuit as described in section 2-5, find the components in it and check them for continuity. Check and adjust the water level (sections 8-5 thru 8-8) or check for low water pressure or the incorrect water valve.
They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one. The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source.
Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment. Over time it will freeze the tube completely shut.To melt the ice from the tube and clear it, you can use a blow dryer, or blow hot water into the tube with a turkey baster.


You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment. It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" or "ohms" scale. If the meter does not read zero ohms, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero. Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws. Sediment from improper installation or low water pressure may prevent the valve from closing fully.
If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.
If you have this symptom, especially if it returns after clearing the ice blockage once, start checking for water supply pressure or sediment problems. You can touch the ends of the wires and test leads with your hands if necessary to get better contact.
This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer. I've seen people tap into hot water pipes, but the piping should be long enough so that water does not fill the icemaker while hot, or the water may not freeze fast enough. If there is GOOD continuity, the meter will move toward the right side of the scale and steady on a reading.
It is far better to use a cold water line if possible."Saddle valves" are often used on a new installation to pierce into an existing pipe, (Figure F-1) and generally work pretty well. This is the resistance reading and it doesn't concern us; we only care that we show good continuity. However, you must be careful of using dissimilar metals; for example a copper valve on a galvanized steel pipe. A water supply drawn from a saddle valve on a galvanized pipe is an invitation to scale and sediment problems.Similarly, a saddle valve installed too close to a hot water tank can pick up calcium sediments from the tank itself. If you do not, the switch is bad. 2-4(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory. Scale and sediments can block the saddle valve and cause low water flow.Low water flow through the saddle valve may cause the same symptoms as low water pressure at the solenoid valve inlet. If you own an ammeter, you probably already know how to use it. If you don't, don't get one. Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis.
They can also get into the solenoid valve seat and prevent the valve from closing fully, causing symptoms from fill tube freeze to slabbing. If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it.
However, the only long term solution is to secure a better supply, directly from a copper cold-water pipe if possible. To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do). It's a little cheaper, easier to cut and install, and less prone to leakage when you have to move the refrigerator. There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment.
However, some people feel it's more prone to leakage than copper simply because the material is stronger.
These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19).
That's not been my experience, but it's your call.If you do use plastic, make sure you insert the brass sleeves into the ends (Figure F-2) before installing the compression fittings. Without them, the ends of the plastic could collapse and leak.HOT WATER OR COLD?I've seen people tap into hot water lines to feed the icemaker, but I highly recommendagainstit. If the meter shows any reading at all, something in the oven is using power.2-5 WIRING DIAGRAMSometimes you need to read a wiring diagram, to make sure you are not forgetting to check something.
Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern. But when the temperature of the water drops, the heat flow slows to the same rate as if you had just filled it with cool water in the first place. Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator. The symbols used to represent each component are pretty universal. Wire colors are abbreviated and shown next to each wire.
Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem.
Common complaints and contaminants are chlorine, rust, sand, dirt, sediment, dissolved calcium, organic substances such as PCB's, THM's, herbicides and pesticides, chloramines and detergents, causing bad taste, odors or even health hazards.
This book is not intended to be a primer on water filtration; I would in no waybegin to try to pretendto be able advise you what contaminants you need to guard against in your area.
GR or GN are green, GY is gray.A wire color with a dash or a slash means --- with a --- stripe. For that, you need to hire a water chemist, or talk to your water company or neighbors who might have been through this already. If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem. These contaminants you can pick up independent of what your water company supplies you, through old or inadequate water piping or other house conditions.
The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. In some wiring diagrams, wiring and switches inside a timer or other switchblocks are drawn with lines that are thicker than the rest of the wiring. The small white circles all over the diagram are terminals.
These are places where you can disconnect the wire from the component for testing purposes. You don't think the pipefitters washed all the bugs and dirt out of the tubing before they brazed it in place, do you?INLINE AND UNDER-SINK (CARTRIDGE) FILTERS(Figures F-3 and F-4)In my opinion, about the only good thing about inline filters (vs.
