Norway's Farstad Shipping ASA has placed an order for the first OSV to be built to a new wave piercing design by Rolls-Royce. The newbuildings are part of Farstad's fleet renewal program and represent an investment of approx. The Farstad deal appears to be the first reached by STX OSV since its spin off from STX Europe and listing on the Singapore stock exchange.
The Rolls-Royce wave-piercer is to be built at STX OSV's Tomrefjord (Langsten), Norway, shipyard, as will one of the PSV 08 CD units with the other two being built at STX's Vietnam yard. The PSV 08 CD i is a newly developed, medium sized, diesel electric PSV with deck area approx.
Rolls-Royce says it has received a GBP 12 million (about $19 million) order that includes vessel design and a comprehensive integrated power and propulsion system and equipment package that includes Azipull propellers, thrusters, and Bergen diesel engines. A Rolls-Royce DP2 dynamic positioning system is also included, as is an ASFA (Automated Sea Fastening System) cargo securing system, giving secure positioning and securing of containers and pipes. Svein Kleven, Rolls-Royce, Chief Design Manager - Ship Technology, said: "Our wave-piercing designs have been specifically developed for the challenging offshore conditions in which our customers operate, and will deliver enhanced safety and performance benefits. Wave-piercing is a proven technology for high-speed catamarans and trimarans, and Rolls-Royce is now applying these cutting-edge, innovative concepts to the demanding offshore market, in which extreme operating conditions can pose serious challenges to vessel performance and crew safety. Extensive research and computer aided design methods, verified by tank testing, have enabled Rolls-Royce to reduce hull resistance substantially through the development of a wave-piercing hull form, which eliminates slamming and allows for a smooth ride even in rough weather conditions. Rolls-Royce has also developed wave-piercing hull designs for other vessel types including tugs, deep-sea anchor handlers, construction vessels and mobile offshore drilling ships.
The floors of a ship are called decks, the walls are called bulkheads, and the stairs are called ladders. A ship, to be classed as a fighting ship, must be capable of inflicting damage and of sustaining or avoiding damage. Without the capacity to reach a scene of operations, execute a mission, and return to a base, even the fastest and most powerful fighting ship would be of little value. Since cruisers are often required to perform independent missions at great distances, sea keeping capacity is a vital consideration in their design. The bulky hull of the battleship reflected capacity to accommodate provision for sea repair and for storage of immense quantities of fuel, water, food, ships stores, and lubricating oil, while the proportions of destroyer hulls indicated limitations in sea-keeping capacity inherent in their type. Fighting Trim refers to a warship sailing condition that could be set by some warships of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In high seas, most ships must sacrifice either speed or seakeeping ability, and neither can be achieved without size. Some advanced hull forms use dynamic lift to achieve high speeds without adhering to conventional size restrictions. Though they may achieve high speeds in calm, inshore waters, the higher sea states found offshore require these ships to slow down for the safety of the vessel and its cargo as well as for the comfort of its passengers. Seakeeping thus limits these advanced, high-speed vessels from providing an overall effective platform for many open-water applications--including ferrying, search and rescue operations, and military missions. Resistance of a ship comprises two principal components: (1) viscous resistance stemming from the friction of the water against the hull, and (2) wavemaking resistance leading to the formation of the waves following the ship, known as the Kelvin wake. The transverse wave component of the Kelvin-wake, observable as the large periodic waves within the V-pattern, is the larger part of the total wave drag. At low Froude numbers (low speed-to-length ratios), the wave resistance is low and the viscous resistance dominates. The first attempt by naval architects to reduce wave resistance was the bulbous bow, which is widely used on cruise ships, ocean tankers and cargo vessels.
Theory shows that at high Froude numbers, the transverse portion of the Kelvin wave is virtually eliminated, reducing the wave resistance to low Froude number values.
Steps are breaks in the hull intended to reduce the amount of hull surface in contact with the water. Short, wide (high-aspect) surfaces are more efficient than long, narrow (low-aspect) ones in terms of frictional drag on water. And the popular notion that any added speed from a stepped bottom is due to a layer of bubbles undoubtedly reduce frictional drag to some extent, but the real saving is in minimizing the hull area in contact with the water, specifically by presenting two or three wide and short surfaces to the water instead of one long, narrow one.
