UPDATE: A new 2015 Version of the Marketing Technology Landscape Supergraphic is now available.
Its purpose is to illustrate how incredibly diverse and vibrant the marketing technology ecosystem is. Many companies could make a case for being in multiple categories, but in the interest of diversity, there are few duplicate entries.
Three notes: First, my own company, ion interactive, is included in the graphic in the landing pages circle (which is part of the testing and optimization sphere, which is part of the broader web site constellation). Great infographic, some estimate that Marketing in the next decade will be bigger spender on Technology that IT groups within companies. According to our knowledge we define that the marketing automation as, It is the Software solution that designed to simplify the online processes by repeatation of tasks.Can u briefly explain about technologification. Thank you for the monumental piece of work, which you thankfully just had to update this year! A labour of love, no doubt, buddy media and radian6 are now merged to be the Salesforce Marketing Cloud.
I have been following your infographic for a while now and this the IInd update I am looking at. Hi Mark – Where is Epsilon in this Landscape – I wanted to explore them as a potential player in the marketing suite for my company? Couldn’t agree more with the sentiment that strategy (and for that matter people and culture) trump tools.
You have done an amazing job in putting this together, I took on the task recently in our company to undergo a complete market analysis and I will be using this as a boost in the right direction.
I think our company fits in on this to date, we have been laying low up until now, but we are rapidly growing and find that nobody meets the demand of the market quite like us! Thank you again for the valuable insight into the market, please feel free to reach out to me I would love to chat about this topic with you!
Hi Scott, do you have an updated 2013 version of the Marketing Technology Landscape you did back in Sept 2012? This is such a great overview of the marketing landscape, I’m wondering if anyone (or you Scott) have come across one for the IT Landscape in general?
Explore your local network's topology, document LAN layout, and create diagrams easily with our network diagrammer program! Create and save network diagrams in popular graphical formats, copy and paste diagrams to documents, print them, or export to Microsoft Visio for further processing. Our program will discover your network topology and you can draw network diagrams easily using our powerful network diagram editor. Would you like to draw a network map but you do not know how to work with MS Visio and other complicated products? Try our program for free and see how fast and easily you can draw LAN diagrams and discover network topology in the automatic mode using SNMP. Would you like to inspect and discover networks at your customer's sites and save network diagrams for future analyzing? Scan your prospect's networks using a laptop with our network diagrammer program, build network diagrams and maps, save or print them, and decide how to deploy your devices better into the existing prospect's network infrastructure.
A ready network diagram can be saved as a vector (Windows Metafile) or raster (JPEG, PNG, BMP) image, or exported to a Microsoft Visio document. Starting from the version 2.2, the program can create global networks diagrams using route tracing. 10-Strike Network Diagram has a more powerful graphics engine with vector icons support, but it cannot monitor state of your network devices as 10-Strike LANState Pro can. From A Dictionary Practical, Theoretical, and Historical of Commerce and Commercial Navigation by J.R. Our thanks go to Juan Ysidro Tineo Alvarado for providing these map scans and translations. Our thanks go to Juan Ysidro Tineo Alvarado for providing us with this map scan and translation. From Imperial Outposts, from a Strategical and Commercial Aspect, with Special Reference to the Japanese Alliance, by Colonel A. The following maps are from Shihan Gakkou henshuu [Teacher School Edition], Nihon Chishi Ryaku II [Japanese Topography Outline, Volume II]. A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical of Commerce and Commercial Navigation, by J.R. Maps from the New Encylopedic Atlas and Gazetter of the World by William Patte and James E.
The Founding Fathers, the framers of the Constitution, wanted to form a government that did not allow one person to have too much authority or control.
With this in mind the framers wrote the Constitution to provide for a separation of powers, or three separate branches of government. This chapter defines natural hazards and their relationship to natural resources (they are negative resources), to environment (they are an aspect of environmental problems), and to development (they are a constraint to development and can be aggravated by it). The planning process in development areas does not usually include measures to reduce hazards, and as a consequence, natural disasters cause needless human suffering and economic losses. Although humans can do little or nothing to change the incidence or intensity of most natural phenomena, they have an important role to play in ensuring that natural events are not converted into disasters by their own actions. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of slowly accumulated strain energy along a fault in the earth's crust, Earthquakes and volcanoes occur most commonly at the collision zone between tectonic plates.
Volcanoes are perforations in the earth's crust through which molten rock and gases escape to the surface. Hazards associated with volcanic eruptions include lava flows, falling ash and projectiles, mudflows, and toxic gases.