If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. If two wires cross on the diagram without a black dot, they are not connected. Switches may be numbered or lettered. Usually the terminals on the outside of the timer or switch are stamped or printed with markings that you will see on the wiring diagram. To test a switch, mark and disconnect all the wires. Being behind the fridge instead of under the sink, they are harder to get to, and easier toforgetto change.Cartridge-type filters, on the other hand, have replacable cartridges which are relatively easy to get to and change. This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
Some even have water shutoff valves built right into them to make filter changing even faster and easier.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. For example, in figure 2-F, if you want to test the door switch, take power off the machine, disconnect the wires from it and connect one test lead to COM and one to NC.
They are little, if any, more difficult to install initially, and replacement cartridges usually cost less than a new inline filter.
Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized.
Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time. If it does, you know that contact inside the switch is good. Remember that for something to be energized, it must make a complete electrical circuit.
Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. You must be able to trace the path that the electricity will take, FROM the wall outlet back TO the wall outlet.
Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal. It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions. When the new membrane is new, probably half of the water that enters the RO system goes down the drain to flush themembrane.
Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under.
If you don't change the elements frequently, then when the membrane gets older and plugged with contaminants, as much as 15 to 20timesas much water goes down the drain as comes out the faucet.
Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights. In this simplified circuit diagram, notice that only the heating elements operate on 220 volts. Also, water flows through the RO membrane very slowly, so it can drop water pressure at the tap considerably.Most manufacturers recommend AGAINST an icemaker water supply coming from an RO system. I have been personally using an RO system on my Whirlpool crescent cube icemaker for two years now and I am tickled with the results; ice as clear and clean tasting as our drinking water, and no scale or calcium deposits. For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes. But if you understand the risks, and the RO system doesn't drop the water pressure too low, it can be done.8-3(b) FILL SOLENOID VALVEWater fill volume is controlled by a couple of things. Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion. For one, the length of time the valve stays open, which is usually controlled by a cam in the icemaker head, which closes a switch for the proper amount of time. Since the locking mechanism is interlocked with the heating circuit, the oven will not reach cleaning temperature either.Let's start at the lock motor and find out which switches feed electricity to it.
Aflow control washerwithin the valve adjusts the flow for variations in house water pressure. However, if the water pressure is below about 20 psi at the solenoid valve inlet, problems can occur. The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2. Tracing the other lock motor lead, we first end up at the "C" terminal of the 4-position selector switch.
Looking at the switch for the chart, the "C" to "LM" contacts are closed when the "clean" button is depressed on the switch. If the cube is too small, it may not eject properly, and the next fill may cause overfill.Water solenoids operate using a pressure diaphragm with pressure on both sides of the diaphragm. During the 70's some houses were built with aluminum wiring, which is notorious for not being able to handle oven currents. Power then leaves the thermostat through the "5" terminal, so we need to check for continuity between terminals "5" and "6" of the thermostat. Since it is a thermostatic switch, only heat will open the switch, so we only need to test it for continuity. Different icemakers require a wide variety of fill volumes, from about 3 ounces in certain GE units to as much as 8 ounces in Admiral-type machines. The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end. The valve bodies might look the same from the outside, but you must make sure the valve is the correct one (has the correct flow control washer) for the icemaker you're working on. They are shown in the diagram in their "normal state." So continuing with our circuit, if the locking motor is not turning, you need to check switch "B" for continuity between the "COM" and "NC" terminals. If someone has previously replaced the solenoid valve, and you experience low flow problems or slabbing in an icemaker, double check that the valve is the correct one. The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself. If there is no continuity, it might mean the switch is bad. It might also mean that the switch was not returned to its "normal" state the last time it was activated!You need to examine the switch carefully to determine what the problem is. If the locking motor stopped turning before the switch unlocked, you've got other problems.
This is acriticallyimportant point.8-3(c) TESTING AND ADJUSTING FILL VOLUMETo test fill volume, remove the icemaker from its freezer wall mounting (but leave it plugged in) and initiate a harvest cycle if possible. You will need to trace other circuits in the diagram to figure out what. From the "COM" terminal of switch "B," the circuit goes back through the door switch to L1. Baby bottles are generally just about the right size for testing fill volume; most are graduated in both cc's and ounces.
The door switch feeds several other oven circuits, too, so unless there's something else not working, we can eliminate that as the problem.
