1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Wood's long-term manager and friend, Phil McIntyre, said: "Victoria has been a part of our lives as a friend, devoted mother and national treasure for 30 years. Wood was well known for her comedy series Victoria Wood: As Seen On TV, as well as her role in sitcom Dinnerladies and her TV special Victoria Wood With All The Trimmings. In 2006, she won two Bafta awards for acting and writing for her drama Housewife, 49, an adaptation of the diaries of Nella Last.
Wood, who got her showbusiness break as a winner on New Faces, won two other Baftas earlier in her career, both for best light entertainment performance.
Victoria Wood As Seen On TV also won the Bafta for best entertainment programme in 1986, 1987 and 1988, while An Audience With Victoria Wood won the same award in 1989.
Wood's live comedy was often interspersed with her own compositions and she frequently played the piano.
Jack Dee tweeted: "I feel privileged to have known and worked with the great Victoria Wood. The six women and three men reached their finding of unawful killing, by a seven to two majority, following the longest jury proceedings in British legal history.
Jurors decided that police planning errors "caused or contributed" to the dangerous situation that developed on the day of the disaster. They had been told by the coroner they could only return a finding of unlawful killing if they were satisfied that match commander, Chief Superintendent David Duckenfield, owed a duty of care to those who died in the disaster, and that he was in breach of that duty of care.
They would also need to be sure that his breach of duty caused the deaths and that it amounted to "gross negligence". Mr Duckenfield gave an order shortly before kick-off to open an exit gate at Sheffield Wednesday's football stadium, allowing around 2,000 fans to flood into the already packed central pens behind the goal. Some 96 Liverpool supporters were subsequently crushed in what is Britain's worst sporting disaster.
Fans had gathered for the FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest, which had to be abandoned. The hearings in Warrington have lasted two years, with the jury hearing evidence from around 1,000 witnesses. Dozens of relatives of the victims have attended each of the more than 300 days the court has sat at Bridgewater Place on the Cheshire town's Birchwood Park business park. The 1991 accidental deaths verdicts from the original inquests were quashed following the 2012 Hillsborough Independent Panel report after a long campaign by the families of the dead. For the next few years I followed their progress, cutting out match reports and sticking them into an album, until I was old enough to venture off to see them in the flesh.
After that, I was hooked - finding one way or another to make it to the East Midlands from wherever I happened to be over the next half a century.
The first highlight came in the mid-70s when manager Jimmy Bloomfield put together a side of all the talents, including Keith Weller, Frank Worthington and, my personal favourite, winger Len Glover. His methods were unconventional - there was the "ostrich" jibe at a reporter in a press conference, the touch-line tangle with a Crystal Palace player and then - after an unsavoury incident on a pre-season tour in Thailand involving his son (one of the team's youth players) - Pearson was unceremoniously fired by the club's Thai owners.
That was it, we all feared - a feeling hardly dissipated with the appointment of Claudio Ranieri as the new manager.
Her list of designs includes famous buildings such as the London Aquatics Centre for the 2012 Olympic Games, the Maxxi Museum in Italy, the Guangzhou Opera House in China and the Heydar Aliyev Centre in Azerbaijan. Born in Baghdad in 1950, she studied mathematics at the American University of Beirut before starting her design journey in 1972 at the Architectural Association in London. More than 40 years later, the Royal Institute Of British Architects (Riba) announced Dame Zaha as the recipient of its prestigious 2016 Royal Gold Medal, approved personally by the Queen. Awarded since 1848, previous Royal Gold Medallists include Frank Gehry, Norman Foster and Frank Lloyd Wright. Dame Zaha grew up in the Iraqi capital and displayed her individualism at an early age by designing her bedroom when she was nine. Born to a Sunni Muslim family - her father was a politician and her mother was a housewife - she was taught by Roman Catholic nuns. By 1979 she had established her own practice in London - Zaha Hadid Architects - garnering a reputation across the world for her trail-blazing theoretical works, including The Peak in Hong Kong, the Kurfurstendamm office building in Berlin and the Cardiff Bay Opera House in Wales. She won acclaim in Scotland for designing the popular Riverside Museum in Glasgow, known for its distinctive roof structure. Her first major built commission was the Vitra Fire Station in Weil Am Rhein, Germany, in 1993. Other awards include the Republic of France's Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and Japan's Praemium Imperiale.In 2012, Dame Zaha was honoured in the Queen's Birthday Honours list for services to architecture. She was awarded an honorary degree from Goldsmiths to recognise her inventive approach and eagerness to challenge conventions in September 2014. In an open letter to ministers and chief medical officers, they describe rugby as a "high-impact collision sport" and say the risks of injuries to under-18s "are high and injuries are often serious".
