I have picked 5 recipes to suit your different requirements - and added some reader recommended recipes too. Be sure to read my tips on how to make clay too and you will be making great playdough in no time at all!
If you are new to making clay, then do check out my instructions on How to Make Playdough first.
Modelling clay can be made from a number of ingredients (see Wikipedia) but at home it is usually made from flour and water. If you are new to making playdough, then there is a little more to it than just throwing all the ingredients into a bowl and mixing! We all have slightly different ways of measuring things, different flours absorb at different rates, and even things like humidity can effect your recipe.
Most of the recipes call for all purpose or plain flour but I have had good results with bread flour. Baking soda and cornstarch make a smooth, pliable play clay that can be colored with everyday food coloring - or left white and painted once it hardens. Bake your ornaments on an ungreased baking tray for 30 mins, then turn and bake them for another 90 minutes until they are hard and dry (keep an eye on them so they don't burn).
Now you know how to make clay, I hope you have as much fun in your homeschooling crafts with these recipes as we do. Simple and Easy Play Dough Here is a great recipe, very easy and versatile : simply add food coloring and glitter to spark it up ! Paper model of a yellow house with garage - easy to make - print it on heavy paper, cut the pieces out, score and fold them and glue them together as depicted. This isna€™t the iron lung, or even a human lung, but did you know that every time you take a breath you have physics to thank for keeping you alive.
Take one of the balloons and cut off the bottom part, leaving you with only the top part that may resemble a very small swim cap. Cover the bottom of the water bottle and the hole that you just poked with the balloon you cut in step 1.
Pull on the bottom balloon membrane and watch what happens to the balloon inside the bottle.
You should see the balloon inflate as you pull out on the membrane and deflate as you let go of the membrane. Did you know that right now you have 14.7 pounds pushing against every square inch of your body!
Air pressure comes from teeny-tiny gas particles that are floating around, bumping into each other and bumping into you.
HEAT EXCHANGER CLEANING - CONTENTS: Oil fired furnace heat exchanger cleanout procedure: Why is it Necessary to Clean the Heat Exchanger in an Oil Fired Furnace?
This article describes the reasons that the heat exchanger on a warm air furnace needs annual cleaning and we explain how this cleanout is performed.
Heating system maintenance, including cleaning, inspection, and adjustment not only assure that the heating system will be safe and reliable when needed but more, the cost of proper service is just about always earned back in reduced heating costs. We include the text from historical articles on methods used for testing furnace heat exchangers for leaks, and the allowable or standards for heat exchanger cracks, holes, leaks, or carbon monoxide hazards from such leaks. Readers will note that the writer recommends a scope of work that extends considerably beyond the furnace heat exchanger itself.
Why is it Necessary to Clean the interior of an Oil Fired Furnace & its Heat Exchanger? Home heating oil that has been burned in a oil fired furnace leaves sooty deposits that not only block heat transfer from the combustion chamber into the heat exchanger but also these deposits contain contain sulphur.
During the non-heating season this sulphur combines with moisture in the air to form a corrosive material. These sooty deposits need to be removed from the furnace interior at least annually in order to reduce heating costs (by removing the insulating soot from the heat exchanger to assure safe and reliable heater operation, and to maximize the life of the heater by reducing corrosive deposits.
An annual cleaning at the end of the heating season and before the summer's high humidity can also help reduce the amount of corrosion that takes place and extend the life of the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is exposed by removing the furnace flue vent connector and covers so that its interior can be inspected visually for evidence of damage, vacuumed and brushed clean of soot and debris, inspected again for evidence of damage. Carson Dunlop Associates' sketch (left) illustrates the location of the heat exchanger on both up-flow and down-flow heating furnaces. Service techs use a HEPA vacuum cleaner whose wand is placed strategically along side or below the cleaning brush as soot is loosened and removed from the furnace. If the heating furnace has been exposed to leaks or wet conditions (see photo at the top of this page) there is a high risk of serious rust damage and system safety worries. See HEAT EXCHANGER LEAK TEST for a discussion of inspection points at the furnace heat exchanger - be sure to pay attention to evidence of holes, rust, cracks, or heat exchanger leaks before, during, and after the heat exchanger cleanout process itself. But the annual service of an oil fired furnace should include considerably more points of disassembly, inspection, and cleaning than the heat exchange itself, as we outline in the following sections. Watch out: Even if up-close inspection of the chimney from outside is difficult, inspecting inside the building one can often find indications of serious chimney leaks (photos at left) that will need prompt investigation and repair, and that are red flags warning of dangerous and costly hidden damage to the furnace and its heat exchanger. Modern residential chimneys use a combination of masonry construction and clay flue liners that are stacked one on top of another to form the inner passage of the chimney. Rainwater leaks may not be visible on the chimney masonry surface but show up in other places along the flue pipe.
