On May 31, 2009 the last living survivor of the Titanic disaster, Millvina Dean, passed away.
The Titanic's fitting-out was interrupted twice by the Olympic, and this eventually delayed her maiden voyage from March 20 to April 10, 1912. During the morning of Wednesday, April 10, the ship took on her first - and, it would turn out, her only - batch of passengers and crew. That this collision was averted turned out, in the long run, to be a tragedy in and of itself. The ship called briefly at Cherbourg, France that evening, to off-load some cross-channel passengers and to pick up more passengers and mail, and then called at Queenstown (now Cobh) Ireland the next morning.
By the time the Titanic left Queenstown that afternoon, there were 2,208 passengers and crew aboard. Although no run was officially taken from noon Sunday to noon Monday (for obvious reasons), it is quite clear from passenger testimony that by Sunday evening, the ship had sped up again.
Please proceed here for further information about On A Sea of Glass, as well as for pre-ordering information. Titanic in Photographs: Daniel Klistorner, Steve Hall, Bruce Beveridge, Scott Andrews and Art Braunschweiger are among the most widely respected historians of the Titanic - particularly in regard to aspects of the vessel's technical design and visual appearance. Lifeboat Launching Sequence and Timeline: From the time of the initial inquiries into the disaster, attempts were made to establish the time of launch for each of the ship's twenty lifeboats. Click here to purchase postcard-format copies of rare color illustrations of Olympic & Titanic's interior spaces. There always have been and always will be questions about what really happened on the night that the Titanic met her horrible fate.
However, if one carefully pieces the evidence from numerous eyewitness accounts and recent scientific discoveries together, it is surprising how much can actually be ascertained about some of these matters.
Perhaps all of these controversial matters, and all of the what-ifs associated with the great ship and her sinking are a part of the reason why the ship has fascinated so many for nearly a full century. Her legendary status has evoked more attention than any other Atlantic liner has ever received, and nine decades after the tragedy, we are still fascinated by her life and loss. To see new three-dimensional graphic renderings of the Titanic by Christian Stenfelt, please click here. Word breaks that Chief Officer Wilde of the Olympic, slated for his own Command (delayed by the coal strike) is to make a single round-trip voyage on the Titanic. First photographs of the ship in port are taken; by the end of the day, these images are already in curculation in post card format. Workmen can be seen repaining the ship's funnels in an iconic and rare stern-view photograph.
Local Southampton florist Frank Bealing, his son and a company foreman bring aboard the extensive floral arrangements for the ship's maiden voyage. Chief Officer Henry Wilde formally joins the ship, officially changing the ranks of the senior officers for the first time. Captain Maurice Clarke boards the Titanic, preparing to oversee the crew muster and lifeboat drill. Just after noon, the Titanic's whistles on the two forward funnels sound, indicating that the ship is about to depart. Titanic is shepherded into the main channel, and narrowly averts a collision with the docked liner SS New York. The tenders' work complete, they depart from Titanic; Titanic's anchors are hoisted and she departs Cherbourg bound for Queenstown, Ireland. Overnight, the ship's clocks were set back some 25 minutes from GMT to harmonize with Dublin Mean Time, which Queenstown clocks were set to. With the transfer of cargo, mails and passengers complete, Titanic weighs anchor and departs Queenstown Harbour.
Titanic reaches Daunt's Rock, the official 'starting point' for the trans-Atlantic crossing.
Ship's clocks are set back by 59 minutes (in two stages for Bridge time, in one stage for passenger spaces; for the crew, this meant a 29-minute setback in the first night watch, a 30 minute setback in the second).
SS Amerika sends a message warning of ice to Titanic for re-transmission to the Hydrographic Office in Washington, D.C.
First Officer Murdoch arrives on the Bridge, having finished his own dinner, to relieve Officer of the Watch (OOW) Second Officer Lightoller so Lightoller could have his own supper.