Recent development literature sometimes makes a distinction between "environmental projects" and "development projects." "Environmental projects" include objectives such as sanitation, reforestation, and flood control, while "development projects" may focus on potable water supplies, forestry, and irrigation. Indeed, in high-risk areas, sustainable development is only possible to the degree that development planning decisions, in both the public and private sectors, address the destructive potential of natural hazards. Experiences both in and out of Latin American and the Caribbean show that the record of hazard mitigation is improving. A study in the San Fernando Valley, California, after the 1971 earthquake showed that of 568 older school buildings that did not satisfy the requirements of the Field Act (a law stipulating design standards), 50 were so badly damaged that they had to be demolished. Mitigation techniques can also lengthen the warning period before a volcanic eruption, making possible the safe evacuation of the population at risk.
Sectoral hazard assessments conducted by the OAS of, among others, energy in Costa Rica and agriculture in Ecuador have demonstrated the savings in capital and continued production that can be realized with very modest investments in the mitigation of natural hazard threats through vulnerability reduction and better sectoral planning. Two types of flooding can be distinguished: (1) land-borne floods, or river flooding, caused by excessive run-off brought on by heavy rains, and (2) sea-borne floods, or coastal flooding, caused by storm surges, often exacerbated by storm run-off from the upper watershed. Storm surges are an abnormal rise in sea water level associated with hurricanes and other storms at sea. The most significant damage often results from the direct Impact of waves on fixed structures. Hooding of deltas and other low-lying coastal areas is exacerbated by the influence of tidal action, storm waves, and frequent channel shifts. Land-borne floods occur when the capacity of stream channels to conduct wafer is exceeded and water overflows banks.
Tsunamis are long-period waves generated by disturbances such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and undersea landslides.
Hurricanes are tropical depressions which develop into severe storms characterized by winds directed inward in a spiraling pattern toward the center. Desertification, or resource degradation in arid lands that creates desert conditions, results from interrelated and interdependent sets of actions, usually brought on by drought combined with human and animal population pressure. Overgrazing Is a frequent practice In dry lands and is the single activity that most contributes to desertification. Soil erosion and the resulting sedimentation constitute major natural hazards that produce social and economic losses of great consequence.
Saline water is common in dry regions, and soils derived from chemically weathered marine deposits (such as shale) are often saline. Earthquake-resistant construction and floodproofing of buildings are examples of measures that can increase the capacity of facilities to withstand the impact of a natural hazard. The high density of population and expensive infrastructure of cities makes them more susceptible to the impacts of natural events. For small towns and villages non-structural mitigation measures may be the only affordable alternative.
The physical characteristics of the land, land-use patterns, susceptibility to particular hazards, income level, and cultural characteristics similarly condition the options of an area in dealing with natural hazards.3.
Planning agencies are often unfamiliar with natural hazard information, or how to use it in development planning. Line ministries similarly have little familiarity with natural hazard information or with the techniques of adapting it for use in planning.
The emergency preparedness community has tended to view its role exclusively as preparing for and reacting to emergencies and has therefore neglected linking preparedness to long-term mitigation issues.
The scientific and engineering community often sets its agenda for research and monitoring on the basis of its own scientific interests without giving due consideration to the needs of vulnerability reduction or emergency preparedness. Technical cooperation agencies do not normally include natural hazard assessment and vulnerability reduction activities as a standard part of their project preparation process. Development financing agencies engage actively in post-disaster reconstruction measures, yet do not insist on hazard assessment, mitigation, and vulnerability reduction measures in their ordinary (non-disaster-related) development loans, and are reluctant to incorporate such considerations into project evaluation. Other institutional considerations: Knowledge of and experience with hazard management techniques are rare commodities in most agencies in Latin America and the Caribbean. At the national level, giving a single entity total responsibility for hazard management tends to cause other agencies to see it as an adversary. Similarly, at the project level responsibility for mitigating the impact of natural hazards does not lie with a single individual or component but is an overall responsibility of the project, requiring the cooperation of all components. Post-disaster reconstruction activities often lack support for hazard assessments intended to ensure characterize potential hazardous events.
For purposes of this discussion, development planning is considered the process by which governments produce plans-consisting of policies, projects, and supporting actions-to guide economic, social, and spatial development over a period of time.
The natural hazard management process can be divided into pre-event measures, actions during and immediately following an event, and post-disaster measures.