It's important to track down and address water leakage in the chimney when these conditions occur. Modern forced hot air oil fired furnaces use a flue pipe that runs from the heat exchanger through the return air chamber of the furnace where the fan is located. This flue pipe extension is heavy gage (thickness) and single piece with no coupling inside the return air chamber in the furnace. If two coupled pieces in the extension were to separate the oil combustion gases would travel into the heating system with the help of the fan. The flue pipe extension ends just outside the body of the furnace and in many installations has a 90 degree elbow turned upward that connects the extension to the remainder of the flue pipe system.


Water or moisture collection at the flue pipe extension and flue elbow can result in corrosion problems that may result in leakage of combustion gases. Watch out: A sure sign that there is water problems from a leaking chimney are water spots or dried powdery material on the floor beneath the elbow and flue pipe extension connection.
The furnace had rusted and burned completely through leaving a two square foot hole that gave direct view into the combustion chamber. When the oil burner ran one could see its flame impinging onto the blower assembly itself, and of course soot, smoke, and combustion gases were being blown through the entire home! Breaking the flue pipe system apart and inspecting the condition of the flue pipe extension for inspection should be done as part of an annual cleaning. If the technician carefully examines the metal in the are of the elbow and extension they should detect any corrosion that would lead to an eventual hole in the metal and combustion gas leakage. While metal gage thickness standards may be set by codes, a 24 or 26 gauge pipe or fitting will last longer and be less likely to fail unexpectedly instead of a 28 gauge or higher number metal fitting. Tip: When the furnace flue pipe is cool, try and squeeze the pipe as well as elbow fittings by hand.
Modern oil fired force d hot air furnaces have heat exchangers that are shaped similar to a metal trash can turned on its side. To prevent the oil burner fireball from damaging the metal of the heat exchanger, a refractory (a non combustible chamber) is used. The refractory is suspended inside the heat exchanger using a metal strap cage and is replaceable if damaged. Refractories are made from a non-asbestos material that can stand high heat and glow when heated (orange color) as the oil burner is running. It's important not to vibrate the furnace excessively when cleaning or repairing once a refractory has been 'fired' (used with the oil burner).
A damaged refractory allows the fireball from the oil burner directly contact the metal of the heat exchanger and can cause problems because of overheating which can distort the thin metal.
One sign of a long-term refractory problem that's gone un-addressed is discoloration on the side of the heat exchanger opposite the oil burner.
Residences built before energy codes often have enough air leakage that interior air is used to operate the oil burner. Our sketch (left, courtesy Carson Dunlop Associates) illustrates some common service and inspection points at the oil burner. When a oil fired furnace is cleaned and adjusted during warm summer weather, there can be problems if operating conditions aren't the same as during the heating season.
So, even if it's June and very warm out, make sure that the burner adjustment is done with the house setup as it would be in the heating season. Readers of this document should also see CARBON MONOXIDE - CO and see BACKDRAFTING HEATING EQUIPMENT.
This article series answers most questions about central heating system troubleshooting, inspection, diagnosis, and repairs. Continue reading at FURNACE HEAT EXCHANGER LEAKS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia. Also see HEAT EXCHANGER LEAK ALLOWED where DeWerth determines the allowable level of flue gas leakage from a furnace heat exchanger. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. The ABC's of Retention Head Oil Burners, National Association of Oil Heat Service Managers, TM 115, National Old Timers' Association of the Energy Industry, PO Box 168, Mineola, NY 11501. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Oil or cream of tartar is added to help with elasticity - and salt is usually used to help preserve the clay (and stop it going moldy). I think bread flour has a higher gluten content which helps to make the dough hold together well.
If you are happy for all the dough to be the same color then just add the coloring to the water before you mix the ingredients. It should keep for a couple of months but homemade clay doesn't have the preservatives of shop bought stuff.
Then fold the bottom of the balloon around the rim of the bottle so the balloon hangs from the top.
That would be like having every square inch of your body sandwiched between a pair of newborn twins! The particles will take up whatever space is available to them, until they run into an object or a wall. The clay liner sections are stacked one on top of the other creating a number of seams and rain water can get through deteriorating mortar or other crack fillers used in these seams. One clue that rainwater is entering is a stain running down the masonry beneath the flue pipe 'thimble', or metal sleeve that allows a tight fit between the flue pipe and masonry wall of the chimney. Water spots on the floor or dried deposits of white colored powder material beneath a flue pipe indicate that there's water entering during rain storms.