Captain Smith meets Bruce Ismay in the First Class Smoking Room and asks to have the Baltic telegram returned so he could post it in the Chart Room for the officers to see. Harold Bride hears a message from the Leyland liner Californian, warning of ice in the area. Fourth Officer Boxhall arrives on the Bridge to begin his watch, and finds Third Officer Pitman in the Chart Room working on the computations from the star sights.
Captain Smith, having left a dinner party in the First Class Restaurant on B Deck, arrives on the Bridge.
Second Officer Lightoller asks Sixth Officer Moody to call the lookouts in the Crow's Nest, and to tell them to 'keep a sharp lookout for ice, particularly small ice and growlers,' and to pass that warning on with each shift change until daylight. Quartermaster George Rowe, on Titanic's Stern Docking Bridge, notices an odd atmospheric phenomenon referred to as 'whiskers 'round the light'. In the intervening period, First Officer Murdoch had likely been scrutinizing the water ahead of the ship, carefully ascertaining the situation and what his best option for evasive action would be under the conditions he faced. Quartermaster Hichens, at the ship's wheel in the Wheelhouse, immediately - and correctly - carried out Murdoch's order; his action was carefully watched by Sixth Officer Moody, who stood beside him to ensure that there was no mistaken response. Titanic collides with the iceberg, opening a series of small deformations in her starboard side hull plates.
Thomas Andrews meets up with a number of First Class passengers forward on A Deck, along the rail overlooking the bow. The engines are rung off, possibly at the suggestion of Thomas Andrews if, indeed, he did proceed to the Bridge from A Deck, and possibly because of the list to starboard.
Bruce Ismay arrives on the Bridge, where Captain Smith informs him that the ship has struck ice. Very shortly after the engines are stopped, the pressure in the ship's steam-generating plant, already operating at very high pressure from the 24 double-ended boilers in operation, builds to the point that it lifts the safety valves. Fourth Officer Boxhall returns to the Bridge and tells Captain Smith that he saw no damage below in any of the passenger spaces. The lights fail in the stokeholds; Captain Smith is seen headed down toward the Engine Room. In the Forecastle Head, Boatswain's Mate Haines tells his men to get ready, that they may be needed at any moment.
Captain Smith is seen below, headed down in the direction of the Mail Room with Chief Purser McElroy and one of the Mail Clerks. Third Officer Pitman sees a group of firemen coming up from their quarters with their kits, as their spaces were flooding; he also sees water flooding G Deck in the No. Quartermaster Hichens, still at the ship's helm, hears Captain Smith order that the lifeboats should be swung out, and that the crew should begin to awaken passengers and have them come on deck with their lifebelts on.
Captain Smith then moves aft to the Marconi room, and tells Jack Phillips and Harold Bride to be prepared to send a CQD, but not to transmit it until his order.
Third Officer Pitman is told by First Officer Murdoch, then hard at work on preparing the starboard side lifeboats, to start work on Boat No. It is clear that between the time Captain Smith had left Andrews and this point, Andrews had ascertained that the situation was not only grave, but that the ship was doomed - and that she would not last for much longer. Thomas Andrews finds Captain Smith; their conversation most likely took place in the vicinity of the Bridge for the sake of privacy. The two men part company; Captain Smith immediately heads aft toward the Marconi wireless room.
Thomas Andrews moves into the First Class Entrance and begins circulating among passengers, telling them to don their lifebelts. On the port side of the Boat Deck, Second Officer Lightoller makes extensive preparations to load Boat No.

At around 12:40 am, First Officer Murdoch succeeds in lowering the first lifeboat to leave the ship, Boat No.
On the Bridge, Fourth Officer Boxhall has noticed the lights of another vessel on the horizon.
Photo above: The littoral combat ship Independence (LCS 2) underway during builder's trials.
Prior to delivery, the Navy's Board of Inspection and Survey (INSURV) conducted Acceptance Trials aboard LCS 2 on Nov. The Littoral Combat Ship is a major part of the Navy's plan to address asymmetric threats in the 21st century.
The new Enterprise is based on the winning entry to the Design the Next Enterprise Contest from Adam Ihle.