As I have explained in a previous article on hull shapes, the lift production is more efficient for a surface, with a small length to beam ratio.
Builders often provide large inlets to the areas behind the steps, and a few even provide air paths through ducts that lead to the trailing vertical edge of the steps. Since the lift is now spread to several surfaces along the hull (see drawing) the longitudinal stability becomes very large.
Stepped hulls should be used by experienced drivers who know what the hull is likely to do in a seaway and in hard cornering, and who know how to react to the unexpected.
In general, the higher the number, the heavier the boat for its length and the slower it is.
The length-to-beam ratio gives an indication of how long the boat is relative to its beam and allows you to compare two boats of different size. We find that the larger boat has a length-to-beam ratio of 4.167 whilst the smaller boat has a ratio of 4.
When I design a boat, I use the power-to-weight ratio to indicate whether the boat has sufficient horsepower for its weight. This is merely an indicator of the amount of horsepower a boat needs to push its own weight through the water. Multiply the waterline length by the boat’s beam and depth (from bottom of the hull to the deck edge), you get a cubic number (CN). To simplify, if you took a block of wood, the length of the waterline and shaped to the underwater portion of the midships section, then carved it away to model the ends of the boat, the Cp is the remaining percentage of the original midships-shaped block. The optimum Cp ratio varies in direct proportion to the hull resistance and the boat speed. In my previous article, I briefly discussed and touched on the different hull shapes available, how they work and how to distinguish these hull forms from one another. A planing hull uses hydrodynamic lift to rise up and out of the water to reduce resistance.
In order to plane the hull must achieve an appropriate angle of incidence to the water flow, trimming up by the bow to generate lift. The need to generate hydrodynamic lift places constraints on planning hull designs such that all true planning monohulls share a number of features in common. Look at many power boats from the side and you will see more or less a sharp corner on either side where the hull bottom meets the Topside. A hard chine is intended to throw spray to the sides of the hull and to prevent water from rising up the hull sides where it will increase drag.
For most planing hulls the chine should be immersed below the waterline from midships (more or less the mid section of the boat) towards aft at a depth roughly 1.5% to 4% of the maximum chine beam.
Deadrise is the angle a hull bottom makes with the horizontal plane viewed from ahead or astern.
For inshore crafts, deadrise can be about 10 – 12 degrees from the midships aft, increasing from midships as you go forward towards the bow. For coastal craft, deadrise should be 15 to 20 degrees from midships aft, increasing as you go fwd towards the bow.
For offshore boats, deadrise should be 20 to 25 degrees from midships aft, increasing as you go forward. In general, the deadrise angle determines at what speed and seastate a planing boat can best power. The number and location of spray rails, as well as their run along the hull, is a subject on which there isn’t clear agreement. In other words the spray rails were dead straight if you look from them from directly beneath the hull. Generally, the modern thinking is the spray rails are dead straight (follow the buttocks) aft of station 4 to 5 (5 is generally midships), but curve in (in plan view) as well as sloping gently up, rather that following the buttocks as they run forward. SAFE water travel, at speeds that only the most daring race pilots now attempt, is brought within reach of everyone by a radically new type of water craft.
I visited him at his home in Milford, CT on several occassions where he showed me the submarine test models he and his father made stored in the garage. The boat shown in the picture was able to be a high speed torpedo attack boat that could turn on a dime. Hulls that Save on Fuel andPrevent SeasicknessEfficiency decreases exponentially as speed increases, which is why displacement hulls (hydrostatically supported) are more economical than planning hulls (hydrodynamically supported). In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames (often referred to as ribs) and bulkheads, which are further tied together by longitudinal stringers or ceiling. In fiberglass+ or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque+ arrangement. The inverted bell+ shape of the hull, with smaller payload the waterline+ cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher. A chined hull consists of straight, smooth, tall, long, or short plates,timbers or sheets of ply, which are set at an angle to each other when viewed in transverse section . Displacement chined hulls have more wetted surface area, hence more drag, than an equivalent round hull form, for any given displacement.