An accurate and timely prediction of a hazardous event can save human lives but does little to reduce economic losses or social disruption; that can only be accomplished by measures taken longer in advance. Disaster mitigation also includes the data collection and analysis required to identify and evaluate appropriate measures and include them in development planning. Studies that assess hazards provide information on the probable location and severity of dangerous natural phenomena and the likelihood of their occurring within a specific time period in a given area.
Vulnerability studies estimate the degree of loss or damage that would result from the occurrence of a natural phenomenon of given severity. Even short notice of the probable occurrence and effects of a natural phenomenon is of great importance in reducing loss of life and property. Some hazards, such as hurricanes and floods, can be forecast with high accuracy, but most geologic events cannot. Major sources of livelihood of the population, such as industries, banking and commerce buildings, public markets, agroprocessing plants and areas of agricultural production, livestock, forestry, mines, and fisheries production. Buildings such as schools, churches, auditoriums, theatres, public markets, and public and private office buildings. Buildings of significant cultural and community value or use, and buildings of architectural importance. Emergency preparedness is aimed at minimizing the loss of life and property during a natural event. Two levels of preparedness can be identified: public safety information and hazard awareness planning. Concurrent with or immediately after relief activities, post-disaster rehabilitation is carried out to restore the normal functions of public services, business, and commerce, to repair housing and other structures, and to return production facilities to operation. Education and training, both formal and informal, prepare people at all levels to participate in hazard management. Informal learning can be delivered through brochures, booklets, and audio and video tapes prepared by national and international agencies involved in disaster preparedness and mitigation programs, and through the national media. Finally, direct observation after a disaster has proved to be one of the most effective means of learning. Integrated development planning is a multidisciplinary, multisectoral approach to planning. Issues in the relevant economic and social sectors are brought together and analyzed vis-a-vis the needs of the population and the problems and opportunities of the associated natural resource base. This presentation of the procedures of an integrated study features the incorporation of hazard management considerations at each stage. How and by whom can the assessment information be summarized for project formulation and action plan preparation?
In Phase I, the team analyzes the study region and arrives at detailed estimates of development potentials and problems of the region and selected target areas. At the end of Phase I a development strategy and a set of project profiles are submitted to the government. The fourth stage of the development planning process helps implement the proposals by preparing the institutional, financial, and technical mechanisms necessary for successful execution and operation. Even though integrated development planning and hazard management are usually treated in Latin America and the Caribbean as parallel processes that intermix little with each other, it is clear that they should be able to operate more effectively in coordination, since their goals are the same-the protection of investment and improved human well-being-and they deal with similar units of space. Too often, as designers, we just let the CMS we’re using dictate how content for a site is organized. It includes over 350 different companies, from small start-ups to Fortune 500 giants, across 45 different categories, from agile management to video marketing.
Under constraints of time and space, there are many companies and categories that weren’t included and that no doubt deserve to be.
As a result, for instance, you could implement analytics solutions from Chartbeat, Clicktale, ClearSaleing, and Compete with almost no overlap in functionality. Second, the inspiration for this came from the wonderful LUMAscapes produced by LUMA Partners. I’m confident that in the long run the profession will get over the learning curve of mastering these many technological tools necessary for Marketing. However, I am thinking about some options to make this more systematic and database-driven in the future. Almost frightening to see all the logos and equally frightening to realize how many I know or use!


Without eZ in there you are missing the largest commercial open source web content management development platform.
Much appreciated and yes this piece of work will be shared and rightly credited to you as your expertise and altruism deserves to be known on both sides of the pond!
It certainly demonstrates just how many tools and applications there are out there to choose from; a choice that can be quite overwhelming! Nice work and don’t mean to be negative but there are tools and then there is strategy. Local business can’t get straight another piece to the puzzle, which is why we are building this automated system to manage everything in one place, with one entry. According to user-defined IP ranges and scanning methods, the application attempts to locate devices within the network. The program can print the diagram on paper with options for setting the printing quality, position on page, and page orientation. In addition to almost the same network diagrammer features as 10-Strike Network Diagram has, LANState Pro contains a network device status monitor that allows you to see the state of network devices on a graphic diagram in the real time, and to receive notifications when your network devices go down or recover. This is the main difference between these two mapping programs while the network topology discovery engine is the same. Each has its own responsibilities and at the same time they work together to make the country run smoothly and to assure that the rights of citizens are not ignored or disallowed.