These ships look like they are designed to fly really fast through an atmosphere, or even under water or something. Seems like Star Trek never dared to be different beyond TNG until Abrams took it over and gave the ships a faithful yet original look.
No one could have predicted, however, that she would end her career only five days into her maiden voyage, and that she would become the most famous Atlantic liner of the twentieth century. Her sea trials were scheduled to take place on April 1, but due to bad weather these were delayed to April 2.
Over the course of the following days, final preparations were made to complete the ship and ready her for the maiden trip.
She left shortly after noon, and the maiden voyage nearly ended before it even began; as she passed the tied up liner New York, the suction from her passage through the water drew the smaller liner away from her pier, parted her lines and almost made her collide with the behemoth.
In October of 2005, Cameron released a Special Edition DVD which included many of the historical deleted scenes from the '97 film. Given an advance copy of the manuscript and pre-press layout, I was asked if I would consider contributing an Introduction to the book after considering the merit of its contents.
The most succinct, accurate and inclusive article on the subject presented to date is authored by veteran Titanic researcher Sam Halpern. Her B Deck window configuration has already been changed, but her A Deck Promenade remains open.
Many of these questions have been answered by the two formal investigations into the disaster, or over the years by various historians and scientists, who all add their findings into the collective story of the ship’s loss.
Even now, there is a massive interest in the ship and in the people that sailed aboard her. The ship is dressed in flags as a salute to the city of Southampton (not for the holidays, as currently supposed). Fourth Officer Boxhall and Second Officer Blair mail copies of these before the day is out. By that time, the ship had been berthed against the dock again; this was most likely done very soon after the coaling process was complete, but it is difficult to pinpoint an exact time for that action. He is assisted by Lightoller and Murdoch for many hours as he carefully checks to make sure that Titanic meets safety requirements. Carpets are still being laid, decorators are hard at work finishing up last-minute details aboard the liner. It seems likely that extra flowers were brought in to help mask the smell of all of the fresh paint applied during the ship's stay in Southampton, both inside and out. Lightoller (and likely Murdoch) do not have time to change their uniform rank insignia before the voyage (as seen in a photograph taken on 11 April), causing later confusion among crew and passengers alike.
She pauses for this incident, and again afterward to disembark un-needed extra standby crewmen via tug.
According to some sources, the ship does not pause to drop off Pilot George Bowyer, apparently to help make up for the time lost through three separate delays in her departure. She makes the trip to Queenstown at 20.7 knots through the water, steaming through the night and following morning. The tenders Ireland and America carry baggage, cargo, mails and additional passengers to the ship, along with photographers and reporters who document the ship's brief first stay in that port.
When the run is posted, this is considered a disappointment by many, and some conclude that the ship will not be able to dock in New York on Tuesday evening as previously expected.
2 are connected to the engines, increasing the liner's speed to the fastest she had traveled up to that time during the voyage.
Harold Bride jotted the message down and acknowledge to the Californian that he had received it; he then proceeded to the Bridge and handed it to the Officer of the Watch within about two minutes' time. These consist of tiny ice particles in the air getting caught in the glow of the deck lights, giving off a prism of color. They sound the warning bell three times, and Fleet lifts the handset on the telephone receiver to call the Bridge. He, along with Murdoch and Boxhall, step out onto the starboard Bridge wing to see if they can locate the iceberg astern. A number of passengers, who clearly recalled that the ship's engines stopped immediately after the collision, felt them re-start now, but not at high speed as they had been before the impact. He makes several brief reassurances of the ship's safety, then leaves, likely headed directly for the Bridge. Moving forward to the bottom of the Forepeak Storeroom, they descend to the top of the Peak Tank, but can find no damage or water.
The excess steam begins to 'blow off' in a thunderous racket which creates confusion and hampers communication on deck. In the Dining Saloon, James Johnstone watches Thomas Andrews return to D Deck from below, move forward through the Saloon, and then back down forward toward the Mail Room. Chief Officer Wilde orders Quartermaster Olliver to find the Boatswain and have him begin preparing the boats.