Smooth curve hulls are hulls which use, just like the curved hulls, a sword or an attached keel. Rafts have a hull of sorts, however, hulls of the earliest design+ are thought to have each consisted of a hollowed out tree+ bole: in effect the first canoe+s. A 3D model of the basic hull structure of a Venetian "galley of Flanders", a large trading vessel of the 15th century. The vessel is one of four platform supply vessels to be built under an agreement announced today between Farstad and STX OSV. The hull pierces through the water, rather than riding on top of the waves, allowing the vessel to run continuously at service speeds regardless of the sea state, reducing fuel consumption and improving crew comfort. She must possess sufficient speed and, maneuverability to execute her mission and the capacity to proceed independently to a scene of action.
A fighting ship must also be able to "take it." A ship may be designed to absorb punishment, to mitigate its effect, or to avoid it. To bring an enemy to action is the battleship's primary function, and these ships must carry crews and provisions necessary to take them into battle with enough shells and fuel and food aboard to permit them to fight and return.


Carriers must also be designed to accommodate provision for extended operations and fuel for their aircraft.
To survive in high sea states and maintain speed, conventional displacement ships must be large. There is a close relationship of size to capability in a seaway for several generations of ship hull forms. However, these craft, which include planing hulls, hydrofoils and hovercraft, are highly susceptible to the effects of high sea states. A catamaran must slowdown in high seas to avoid passenger and crew seasickness, severe structural slamming and a wet deck. Utilizing submerged submarine hulls, wave-piercing struts and an elevated platform, the SWATH hullform has a low waterplane area that is less affected by waves than its predecessors. Lockheed Martin, therefore, decided to attempt to increase the speed of the stable SWATH design. Until the 1970s, designers could do nothing to counteract the effect of wave drag on resistance and total performance.
As speed (Froude number, or F) increases, wave resistance becomes a higher percentage of total resistance--until at the critical or "hump speed," wave resistance exceeds viscous resistance.
This design cancels a segment of the wave created, thereby reducing the energy in the Kelvin wake. This ship's lower hulls have a bulbous, "Coke-bottle" shape, with thin struts that connect the lower hulls to the superstructure. This leads to the idea that to significantly reduce wave resistance, a ship should operate at large Froude numbers, thereby surpassing the limiting hump. A very famous design was Maple Leaf, built in wood in 1912, and since then many successful racing hulls have had this type of bottom. Steps can run straight across the hull (although these are structurally weak and not often seen today), or they can be V-shaped, with the vertex facing forward or aft. More specifically, this means that a petrol-powered family cruiser with steps should be able to cruise fully loaded at 30 knots, not just reach this speed at full throttle.
When the air supply is lost, a backflow occurs behind the step causing an excessive increase in resistance. Hundreds of boats are sold every year and every salesman has his or her own sales pitch trying to perswade you in the brand they are selling.
If using these tools, don’t let the spraed between boat sizes get too large otherwise the comparison will be distorted. At sea, the heavier the boat, the likely to handle waves better than a similar lighter boat. A smaller ratio indicates a boat with greater transverse stability, making it a better for trolling or drifting in beam seas.
When comparing boats, make sure that you use the same horsepower number whether its is brake horsepower (bhp) or shaft horsepower (shp). In other words it is 45 percent larger and all other things being equal, should cost more to buy and maintain. It is based on the fact that the quikness of motion or corkiness of a hull in a choppy sea is what cause discomfort and seasickness.
The ratio ranges from 10 or less for lightweight day cruiser to thehigher 50-60 such as a old sailing pilot boat. Designers use their experience and knowledge of other designs to select the best Cp for the style and speed of the boat they design. As the generated lift approaches the weight of the boat, the hull rises from the water and start to plane.
Chines with a wide flat area (called chine flats) contribute significantly to create lift in the moving boat.
The ultimate in reverse chine hull is the classic Boston Whaler (not regularly seen on the waters in SA), in which the chine forms a tunnel on either side. The chine should run parallel to the DWL (Design Waterline), from the transom forward to about midships. The right amount of deadrise gives a boat directional stability, a softer ride and reduces wetted surface drag as the boat rises on a plane. Some very high speed offshore boats use deadrise in the afterbody as high as 26 – 30 degrees. They are usually triangular in cross section with the bottom face parallel to the water surface.