The chapter demonstrates that the means of reducing the impact of natural hazards is now available. From the early stages, planners should assess natural hazards as they prepare investment projects and should promote ways of avoiding or mitigating damage caused by floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural catastrophic events.
A physical event, such as a volcanic eruption, that does not affect human beings is a natural phenomenon but not a natural hazard. It is important to understand that human intervention can increase the frequency and severity of natural hazards.
Subsidence occurs in waterlogged soils, fill, alluvium, and other materials that are prone to settle.
Explosions pose a risk by scattering rock blocks, fragments, and lava at varying distances from the source. Flows vary in nature (mud, ash, lava) and quantity and may originate from multiple sources. Volcanic activity may also trigger other natural hazardous events including local tsunamis, deformation of the landscape, floods when lakes are breached or when streams and rivers are dammed, and tremor-provoked landslides. Landslides can be triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, soils saturated by heavy rain or groundwater rise, and river undercutting. These often collect at the cliff base in the form of talus slopes which may pose an additional risk.
If the displacement occurs in surface material without total deformation it is called a slump.
Although associated with gentle topography, these liquefaction phenomena can travel significant distances from their origin.
Rockfalls are obvious dangers to life and property but, in general, they pose only a localized threat due to their limited areal influence. In this sense, too, natural hazards must be considered an integral aspect of the development planning process. But the project-by-project approach is clearly an ineffective means of promoting socioeconomic well-being. This approach is particularly relevant in post-disaster situations, when tremendous pressures are brought to bear on local, national, and international agencies to replace, frequently on the same site, destroyed facilities. The installation of warning systems in several Caribbean countries has reduced the loss of human life due to hurricanes.
Experience of the city of Los Angeles, California, indicates that adequate grading and soil analysis ordinances can reduce landslide losses by 97 percent (Petak and Atkisson, 1982).
But all of the 500 school buildings that met seismic-resistance standards suffered no structural damage (Bolt, 1988).
Sensitive monitoring devices can now detect increasing volcanic activity months in advance of an eruption. Indirect impacts include flooding and undermining of major infrastructure such as highways and railroads. Floods are natural phenomena, and may be expected to occur at irregular intervals on all stream and rivers. They are generated over warm ocean water at low latitudes and are particularly dangerous due to their destructive potential, large zone of influence, spontaneous generation, and erratic movement.
Damage results from the wind's direct impact on fixed structures and from wind-borne objects. The quantity of rainfall is dependent on the amount of moisture in the air, the speed of the hurricane's movement, and its size.
Dry-land farming refers to rain-fed agriculture In semiarid regions where water is the principal factor limiting crop production. Erosion occurs in all climatic conditions, but is discussed as an arid zone hazard because together with salinization, it is a major proximate cause of desertification. Sediment movement and subsequent deposition in reservoirs and river beds reduces the useful lives of water storage reservoirs, aggravates flood water damage, impedes navigation, degrades water quality, damages crops and infrastructure, and results in excessive wear of turbines and pumps. Usually, however, saline soils have received salts transported by water from other locations. Measures such as zoning ordinances, insurance, and tax incentives, which direct uses away from hazard-prone areas, lead to impact avoidance.2. Mitigation measures are both more critically needed and more amenable to economic justification than in less-developed areas. Such settlements rely on the government to only a limited extent for warning of an impending hazard or assistance in dealing with it. Projects for the development of road, energy, telecommunications, irrigation systems, etc., often lack hazard mitigation consideration. Furthermore, emergency centers have paid insufficient attention to the vulnerability of their own infrastructure.
For example, a volcano may be selected for monitoring because of its scientific research value rather than its proximity to population centers. But they usually have little opportunity to participate in the preparation of large infrastructure and production projects that impinge on them, and even less in setting agendas for natural hazard assessment and vulnerability reduction. Thus, if a technical cooperation agency proposes to incorporate these ideas into planning and project formulation, it invariably has to overcome the skepticism of the relevant local personnel. For example, casualty insurance companies could offer a large premium differential for earthquake- and hurricane-resistant construction. Instead, each agency that formulates projects as part of its standard activities should appreciate the importance of introducing hazard considerations into the process of project formulation. Ideally, a natural hazard assessment promotes an awareness of the issue in a developing region, evaluates the threat of natural hazards, identifies the additional information needed for a definitive evaluation, and recommends appropriate means of obtaining it. The hazard management process consists of a number of activities designed to reduce loss of life and destruction of property.