Fourth Officer Boxhall returns from the Mail Room and tells Captain Smith about the flooding. On his way up, he is seen in the vicinity of the forward Grand Staircase by a number of individuals, including Violet Jessop. This was a pro-active measure on Smith's part, as he had not yet discovered the ship was sinking. 5 is lowering away, likely to find Wilde and Lightoller in order to find the officers' arms and ammunition.
At this time, he fires the first of a series of distress rockets in an attempt to contact her. 8 is lowered from the port side; Captain Smith tells its crew to row to the ship on the horizon. Despite the weather, the ship repeatedly reached speeds of over 45 knots with propulsion and ride-control systems operating in full automatic mode, proving the effectiveness of the control systems and the highly efficient and stable characteristics of the trimaran hull form. If required, the entire bridge area can be reconfigured to meet specific mission requirement, support distributed operations on board or reconfigured to recover from combat damage. Construction of the second ship of this class has begun on December 2009 with the keel laying ceremony of the Independence sister ship - Coronado (LCS-4), shceduled for delivery by in June 2012. Since then they have been developing the design into a functional model for the Star Trek Online game and this week they have revealed the final ship.
At the time of her launch, on May 31, 1911, she was virtually indistinguishable from the Olympic.
They were carried out over the course of several hours, and the ship passed with flying colors. This included ensuring that she had enough coal for her trip, a difficulty since a coal strike that had nearly crippled the British shipping industry had only just ended. Only quick action by the Harbor Pilot and Captain, as well as tugboats on the scene, prevented the collision.
A 'full speed' test had been agreed upon for Monday by the ship's Captain and White Star's Managing Director, J.
On April 6, 2012, the film will be re-released in theaters; it is currently underoing conversion to 3-D, and will be shown in both standard and 3-D formats in theaters during the centennial anniversary of the disaster.

Kent Layton and Bill Wormstedt, it will be one of the most groundbreaking and inclusive publications on the subject ever published. As I went through the book, it became apparent that this was going to be a fantastic look at the disaster from an analytical perspective. Other questions can only be answered with new scientific discoveries and forensic analysis made on the wreck today by various organizations and science teams. Certainly, the Titanic disaster has become legendary as a symbol of man’s arrogance falling before the whims of nature, and she was an object lesson that is still as modern as the day she sank. The coaling begins; this process lasts approximately two working days, ending late 5 April.
When she resumes course after all of these delays, she is behind schedule by nearly an hour. The ship makes the cross-Channel passage through open water of some 66 nm at 20.2 knots through the water.
During the afternoon, word begins to spread among passengers and crew alike that a Tuesday evening docking is again likely. The two men converse for 20-30 minutes about the calm weather, and the ability to spot icebergs under such less than ideal circumstances.
The reasons for this order are unclear, but it was not under pressure from anyone like Bruce Ismay, as Ismay had not arrived on the Bridge yet.
Ascending to the tip of the Forecastle, they find that the hissing is from air being forced out of the Forepeak vent pipe, as water rushed into the tank below. At the same time, Jessop sees members of the ship's orchestra beginning to assemble and head up the stairs, as well.
Because of the continuing racket of steam, communication on the Boat Deck along both sides is significantly hampered. He took the steps three at a time as he rushed up, hardly pausing to acknowledge anyone's queries. He has the boat lowered to the Promenade Deck, and has Sixth Officer Moody coordinate with other crewmen to load the boat once it comes even with the rail. Bruce Ismay has been attempting to instill a sense of urgency in the work there, ordering Pitman to load the boat. It experiences some difficulty during the lowering process, but eventually reaches the sea safely. Navy to operate the ship underway, and provide an opportunity to test and correct issues before acceptance trials. Sustained high speed performance was part of the Navy's requirements and the Independence demonstrated that sailing at a speed of 44 knots during the required four-hour full-power run, peaking at 45 kt maximum speed. During her fitting-out process, however, some changes were made to her design that made her slightly larger in enclosed space than the Olympic (some 1,004 tons, to be exact). The Titanic had a normal coal-carrying capacity of 6,611 tons (an additional 1,092 tons could be carried in a reserve coal bunker). Bruce Ismay, and there is clear evidence to show that there was a plan to - weather permitting - bring the ship into New York on Tuesday night rather than Wednesday morning. Over subsequent years, salvage efforts have recovered hundreds of items from the site, and three expeditions by film director James Cameron have added immeasurably to the collective wealth of knowledge about the Titanic.