The letter says contact rugby is compulsory in many secondary schools from the age of 11 and that most injuries occur during "contact or collision, such as the tackle and the scrum".
The letter says concussion is a common injury, with a risk of depression, memory loss and diminished verbal abilities.
It also says injuries can result in "significant time loss from school" and criticises the government's drive to increase the playing of rugby in English state schools.


One of the signatories, Professor Allyson Pollock from Queen Mary University of London, said: "Children are being left exposed to serious and catastrophic risk of injury. Prof Pollock, a prominent public health doctor, became interested in rugby safety after her son Hamish was badly injured while playing the sport as a 14-year-old. He ended up concussed after his cheekbone was shattered during a collision with another player's knee. She was told by doctors that his injuries were akin to what happened to people when they were propelled through windscreens in car crashes. Another teenage rugby player, Ben Robinson, from Carrickfergus, Co Antrim, died in 2011 after suffering concussion in a collision. The Rugby Football Union (RFU) said that "high quality coaching, officiating, medical support and appropriate player behaviour" helped to reduce the risk of injury.
It said rugby in English schools or clubs could be played as either a contact or a non-contact sport. An RFU spokesman said young players were being given longer to master the basics of the game before contact was introduced.
The Department for Education said it expected schools to "be aware of the risks associated with sporting activities and to provide a safe environment for pupils".
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. In 1997, she was made an OBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours and was then made a CBE in 2008.
The first was for Victoria Wood: As Seen On TV in 1986 and An Audience With Victoria Wood in 1989. They also concluded that the fans had died "as a result of crushing" and that fan behaviour did not cause or contribute to the tragedy.
As a lifelong supporter of Leicester City, I can vouch for the fact that following the Foxes is consistently a story of promotion followed - a few years later - by inevitable relegation.
I just missed the last time Leicester were in a position to win the top league title - in 1962-3 - when they became known as the "Ice Kings", as their groundsman managed to keep their pitch playable while other clubs suffered a series of postponements through a bitterly cold winter. But they stumbled on the run-in, finishing fourth and losing the Cup Final to Manchester United. Growing up in rural Lincolnshire in a family with no particular sporting interest, I had not really noticed football, until there was a buzz around the primary school playground.
I vividly remember my first home game, in December 1968, travelling with a coachful of Manchester United supporters (them again) to Filbert Street to see Leicester win 2-1 against a team including Best, Law and Charlton.
He put together a rag-bag side of scrappers who consistently played above themselves, finishing in the Premiership top 10 for four successive seasons and twice winning the League Cup. O'Neill went to Celtic and it all fell apart, ending in administration in 2002 and relegation down to the third tier for the first time in our history in 2008.
Gary Lineker - the club's most high-profile supporter - famously tweeted: "Claudio Ranieri?
But on Saturday 6 February it began to seem possible - a 3-1 win at Manchester City, the Barcelona of the Premier League, with Mahrez at his brilliant best.
She has twice won the UK's most prestigious architecture award, the Riba Stirling Prize - in 2010 for the Maxxi Museum in Rome, and in 2011 for the Evelyn Grace Academy in London.
Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. He got us back into the Premier League where, last season, he presided over the greatest of great escapes from relegation. There was the Jamie Vardy record run of scoring in 11 successive league games (the record-breaker coming against Manchester United), the magic of Mahrez, the irrepressible Kanté, our indomitable centre-backs Huth and Morgan.
But now, with three games to go, they need just three points to make the fairy-tale become reality. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.


He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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