Included in the concept of disaster mitigation is the basic assumption that the impact of disasters can be avoided or reduced when they have been anticipated during development planning. The prediction of a natural event is a direct outcome of scientific investigation into its causes and is aimed at establishing the probability of the next occurrence in terms of time, place, and range of severity.
Preparedness includes actions taken in anticipation of the event and special activities both during and immediately after the event. The first includes a number of efforts aimed at increasing the amount of information disseminated to the public and at promoting cooperation between the public and the authorities in case of an emergency. However, their efforts must usually be complemented with those of national or regional authorities.
However, mitigation is often ignored in this phase: rehabilitation proceeds without any measures to reduce the chances of the same impact if the event happens again. Universities, research centers, and international development assistance agencies play the leading formal role in preparing individuals in a variety of skill levels such as natural hazards assessment, risk reduction, and natural phenomena prediction.
Additionally, courses, workshops, conferences, and seminars organized by national and international disaster assistance agencies disseminate great amounts of information on natural hazard management strategies.
Post-disaster investigations describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of natural hazards, often improving on information produced by modelling and conjecture by indicating areas where development should be extremely limited or should not take place.
A key element of this process is the generation of investment projects, defined as an investment of capital to create assets capable of generating a stream of benefits over time.
The relationships of the integrated development planning process, the hazard management process, and the project cycle are summarized in Figure 1-4. Experience has shown that this joint effort of OAS staff and local planners and decision-makers is frequently the most critical event in the entire study. For example, the National Environmental Study of Uruguay conducted by the OAS with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank determined in the preliminary mission that natural hazards were an important environmental problem, and consequently an assessment of all significant hazards, to be conducted by reviewing existing information, was programmed for Phase I. If they are not, determine what additional data collection, hazard assessment, remote sensing, or specialized equipment will be needed for the next stage of the study. From this analysis a multisectoral development strategy and a set of project profiles are prepared for review by government decision-makers.
Identify cause-and-effect relationships between natural events and between natural events and human activity. Examples of such studies include those for the development of the San Miguel-Putumayo River Basin, conducted in support of the Colombia-Ecuador Joint Commission of the Amazon Cooperation Project, and for the Dominican Republic and Haiti Frontier Development Projects.
For hurricanes and geologic hazards, the existing information will probably suffice; if the information on geologic hazards is inadequate, an outside agency should be asked to conduct an analysis. For example, the multimillion-dollar program for the development of the metropolitan area of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, featured landslide mitigation components. If not, will additional assessment activities take place within or outside of the planning study? Efforts made to consider hazards in previous stages will be lost unless mitigation measures are closely adhered to during the projects' execution. Point out hazardous situations for which the study did not propose vulnerability reduction measures. The possibility increases if they are part of specific development projects rather than stand-alone disaster mitigation proposals.
For example, geographic information systems created for hazard management purposes can serve more general planning needs. In the Jamaica study of the vulnerability of the tourism sector to natural hazards, for example, solutions were proposed for most of the problems identified, but no economically viable solutions were found for others. For example, when a planning team determines that a volcano with short-term periodicity located close to a population center is not being monitored, it can recommend a change in the priorities of the agency responsible.
A clear example of this situation was the landslide mitigation components of the metropolitan Tegucigalpa study: the principal beneficiaries were the thousands of the city's poor living in the most hazard-prone areas. The labels in our industry are in flux, as are many of the companies themselves, which are constantly adding new features, acquiring new products, and pivoting to new positions. Where I go broad, they go deep, with several amazing and thorough diagrams of subindustries within marketing.
Possibly a solution to make it more comprehensive (and easy to update when I realize I left someone important out!). But I find it fascinating to get a glimpse of the breadth and depth of marketing software out there.
Available search methods include pinging over ICMP, scanning specified TCP ports, and attempting to convert IP address to MAC (ARP). With simple manipulations, required icons can be placed on a diagram, linked with connection lines, and marked with areas. The factors that influence susceptibility to vulnerability reduction-the nature of the hazard, the nature of the study area, and institutional factors-are discussed. For example, when the toe of a landslide is removed to make room for a settlement, the earth can move again and bury the settlement. This process uses methods of systems analysis and conflict management to arrive at an equitable distribution of costs and benefits, and in doing so it links the quality of human life to environmental quality.
Rows and lateral spreads (liquefaction phenomena) are among the most destructive geologic hazards.
In contrast, slides, avalanches, flows, and lateral spreads, often having great areal extent, can result in massive loss of lives and property.