A good rule of thumb is that one fluid ounce equals about 30 cc's.Water fill level can be adjusted onsomeicemakers. See sections 8-5 thru 8-8 about your design.8-4 SLOW OR NO ICE PRODUCTIONThere are a number of things that will slow or stop the production of ice. If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much.
The door must be closed to close the switch that feeds electricity to the thermostats and heating circuit.To check for a wire break, you would pull each end of a wire off the component and test for continuity through the wire. If you are working on an icemaker where you can do so, a good start is to try to manually trigger a harvest cycle and watch what happens. If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater. You may need to use jumpers to extend or even bypass the wire; for example, if one end of the wire is in the control console and the other end in underneath the machine. The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature.
However, there a few common causes.8-4(a) FREEZER TEMPERATURECheck the freezer temperature. In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer.
It will then be up to you to figure out exactly where that break is - there is no magic way. In most icemakers, a freezer temperature above about 15 degrees may cause icemakers not to harvest or to have other ice production problems. The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad. If the freezer temperature is hovering right around the thermostat temperature setting, the icemaker's thermostat may open and close, causing slow or intermittent ice production. If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat. If the freezer temperature is not low enough, check the refrigerator's temperature settings.High freezer temperatures may also mean that therefrigeratorhas cooling problems such as defrost or sealed system malfunctions. If adjusting the controls doesn't lower the freezer temperature, see Chapters 4 and 5.8-4(b) POWER SUPPLYCheck that the icemaker is getting power. Unplug it from the freezer wall socket and see if you have power between at least two of the terminals.8-4(c) WATER SUPPLYCheck also that the icemaker is getting water. An ammeter is a safer way to test energized circuits if you have one, especially testing 220 volt circuits.
If possible, unmount the icemaker from the freezer wall and manually initiate a harvest cycle. Occasionally, if the component is inexpensive enough, it's easier to just replace it and see if that solves the problem. Following is a primer on how to test each individual component you might find in any given oven. Take all wires off the component and test continuity across it as described in section 2-4(b). Switches should show good continuity when closed and no continuity when open. Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils. NO means "normally open" and with the switch at rest, you will see no continuity through it. SELECTOR SWITCHBLOCKS A selector switchblock, located in the control panel, is a group of switches all molded into one housing. In your oven, a switchblock might be used to allow you to choose a cooktop heat setting, for example, or a cleaning cycle instead of a baking cycle.
Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings. You must look at the wiring diagram to see which of the terminals will be connected when the internal switches are closed. Keep in mind, however, that you must also know which of the internal switches close when an external button is pressed.
If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further. When you press one button on the switchblock, several of the switches inside may close at once.To test a switchblock, in addition to the wiring diagram, you must have a chart that gives you this info. Usually this is a part of the wiring diagram. Using the diagram and chart in figure 2-J, lets say we want to test contacts "T1" to "FM" for proper operation. We see that with the "clean" button pressed, these contacts inside the switchblock should be closed.
The electronic one has a circuit board and an on-off rocker switch on the right side of the icemaker head.Most of the symptoms and the malfunctions between the three designs are similar. However, the internal differences between them are pretty pronounced, so testing and troubleshooting are quite different.8-5(a) MODULAR CRESCENT CUBE DESIGN OPERATIONThe harvest cycle on these icemakers is thermostatically triggered. If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems.
Very shortly thereafter, a cam on the drive shaft closes the holding switch, keeping the motor circuit energized even after the thermostat opens back up.


Although error (fault) codes for most major brands may be found in Chapter 7, usually diagnosis consists of simply replacing circuit components until you find the bad one. Usually the problem turns out to be a bad oven sensor, stuck or defective keypad, ERC (clock) unit or a circuit board. The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work.
The motor then stalls, with the ejection fingers applying pressure to the ice, until the mold heats up enough for the cubes to separate from the mold.
If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity. These can be tested and rebuilt or replaced as described in this chapter.2-6 (c) THERMOSTATIC CONTROLSA thermostat is simply a switch or a gas valve that opens and closes according to the temperature it senses.
Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees. If the ice level in the bin is too high, or if you raise the arm to the shutoff position, this switch opens and interrupts the thermostat circuit.