Different designers and builders each have their favored system and each is sure that their system works best. When suitable motors are installed, the inventor expects it to shatter all records and attain 150 miles an hour. And, if you've ever been down that road before, you will also realize that there isn't one special hull that can meet all of your requirements. In a typical modern steel ship, the structure consists of watertight and non-tight decks, major transverse and watertight (and also sometimes non-tight or longitudinal) members called bulkheads+, intermediate members such as girders+, stringer+s and web+s, and minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement+. In many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material. Shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat. The traditional chined hull is a simple hull shape because it works with only straight planks bent into a curve. The advantage of the semi-round is that it is a nice middle between the S-bottom and chined hull.
Note that the longitudinal centre of gravity or centre of the weight of the vessel must align with the LCB when the hull is in equilibrium. If you draw a box around the submerged part of the ship, it is the ratio of the box volume occupied by the ship. It displays the ratio of the largest underwater section of the hull to a rectangle of the same overall width and depth as the underwater section of the hull. It displays the ratio of the immersed volume of the hull to a volume of a prism with equal length to the ship and cross-sectional area equal to the largest underwater section of the hull (midship section). The waterplane coefficient expresses the fullness of the waterplane, or the ratio of the waterplane area to a rectangle of the same length and width.
Hull form then proceeded to the coracle+ shape and on to more sophisticated forms as the science of naval architecture+ advanced.
The Rolls-Royce contract also includes an option for a second vessel of the same specification and value.
You never scrub the floor or wash the walls, rather you swab the deck and scrub the bulkheads.
The type of a warship is determined by the degree to which each of these qualities has been stressed in her design. Destroyers, as they often operate with battle fleets or in convoy, must also carry provisions for such work, subject to limitations of size, while submarines are required to remain in enemy waters for extended periods. The relationship between a ship's maximum speed and its hull length is called "hull speed." For example, to reach a speed of 30 knots, a vessel must be at least 550 feet long.
For example, to be fully operational in a seaway of 15-foot-high waves, a vessel must be 500 feet long. In high seas, performance of hulls that depend on dynamic lift also suffers: planing hulls and hydrofoils are subject to loss of lift, and air cushion vehicles can experience venting. The bulbous bow lowers the height and increases the period of the transverse wave created by the ship.
This shape counteracts wave resistance, reducing the energy of the Kelvin wake by about 20 percent. The idea is analogous to a supersonic jet overcoming wind resistance by surpassing the sound barrier. They will have large apertures on the outboard side of the hull to allow air to be sucked down into and ventilate the step.
So, the idea behind a stepped bottom is to reduce wetted surface by allowing the hull to plane on two or three high-aspect planning surfaces rather than one large, low-aspect surface. Otherwise, the extra cost of tooling and the added time and cost spent laying up a stepped hull is wasted, and the stepped bottom is just a marketing gimmick. The speed thus drops momentarily – a dangerous situation, which may even cause injuries to the crew. This is no problem in smooth water, but in seaway the hull may tend to follow the contour of the waves.
At a speed roughly equal to 1.5 times the waterline length, if the hull is designed to plane, it will move into a transitional region where it is neither planning nor operating in the displacement condition. Because life is not as simple, chines comes in different forms – Hard chine (angular), Soft chine (rounded) or a reverse chine. Much softer than a hard chine but top speed on soft chine boats is however not as high as hard chine boats.
When the boat is underway, water thrown out by the center hull is deflected downward by the reverse chine to provide additional lift and gives an extremely dry ride. From Midships fwd to the stem, the chine sweep up higher, to the height above the DWL about equal to a distance 0f 20% - 25% of maximum chine beam.
These lines are the curves that result from slicing the hull from top to bottom and front to back – like slicing your loaf of bread from end to end along the side. The reasoning was that water low straight aft along the spray rails which generated added lift with minimal added resistance. Despite its swiftness, the airplane-shaped boat demonstrated extraordinary stability in its first trials on Long Island Sound, N. Lake, son of Simon Lake, famous builder of submarines, predicts that his superspeedboat will banish risk and discomfort from two-mile-a-minute water travel. As with many things in life, choosing a hull form is a compromise between that which is important to you and that which you are willing to sacrifice. If youa€™re interested in saving money but not slowing down, select a planning hull that is lighter and narrower with a reduced deadrise.