Development projects, if they are to be sustainable, must incorporate sound environmental management.
It is at such times that the pressing need for natural hazard and risk assessment information and its incorporation into the development planning process become most evident.
Prohibition of permanent settlement in floodplains, enforced by selective insurance coverage, has significantly reduced flood damage in many vulnerable areas. Still more sophisticated assessment, monitoring, and alert systems are becoming available for volcanic eruption, hurricane, tsunami, and earthquake hazards.
Water level is controlled by wind, atmospheric pressure, existing astronomical tide, waves and swell, local coastal topography and bathymetry, and the storm's proximity to the coast. The cycles of dry and wet periods pose serious problems for pastoralists and farmers who gamble on these cycles. The failure to properly price water from irrigation projects can create a great demand for such projects and result in misuse of available water, causing waterlogging and salinization. But techniques are becoming available, experiences are being analyzed and transmitted, the developing countries have demonstrated their interest, and the lending agencies are discussing their support. Urban areas are likely to have or are able to establish the institutional arrangements necessary for hazard management. Thus organizing the local community to cope with hazards is a special aspect of hazard management. These varied and sometimes conflicting viewpoints can add to the constraints of planning and putting into operation a hazard management program, but having advance knowledge of the difficulties each may present can help the practitioner deal with them.
Furthermore, ministries tend to have little experience in collaborating with each other to identify the interrelationships between projects or to define common information requirements so that information that suits the needs of many users can be collected cooperatively. Valuable information on hazards is often published in scientific journals in abstruse language. Hazard considerations must be introduced earlier in the process so that projects are prepared with these constraints in mind.
He suggests that governments should specify the desired outcome of policy, but leave the method of achieving that outcome to the economic actors. Planning agencies should take an advocacy position on hazard management and on introducing non-structural mitigation strategies early in the planning process.


Mitigation of disasters usually entails reducing the vulnerability of the elements at risk, modifying the hazard-proneness of the site, or changing its function.
Between November 1982 and June 1983, heavy rains created the most dramatic series of floods reported this century, affecting 12,000 square kilometers in this region, with total losses estimated at US$1,200 million.
Historical information, both written reports and oral accounts from long-term residents, also helps characterize potential hazardous events.
Increasingly sophisticated monitoring stations, both manned and remote, collect information of potentially hazardous events for more accurate prediction. In the case of tsunamis, for example, the Pacific Warning Center, which constantly monitors the oceans, provides advance notice that varies from ten minutes to a few hours. In the course of an event, or in its aftermath, social and public behavior undergoes important changes. The keystones of post-disaster relief are the preparation of lifelines or critical facilities for emergency response, training, disaster rehearsals, and the identification and allocation of local and external resources. In developing countries, road systems that are flooded or blocked by landslides year after year are commonly rebuilt at the same site and with similar design specifications. These activities are also carried out by operational entities such as ministries of agriculture, transportation, public works, and defense.
A project may be independent or part of a package of projects comprising an integrated development effort. Because the process is cyclical, activities relating to more than one stage can take place at the same time. Phase I also includes a detailed assessment of natural hazards and the elements at risk in highly vulnerable areas which facilitates the early introduction of non-structural mitigation measures. In the hilly Chixoy region of Guatemala, for example, it was found that inappropriate road construction methods were causing landslides and that landslides, in turn, were the main problem of road maintenance. For flooding, landslides, and desertification, the planning team itself should be able to supplement the existing information and prepare analyses. The study of the vulnerability of the Ecuadorian agriculture sector to natural hazards and of ways to reduce the vulnerability of lifelines in St. Flood alert and control projects were central elements in the comprehensive Water Resource Management and Flood Disaster Reconstruction Project for Alagoas, Brazil. Use personnel who participated in the studies in public meetings to promote the concept of vulnerability reduction. Furthermore, including vulnerability reduction components in a development project can improve the cost-benefit of the overall project if risk considerations are included in the evaluation. Without a clear understanding of how information architecture works, we can end up creating sites that are more confusing than they need to be or, at worst, make our content virtually inaccessible. Please, take a look to Equifax value proposition, it could fit in some categories (analytics for sure).
The application runs several parallel threads for searching for devices within a specified range.
The core of the chapter explains how to incorporate natural hazard management into the process of integrated development planning, describing the process used by the OAS-Study Design, Diagnosis, Action Proposals, Implementation-and the hazard management activities associated with each phase.