A cap on an otherwise sound chimney is can help prevent rain water problems with the flue pipe.
As the furnace operates, the fan runs and some of the heat produced by combustion gas headed to the chimney is transferred to cool return air drawn into the furnace. The combustion may be drawn into the heating system because of the vacuum created by the furnace fan drawing air. However, it's common to have thin wall (higher number gage) less expensive metal fittings used during cleanings or service calls when the flue pipe fitting is corroded. If there's a noticeable flex or you can see the metal deform, it's close to failure since the metal has corroded away from the inside even though the outside of the fitting looks normal with galvanized metal coating.
The burner is on one end of the exchanger and combustion exhaust leaves through an opening on the opposite end at the top of the exchanger.


The refractory contains and allows the combustion exhaust out preventing damage to the relatively thin heat exchanger metal wall. Avoid banging on or shoving the furnace or heat exchanger to prevent damaging a 'fired' refractory. This means the oil burner needs to be removed to gain access and look at the inside of the refractory for cracks and holes. It's best to check the heat exchanger for cracks since grossly uneven heating of the heat exchanger can cause stresses to build resulting in metal cracks. If the burner is adjusted with unlimited air you may not see problems related to burner flame quality or other things like back draw of combustion smoke back into the house from the furnace fan. We describe how to inspect, troubleshoot and repair heating and air conditioning systems to inform home owners, buyers, and home inspectors of common heating system defects.
The heat exchanger outlet of the heat exchanger is plugged and a combustible gas detector is used to check for gas leakage on the exterior of the heat exchanger. The 2010 edition of the Home Reference Book is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings.
Fundamentals of Gas Appliance Venting and Ventilation, 1985, American Gas Association Laboratories, Engineering Services Department. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively.
Measure out your ingredients carefully - then slowly add the liquid to the dry ingredients. If you would like different colored batches then make up the dough first, divide into portions and knead in the colors separately.
When they are cool you can smooth them with fine sandpaper before decorating and varnishing. The opportunities and suggestions as well as the need to inspire are exactly what I have been searching to fulfill!!
Thata€™s right, in our atmosphere there is pressure whichis an effect that occurs when a force is applied on a surface. Inside the plastic water bottle there are a bunch of gas particles bouncing off the walls of the bottle and filling up the space.
The only way to keep the pressure inside the bottle the same as the pressure outside of the bottle is to decrease the volume again.
When you inhale, your diaphragm contracts and flattens out, increasing the volume and decreasing the pressure in your chest.
Temporary patches of refractory material called 'wet packs' can be used to repair cracks or holes until the original refractory can be replaced.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission to use illustrations from their publication, The Illustrated Home which illustrates construction details and building components. This will give you more of a marbled effect effect at first, but the color will spread as you keep kneading it in.
I'm so thrilled to get started and even more excited to continue to explore all of the fabulous suggestions and creative ideas you have offered here!!! Learn how your lungs work and make a model that is bound to amaze your friends and leave thema€¦breathless. When you pull down on the balloon membrane, you make the space inside the bottle larger, which gives the particles more room to move around. Because you have more room air gets sucked in through your mouth and nose and into your lungs, just like it did in the balloon, and then your lungs fill with air. A repair during the cold weather of the heating season is one reason to use a temporary 'wet pack' patch.
This manual also goes into detail about the test equipment used in the 3 step method that the AGA developed.
Carson Dunlop provides home inspection education including the ASHI-adopted a Home Inspection Home Study Course, and publications such as the Home Reference Book, the Home Reference eBook, and report writing materials including the Horizon report writer, and home inspection services.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order.
When the inside of you is pushing out as hard as the outside is pushing in, the forces balance and you feel nothing.
If the particles have more room to move around, they wona€™t exert as much pressure on the walls; they wona€™t bump into things as often. Your lungs are like the balloon and the diaphragm is like the balloon membrane at the base of you bottle.
2) Volume III, Radiant Heating, Water Heaters, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps, Air Cleaners, James E. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. When you increase the volume (the amount of room) you decrease the pressure inside that space, this law of physics is called Boylea€™s Law.
When you exhale your diaphragm relaxes which decreases the volume of your lungs and increases the pressure in your chest.
If you are not a member or want to purchase a complete copy call RSES (800)297-5660 for availability and cost. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
To make sure that your chest doesna€™t explode, the air gets forced back out through your mouth and nose.
Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.




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