Peering down into a vast cosmic maelstrom of gas and dust, the central star in this image of NGC 6853, also known as the Dumbbell Nebula, produced this gigantic bubble of material by shedding its outer layers.
Scattered like diamond chips across the Cosmos, stars look deceptively serene to earthbound observers. A star, like our Sun, begins its life as a vast cloud of gas and dust drifting among the apparently empty spaces between the stars. For example, the cloud of dust and gas that formed our Sun must have included material from a previous generation star that blew itself apart. For billions of years interstellar clouds wander more or less aimlessly between their starry relatives until they receive a gravitational nudge, possibly from a nearby exploding star or the close passing of another galaxy. Stellar womb- am artist's impression of the central region inside an interstellar cloud where gravity is forging new stars. When fusion commences, hydrogen is converted into the next heaviest element (helium) and a tremendous amount of energy is released in the form of photons. Although, most of a star's volume is comprised of hydrogen, hydrogen can only be fused into helium at its core and all stars eventually deplete their central store of hydrogen.
For example, although our Sun is supremely important to our existence, it is only an average star, about halfway through its 10 billion year life-cycle. Our local star has sufficient mass in its core to fuse 700 million tons of hydrogen into 695 million tons of helium each second for 10 billion years. As the core collapses, the pressure and temperature within it will increase until the helium begins to fuse into the next heaviest elements, carbon and oxygen- two of the most important elements required for life as we know it. Gravity eventually balances this expansion, but only after the star has swollen to the orbit of Venus or possibly even farther out.
Red Giant Sun - In about 5 billion years our Sun will swell and possibly consume the Earth. As was the case with hydrogen, the amount of helium in the core will eventually become exhausted. When thermonuclear reactions within the shell of helium commences, the outward radiation pressure will exceed the inward pull of gravity and the surface of star will expand once again returning the star to its Red Giant size.
The ejected gas will begin to visibly glow in harlequin colors as it is ionized by invisible ultraviolet radiation still being released from the star's hot core. The Universe is filled with spectacular cosmic displays, but few match the wonder of a planetary nebula.
About 4,000 years ago an elderly, bloated giant red star, located toward the northern constellation of Vulpecula, gave its last gasp and shed its outer skin exposing its still pulsating heart. Telescopes back then lacked the color definition and clarity of even the most inexpensive instruments available today.


Our galaxy contains over 200 billion stars but only about 3,000 are surrounded by a planetary nebula. Planetary nebulae come is a variety of shapes, no two are exactly identical and this has been a source of ongoing study by astronomers.
Perhaps the best explanation for the structures seen within and surrounding the Dumbbell come from a 2008 investigation.
It's also amazing what scientists can learn from studying the colors released by stars, emitted or reflected by nebula. The creation of even ordinary stars requires the release of incredible energy, millions of times more powerful than every warhead and bomb in the world's combined nuclear arsenals. Nowadays, social media and email make it so easy to keep in touch (or get back in touch) with people that it is not a surprise that more and more relationships are being maintained over the Internet. For that reason, a group of developers created the app after a 24-hour marathon coding session. According to Businessweek, in the first week of April, Pair was close to raising about $1.5 million in a round of funding that would value the startup at approximately $10 million. Located about 1,200 light-years from Earth, gas within the Dumbbell glows in visible light when it is struck by invisible ultraviolet radiation still being emitted by the central star.
These clouds of sparse material are truly immense and often span hundreds or thousands of light years in all directions.
Significantly, once the cloud is pushed, events take on a life of their own and the material begins to contract inward under its own massive weight.
As the photons rush from the core of the cloud, they push back on the inward pressure of gravity, which is still trying to compress the cloud, until an equilibrium is achieved and the cloud's collapse ceases.
A huge amount of radiation will be released when this occurs - more than the amount released by the fusion of hydrogen.
In the case of our Sun, the planet Mercury will be absorbed along with Venus and Earth may be engulfed or thrown from its current orbit in the process. When this happens, gravity will cause the surface of the star to suddenly shrink as it simultaneously exerts enormous pressure on the carbon and oxygen core. So called due to their spherical shape, these far off smoke rings have little to do with planets. Planetary nebulae are usually no larger than a light-year in diameter which is actually enormous if you consider a light-year is almost 6 trillion miles in length.
The researchers proposed the existence of a jet spawned by an accretion disk, fed by material from a small stellar companion, surrounding the nebula's parent star. Even after its birth, the fury of a star can only be tamed by the relentless force of gravity.


Like stellar factories, stars transmute the building blocks of everything that surrounds us and in their deaths release a precious cargo of stellar material which may eventually find its way into creatures such as we, ourselves. Techie couples maintaining long distance relationships are not shy to share their feelings over social media. Partners can share video messages, photos and sketches that will only be available to each other. Even though they contain fewer atoms than the best vacuum on Earth, the total amount of material in an interstellar cloud, also known as its mass, is truly astronomical. As the dust particles and gas molecules move toward the cloud's center, they inevitably begin bumping into each other.
Eventually the photons escape into space as visible light and other forms of invisible radiation and the star is born. Since the star has the same amount of material, its heat will be spread over a larger surface area and thus it will be cooler, take on a reddish hue and become a star that is called Red Giant. However, in a star like our Sun, core temperatures will never become sufficient to trigger the fusion of carbon and oxygen into the next heavier elements. Essentially enormous bubbles of gas and dust, planetaries represent the final gasps of stars similar to our Sun.
Because a planetary's bubble of gas is constantly expanding, the Dumbbell will only remain visible for around 10,000 years like most other planetary nebulae.
Over time, precession, similar to the wobble seen in a spinning top, causes the jet to slew in different directions.
Still, while Facebook makes it easy to keep in touch with friends, most people will start cringing if your whole wall is just a back and forth lovefest between you and your loved one. Most of the stuff in one of these clouds is hydrogen, the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe, but they also contain other, more complex, elements, too. Compared to the life of a star, which stretches into billions of years, a planetary nebula only exists for the twinkling of an eye and that helps explain their rarity.
First time I was in Denmark but like I lived on a school in another city and while I was there for four months like I think two months after I went home to him and broke up and then came back to the school and just didn't really care. And then the second time I went traveling and I missed him so much and I came back and realized that there was nothing left. However, the amount of energy produced by a star is billions of times greater than any man-made nuclear weapon.



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