It is hoped that familiarizing planners with an approach for incorporating natural hazard management into development planning can improve the planning process in Latin America and the Caribbean and thereby reduce the impact of natural hazards.
Hazards to human beings not necessarily related to the physical environment, such as infectious disease, are also excluded from consideration here. In the planning work, then, the environment-the structure and function of the ecosystems that surround and support human life-represents the conceptual framework. Although landslides are highly localized, they can be particularly hazardous due to their frequency of occurrence.
Mudflows, associated with volcanic eruptions, can travel at great speed from their point of origin and are one of the most destructive volcanic hazards. By definition, this means that they must be designed to improve the quality of life and to protect or restore environmental quality at the same time and must also ensure that resources will not be degraded and that the threat of natural hazards will not be exacerbated. Characteristics of coastal flooding caused by tsunamis are the same as those of storm surges. During wet periods, the sizes of herds are increased and cultivation is extended into drier areas. The nature of dry-land farming makes it a hazardous practice which can only succeed if special conservation measures such as stubble mulching, summer fallow, strip cropping, and clean tillage are followed. Salts accumulate because of flooding of low-lying lands, evaporation from depressions having no outlets, and the rise of ground water close to soil surfaces. If these favorable tendencies can be encouraged, significant reduction of the devastating effects of hazards on development in Latin America and the Caribbean is within reach.
The scientific community should ensure that data are translated into a form suitable for use by hazard management practitioners. The problem lies with both the lender and the recipient: the stricken country rarely includes this item in its request, but when it does, the lending agencies often reject it. Mitigation measures can have a structural character, such as the inclusion of specific safety or vulnerability reduction measures in the design and construction of new facilities, the retrofitting of existing facilities, or the building of protective devices.
Subsequently, Peru transferred six of the most affected villages to higher elevations (a non-structural mitigation measure), and introduced special adobe-building techniques to strengthen new constructions against earthquakes and floods (a structural mitigation measure).
Ideally, a natural hazard assessment promotes an awareness of the issue in a developing region, evaluates the threat of natural hazards, identifies the additional information needed for a definitive evoluation, and recommends appropriate means of obtaining it. The techniques employed include lifeline (or critical facilities) mapping and sectoral vulnerability analyses for sectors such as energy, transport, agriculture, tourism, and housing.
At best, these warnings provide enough time to withdraw the population, but not to take other preventive measures. The main elements of the process are shown in Figure 1-2, and a synthesis of the activities and products of each stage is shown in Figure 1-3. Vincent and the Grenadines, landslides were determined to be a serious problem, and landslide assessments were included in the work plan for Phase I.
In Ecuador, the discovery that most of the infrastructure planned for the Manabí Water Development Project was located in one of the country's most active earthquake zones prompted a major reorientation of the project. Kitts and Nevis, for example, both generated project ideas which could be studied at the prefeasibility level in Phase II. A dramatic example is the case study on vulnerability reduction for the energy sector in Costa Rica. The chapter goes on to show how the impact of natural hazards on selected economic sectors can be reduced using energy, tourism, and agriculture as examples. Figure 1-1 presents a simplified list of natural hazards, and the boxes on the following pages briefly summarize the nature of geologic hazards, flooding, tsunamis, hurricanes, and hazards in arid and semi-arid areas.1. In areas where there are no human interests, natural phenomena do not constitute hazards nor do they result in disasters. Volcanoes erupt periodically, but it is not until the rich soils formed on their eject are occupied by farms and human settlements that they are considered hazardous.
In the context of economic development, the environment is that composite of goods, services, and constraints offered by surrounding ecosystems. In the San Francisco Bay area post-1960 structures swayed but stayed intact, while older buildings did not fare nearly as well.
Later, drought destroys human activities which have been extended beyond the limits of a region's carrying capacity. Desertified dry lands in Latin America can usually be attributed to some combination of exploitative land management and natural climate fluctuations.
Salinization results in a decline in soil fertility or even a total loss of land for agricultural purposes. For example, international emergency relief organizations such as the International League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have stated that they will devote more effort in developing countries to prevention.
Reconstruction projects, especially when they are very large, are often managed by newly created implementation agencies.