The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck+", or simply "deck".


The shape is chosen to strike a balance between cost, hydrostatic considerations (accommodation, load carrying and stability), hydrodynamics (speed, power requirements, and motion and behavior in a seaway) and special considerations for the ship's role, such as the rounded bow of an icebreaker+ or the flat bottom of a landing craft+. To counter the high drag hull forms are narrow and sometimes severely tapered at bow and stern.
Typical examples of a semi-round bilge hull can be found in the Centaur+ and Laser+ cruising dinghies+. It gives a sense of how much of the block defined by the LWL, beam (B) and draft (T) is filled by the hull.
It will, therefore, be seen that sea keeping is a very important factor in the design of all more important types of fighting ships. This sea-state limitation further emphasizes the unsuitability of small, conventional displacement ships for high-speed missions, especially in high seas.
The Froude number relates the speed of a vessel to its length by the formula, where V is the vessel's speed, L the vessel's length and the acceleration due to gravity. Conventional ships always operate at Froude numbers below this primary hump speed To achieve high speed, naval architects design their ships to operate below the F = 0.4 threshold by incorporating long lengths. While the bulbous bow reduces the energy of the Kelvin wake by about 10 percent, this reduction occurs only at the design speed of the ship.
The Sea Shadow's sculptured lower hull doubles the limited cancellation effect of the bulbous bow. In general, the speed increase of about 10 to 15 percent can be expected from a stepped hull over a non-stepped hull with the same power train. Some runabout builders even carve out a little scoop at the chime amidships, which I suppose is meant to suggest that the bottom is stepped, when in fact the bottom is as straight as an arrow. Larger hulls may acquire a tendency to bump into the next wave, making the ride very uncomfortable. I have touched on this a bit in my previous article of Leisure boating explaining the different modes of planing.
In extreme reverse chine design, one could almost say that the hull for is a cathedral hull (see previous article of leisure boating). It skims the surface on three pontoons equipped with shock-absorbers drawing only an inch of water when in motion. If seasickness has been preventing you from enjoying being on the water, could a different hull be the magic elixir?
The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or even where it sails. Plywood chined boats made of 8' x 4' sheets have most bend along the long axis of the sheet.
Boats with this hull have a fixed keel, or a ''kielmidzwaard'' (literally "keel with sword"). Full forms such as oil tankers will have a high Cb where fine shapes such as sailboats will have a low Cb. A low or fine Cp indicates a full mid-section and fine ends, a high or full Cp indicates a boat with fuller ends. You never go downstairs, you lay below, and if you are going up from one deck to another, you lay topside. Water-holding tanks designed specifically for the purpose were intentionally flooded, to lower the silhouette and the target area of the ship.
This lack of speed limits the effectiveness of SWATH, and to date, ship designers and operators are faced with the dilemma of choosing either speed or stability.
Only Navy ships with high installed-propulsion power can operate at a Froude number above 0.4.
Therefore, this design improves the efficiency of transit at cruise speed but provides little improvement at other speeds. Normally this is not a problem since the pressure is very low, but it’s extremely important that the air supply is not cut. When it breaks through the hump to a true plane (thanks to hydrodynamic forces), its speed increases and trim levels out. It amazed marine experts among the spectators by turning around in its own length, at high speed, without upsetting. The differences between the two are well known and hardly require any discussion, except to mention that each has the ability to be quite seaworthy a€” albeit for different reasons. Even though there is no hull form that is best for all conditions, choosing a better hull can greatly reduce the motion of the ocean.
Sailboats have a cut-away mid-section with low Cx whereas cargo vessels have a boxy section with high Cx to help increase the Cb. And since planing hulls reign supreme among recreational powerboaters, we will steer the discussion in that direction.Planing hulls are defined by straight sections and a sharp chine, both of which help to reduce the rolling motion encountered in a beam sea.