The icemaker then will not enter a harvest cycle until the sensor arm is allowed to return to its full down position. If there is an automatic oven cycle, main control thermostats must also be wired through the timer. During the harvest cycle, a cam raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch keeps the motor turning. And if there is a cleaning cycle, they must be either bypassed or adjusted for the higher temperatures of that cycle. That's where you start to get dual-control thermostats, thermostats with twelve leads, and other complexities. There is an adjustment screw on the right side of the icemaker head; one full turn equals 40cc's. With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself. Some models have water level adjustment dials on the right side of the plastic icemaker head cover that attach to this screw.
Some even control two levels of the same pilot. Main control thermostats are about the most expensive commonly-replaced parts in an oven.
This screw simply moves the fill switch closer to the cam on the drive shaft, keeping it open longer, or vice-versa. It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice. The maximum adjustment on these machines is one full turn in either direction; any more will damage the icemaker head. It should be the last thing you conclude, after you have checked out everything else in the system.The liquid inside the bulb and capillary of an oven thermostat is usually a mercury or sodium compound or some other such nasty and dangerous stuff.
When adjusting the level, do it gently and do not attempt to force it AT ALL.TROUBLESHOOTINGAside from water supply problems, what usually goes wrong with these machines is that the thermostat (bimetal) fails.
In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens. If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord. So when you replace an oven thermostat, do not cut open the capillary or bulb, and dispose of the old thermostat properly.
The definition of "properly" varies between jurisdictions, but check with your appliance parts dealer or local fire department hazardous materials professionals.ADJUSTING THERMOSTATS The oven is adjusted by a small adjusting screw in the center of the oven thermostat valve stem. To jump the thermostat and trigger a harvest cycle, just jumper between the T and H test point holes. Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers.
If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat. In other words, if you set the thermostat at 350 degrees, you want the heating system to cycle on if the temperature is below 340 degrees, and off when the temperature reaches about 360 degrees. With nothing else in the oven, place it in the middle of the oven, where you can see it through the oven door glass.
In this case, you would see the ejection fingers pressed against the ice, trying to eject it, but it would not eject.
Under power, test for line voltage between the L and H test point holes; if it is energized, then power is going to the heater. Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater. The important thing to remember about clocks in an oven unit are that often the thermostat controls are first wired through the timer. Unplug and test for resistance between the same test points; the heater should test 72 ohms. If not, replace the mold.If the drive motor isn't turning at a time when it should be, test for 110 volts between L and M to see if the motor is energized. If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Also, if you are troubleshooting a no heat complaint in an oven with an automatic cycle, the first step is always to check the timer controls.
The woman who greeted me was the ultimate Susie homemaker; everything was spotless in HER kitchen. Including the oven, which looked new, but this gal swore she'd owned it since it was new 35 years before, and by golly she knew it inside and out and didn't know why two ovens out of three suddenly didn't work. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes.
Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater. Some have water level adjustment dials on the right side of the plastic icemaker head cover.The harvest cycle on these icemakers is thermostatically triggered. Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. Very shortly thereafter, a cam on the drive shaft closes the holding switch, keeping the motor circuit energized and turning even after the thermostat opens back up.
You must have a wiring diagram to determine which terminals are connected when a switch inside the timer closes.
The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work. Put a resistance meter across those terminals and advance the clock to determine if the switch is opening and closing.
The fingers then continue pushing the ice out of the mold.The thermostat stays closed throughout the first rotation of the ejection fingers.
The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker. If the clock motor doesn't run or the switches don't open and close as they are supposed to, replace the timer. Near the completion of the first rotation, another cam attached to the driveshaft closes the fill switch, butwater fill does not occur.
The shutoff switch is closed, and offers a lot less resistance than the water valve circuit.
However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4. Near the completion of the second rotation, the fill switch closes again for about 7-8 seconds, and this time the mold fills with water.
If there are any special wiring changes, they will be explained in instructions that come with the new timer. Clocks and timers can usually be rebuilt.
Ask your appliance parts dealer for details.2-6 (e) ELECTRIC HEATERS AND IGNITORSElectric heater elements and ignitors are tested by measuring continuity across them as described in section 2-5(b). Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head.