Non-structural mitigation measures typically concentrate on limiting land uses, use of tax incentives and eminent domain, and risk underwriting through insurance programs. In Latin America and the Caribbean vulnerability to natural hazards is rarely considered in evaluating an investment even though vulnerability to other risks, such as fluctuating market prices and raw-material costs, is taken into account as standard practice. Hazard information and education programs can improve public preparedness and social conduct during a disaster. This process proceeds from the establishment of development policies and strategies, the identification of project ideas, and the preparation of project profiles through prefeasibility and feasibility analyses (and, for large projects, design studies) to final project approval, financing, implementation, and operation. A comprehensive set of guidelines for executing a study following this process is given in Regional Development Planning: Guidelines and Case Studies from OAS Experience.
The study of the Paraguayan Chaco included flood and desertification assessments and multiple-hazard zoning.
Valuative criteria are applied, including net present value, internal rate of return, cost-benefit ratio, and repayment possibilities. The application can also locate devices with active SNMP agents: switches, network printers, routers, etc. Finally, the significance of a hazard management program to national and international development institutions is discussed. This definition is thus at odds with the perception of natural hazards as unavoidable havoc wreaked by the unrestrained forces of nature. An ecosystem is a coherent set of interlocking relationships between and among living things and their environments. In certain instances, farmland abandoned because of salinity problems may be subjected to water and wind erosion and become desertified.
This results in a drain of the already limited supply of technical personnel from the existing agencies and complicates coordination between long-term development and short-term rehabilitation. The execution of these hazard-related activities did not distort the time or cost of the development diagnosis. Finally, the team assembles packages of investment projects for priority areas and prepares an action plan. Understanding these IA models will help you pick the most appropriate starting point for a site’s information structure.
Using the data obtained from the switches over SNMP, the application draws graphic connections between the network devices it has found. It shifts the burden of cause from purely natural processes to the concurrent presence of human activities and natural events. Destruction of coral reefs, which removes the shore's first line of defense against ocean currents and storm surges, is a clear example of an intervention that diminishes the ability of an ecosystem to protect itself.
For example, a forest is an ecosystem that offers goods, including trees that provide lumber, fuel, and fruit. Buildings on solid ground were less likely to sustain damage than those constructed on landfill or soft mountain slopes (King, 1989). Let us talk about five of the most common website IA patterns.Single PageThe first pattern is the single page model. The forest may also provide services in the form of water storage and flood control, wildlife habitat, nutrient storage, and recreation. Single page sites are best suited for projects that have a very narrow focus and a limited amount of information.
These could be for a single product site, such as a website for an iPhone app, or a simple personal contact info site.Flat StructureThis information structure puts all the pages on the same level. It requires a fixed period of time in which to reproduce itself, and it is vulnerable to wildfires and blights.
These vulnerabilities, or natural hazards, constrain the development potential of the forest ecosystem. For larger sites with a lot more pages, the navigation flow and content findability gets unwieldy.Index PageA main page with subpages is probably the most commonly seen website IA pattern. The subpages have equal importance within the hierarchy.Strict Hierarchy PatternSome websites use a strict hierarchy of pages for their information design. As a designer, you have to remember that site visitors won’t have the same preferences as you. On a site where the end-goal is to get visitors to purchase something, the content should be set up in such a way that it funnels visitors toward that goal.
Use goals to justify why the information structure should be the way you designed it.Be ConsistentConsistency is central to exemplary information architectures.
If eight of your nine informational pages are listed in a section, why wouldn’t you also include the ninth page there?
If you deviate from that pattern, make sure you have a very good reason to do so; and make the deviation is consistent in similar cases. Inconsistencies have a tendency to confuse visitors.Methods and Techniques for Information Architecture DesignThere are a few different approaches commonly used for information architecture design.
The thing that many designers must realize is that it’s useful to look at a site from both angles to devise the most effective IA.
With this kind of architecture, you might start out with user personas and how those users will be going through the site.
What works best will vary based on things like how often content is updated, how much content there is, and how visitors use the site.
To accommodate this, CNN has multiple content blocks lower down on the page, organized by topic.
Bean breaks things down by shopper type and product category, with some overlap where it makes sense.
Grouping similar content together in categories is a hallmark of blog IA design.High-Content, User-Driven WebsiteWikipedia is one of the largest websites in the world in terms of sheer number of pages. The English-language articles alone would result in 1,439 printed volumes of 1.6 million words each. Any website with that much information will need to rely on search so that users can locate content they’re seeking. In addition to search, the interconnectedness of Wikipedia articles makes it easy to move from one article to virtually any other related article.
Best thanks.Matthew Sullivan Oct 22 2010We are using Mind Mapping tools in our Information Architecture work.




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