Wide, stable boats present the greatest comfort in a beam sea, and a properly designed deep-vee can make traveling at 30 knots seem almost motionless when swells are on the bow. Efficient displacement hulls travelling at a low Froude number+ will tend to have a low Cp. This may be achieved most simply by extending the step sideways to the open air at the hull’s side. Meanwhile, through interlocking levers, the forward pontoons are automatically banked to aid in rounding a turn. This geometry serves to maximize lift and minimize drag imparted by the water, allowing for higher speeds than their displacement counterparts. If changing hull forms is not an option, you could consider installing roll-mitigating equipment a€” such as fin stabilizers or a gyroscope. Mass-produced chine powerboats are usually made of sprayed chop strand fibreglass over a wooden mold. Traveling at higher speeds means the planing hull rides above the waves, making the boat less susceptible to wave motion but more susceptible to meeting the next wave with a headjarring slam. This produced maximum lift and a smooth,fast ride in flat water but this hull form is easily unsettled in waves.
At very high speed some designers have chosen to take advantage of the aerodynamics of the above-water part of the hull, using wing-like devices to keep the hull upright. And while the slam may be unavoidable, the shape (or quantity) of the planing surface can be altered to mitigate the effects.At the forefront of planing hull geometry is deadrise. Benefits of this type of boating activity is the low production cost and the (usually) fairly flat bottom, making the boat faster at planing+.
A thirty-five horsepower outboard motor was used in the experimental trials, and installed just in front of the pilot’s seat so the hinged propeller shaft could be drawn up into the cockpit.
Deadrise is the angular measurement from the hull to a horizontal plane, typically measured at the transom.
This measurement quantifies the "vee" of the hull, usually placing it in one of the following categories: flat-bottomed, modified-vee or deep-vee. Where flatbottomed is self explanatory, a deep-vee hull typically has a deadrise of over 20 degrees and a modified-vee is somewhere between the two.
The three categories exhibit one of the most basic compromises in boat design: that of efficiency versus comfort.
A flat-bottomed hull can utilize 100 percent of its bottom surface to lift the hull out of the water, leaving no shape to reduce the severity of slamming. A hull with any amount of deadrise must sacrifice some of its lifting surface to "slice" through the waves, making them less efficient (due to increased wetted surface) but more able to cushion a wave landing. The flatter shape of a 6 degrees hull will plane with less wind or a lower horse power engine but will pound more in waves.
They require more powerful engines to lift the boat onto the plane but give a faster smoother ride in waves.
When a planing hull is moving through the water, the forward most point of the hull's interaction with the water is the location of the highest lifting pressure. By introducing air behind the step, the next part of the hull that intersects the water creates a similar high lifting pressure.
The added lift of a second high-pressure point causes the boat to travel farther out of the water, which decreases wetted surface, reduces running trim, and increases overall efficiency. This increased efficiency allows stepped hulls to use the deepvee shape for seaworthiness while not being terribly worried about the loss of efficiency.
Indeed, in a boating community dominated by mono-hulls, multi-hulled vessels (catamarans, trimarans) have been steadily gaining ground (or water), thanks to their undeniable seaworthiness.Catamarans incorporate two slender hulls connected above the water. These slender hulls have a small water plane area a€” the area made by an outline of the waterline.
Because of this, these hulls are generally quite efficient and lend themselves to sea-kindly shapes.
While underdeck accommodations may be minimal or nonexistent, catamarans can have extremely large deck areas, thanks to the ability to spread the two hulls as far apart as desired.
Unfortunately, explaining them all in detail would take much more discussion than can fit in this article, and that's where independent research will prove most useful.
For example, if the boat has inboard power, prop pockets should be investigated as a good way to reduce the vessel's draft and increase efficiency (by reducing shaft angle). And most planing hulls have lifting strakes which help to increase the hull's lift without sacrificing deadrise or adding beam. Above the hull, aesthetic features like bow flare and sheer curvature can do wonders for reducing water spray a€” and happen to look good, too.
Just like deadrise and quantity of hulls, these are a matter of personal preference and could be considered in your decision.Sifting through the various hull combinations may seem like a daunting task. However, with a solid understanding of the trade-offs involved with each decision, the end result is sure to be a rewarding one.
You will be left with a boat that meets your needs and fits your budget a€” and puts a smile on your face every time you use it.A Chris Becker is a lifelong boater and a naval architect.
He graduated from Webb Institute in 2008 and currently works for the American Bureau of Shipping in New Orleans, Louisiana.



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