It was so fresh and well put together that I did not hesitate to agree to pen the Introduction.
Many more are not answerable, and we only have a few tantalizing clues as to the truth about what took place. That lesson is still felt every time there is an airplane crash, another sea disaster, an earthquake or a flood – and even on September 11, 2001. Those who beat the train manage to board the ship, while the others are waved off by Sixth Officer Moody. He shows the ladies the ice warning from the Baltic, received earlier in the day, which Captain Smith had loaned him that afternoon.
1 remain unlit, but it seems likely that they would have been lit late that night or on the following morning. A number of passengers notice throughout the night that the enines are driving the ship harder than at any previous point during the voyage. As the ship's hull flared from a point, and her turn remained steady, each succeeding instance of damage was longer than its predecessor. As they discover the source of the damage, Boatswain's Mate Haines and Chief Officer Wilde come by.
James Johnstone observes Thomas Andrews hurrying through the Dining Saloon, moving aft toward the Pantry stairs to E Deck. Steward Wheat meets up with Johnstone; when Johnstone moves off to dress, Wheat watches the water flood the Mail Room. Unfortunately, no one realized that the Promenade Deck windows were closed; much time was subsequently lost looking for the cranks to open them up. Pitman, unaware of Ismay's identity, tells Captain Smith; Smith tells Pitman to load the boat. As two male passengers boarded the boat as it lowered, without authorization, and injuring at least one female passenger in the process, one of the officers - likely Murdoch - calls out that he 'was going to be below decks and get his gun.' While Murdoch had no problem allowing male passengers into lifeboats on the starboard side, he was not about to allow chaos to break out.
13 is washed aft by the water flowing from the starboard condenser discharge, and is nearly crushed by Boat No. The ship will be commissioned on January 16 and is expected to be ready for 'Sail Away' status by February 2010. Her B Deck staterooms were increased in number, effacing the Enclosed First Class Promenades and changing her exterior window configuration. By the time the Titanic left, those in charge of the matter had managed to provide her with 5,892 tons of coal.
Six small areas of damage were punched in her forward, starboard hull plates, and water began entering her forward six compartments.
Sadly, it has become clear that the wreck is beginning to give way to the elements and is deteriorating rapidly. Is it likely that the first lifeboat was lowered away far earlier than has been previously supposed, or does a preponderence of the evidence support a timeline closer to that which was arrived at by the formal inquiries? Another delay occurs when a straggler delivery boy makes his way to the aft gangway, attempting to disembark before the ship casts off. The final stretch of damage, running about forty-five feet, ran the length of Boiler Room No. Her First Class Restaurant was increased in size due to the popularity of the Olympic's Restaurant. This meant that the ship had 89.12% of her ordinary coal carrying capacity on board when she left Southampton on April 10.
Her forward five compartments were flooding uncontrollably, and her designer, Thomas Andrews predicted that she would be able to remain afloat for an hour to an hour and a half.
These calculations finally lay to rest the myth that the Titanic was short of coal during that abortive voyage.
This article was originally published in The Titanic Commutator, in abridged format, but has recently been revised and expanded by the authors.
Instead of waiting idly, Second Officer Lightoller moves aft, directing his attention to preparing Boat No. As you will see, the most in-depth research on the subject has turned up some startling evidence.
Above, on A Deck, the ship's forward Promenade Deck was screened off with square sliding windows to protect passengers from the elements. To prevent foul weather and winds from funneling down the length of the deck, a bulwark was erected just under the port and starboard Bridge wings which contained both a door and window each.

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