Replace heater elements if they show no continuity.2-6 (f) RELAYSHeating elements use a lot of electricity compared to other electrical components. During the harvest cycle, a cam raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch is still closed, which keeps the motor turning. The switches that control them sometimes need to be built bigger than other kinds of switches, with more capacity to carry more electricity. The switches involved in running a heater or ignitor can be too big to conveniently put inside the control console or timer. Besides that, there are safety considerations involved in having you touch a switch that carries that much electricity directly, with your finger. The way they solve that problem is to make a secondary switch. Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head. A little switch activates an electromagnet, which closes a big switch that carries the heavier current load.
When you remove the plastic cover, you will see the motor gear turning and disengaged from the larger ejection drive gear.
The motor gear can be pressed back on and glued with superglue.Some of these machines have a "chiclet"-type thermal fuse (figure X-8) attached to the underside of the ice mold, near the icemaker head. If this fuse blows, the icemaker will not harvest, nor will the motor start when you try to manually initiate a harvest cycle. The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head. Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head.
Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal. The other two microswitches are the waterfill switch and the holding switch, both cam-operated. When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY.
Fortunately, they're pretty much commodity items at this point, and can be replaced for well under a hundred bucks.8-6 GE "BULLET" OR "BARREL" CUBE MACHINESThese machines produce five cylindrical cubes per harvest.
If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat. Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully.
If there is an ice dispenser in the door, you may need to turn down the crescent cube size a little to get the cubes to go through the door properly.OPERATIONThe harvest cycle begins thermostatically at about 16 degrees.
If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism. An ejection shaft through the bottom of the ice mold is attached to an ejection pad, which pushes the cubes vertically from the mold. However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!! If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly. During the harvest cycle, the mechanism raises the sensor arm and opens the shut-off switch, but the holding switch keeps the motor turning. Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow. The icemaker will not be producing ice, and you're sure the freezer is cold enough, but manually jumping the thermostat produces a harvest.There are two test connections on the underside of the icemaker head. In both, a small rectangular plug in the bottom of the icemaker head can be removed to reveal two small holes.
Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate. When the harvest cycle is initiated, it takes about eight minutes for the tray to rotate completely around and refill. Above 19 degrees, it will not produce ice at all.You can tell if the motor is turning by looking at the end of the motor shaft as shown on the illustration. Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book. If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer. Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat.
It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good.
The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater. There is an adjustment screw on the right side of the head, but the factory glues it in place during construction.
In fact, the factory doesn't want you messing with these machines at all; if they malfunction, the solution is to replace them. I have had a couple of these icemakers apart and I'd have to agree with the factory in this case. These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer. After you replace your old one, try pulling it apart and reassembling it and you'll see what I mean.A conversion kit is available to convert the refrigerator to a crescent-cube design, and I would highly recommend it. Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps. Instructions will be included in the conversion kit.During the harvest cycle in this design, the twisting action of the ice tray ends with a relatively violent SNAP! Over time this can have several adverse effects.The icemaker can begin to pull its wall mounts out of the freezer wall. Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad. Cubes on the high side of the mold may be too small, while cubes on the low side may be too large or even slab together, and fail to eject.The plastic mold (tray) can crack, especially around the hub. Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad.
Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system.
Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point. If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service. If it is, there are a number of things that could be causing the icemaker to stop making cubes, but the solution to all of them seems to be to throw a new gear and pin set in both the front and back of the icemaker head. Gear alignment instructions are included with the new gears.There is no way to manually initiate a harvest cycle in these machines.
When you replace and realign the gears and reinstall the icemaker, it will immediately enter a harvest cycle and fill with water.Time only accumulates on these icemakers when the cold control (the refrigerator's thermostat) is closed and the compressor is running. If the doors remain closed, the ambient air temperature (outside of the fridge) is low, and the compressor doesn't run much, you may experience low ice production. UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch.
If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem. The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor. This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out.
Thus, the icemaker must be plugged in at all times, even if it's not being used to make ice. If you no longer use the icemaker and wish to remove it from your machine, a module is available that replaces the icemaker with a smaller "box" unit that just performs the defrost function. Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis. Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which. These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty. COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective.
To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures.
It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb. The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other. By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.
If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.



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