Visualizing Decision Trees in Games to Support Children's Analytic Reasoning: Any Negative Effects on Gameplay? NKThe participants approached this version primarily with a trial-and-error strategy, usually only planning one or two moves ahead.
KParticipants approached this version much the same as other participants initially approached version IT+NK.
It took these participants longer to effectively use the tree, but they used it quite extensively by the later levels. KAlthough this version allowed participants to interact with the game through the tree diagram or using the keyboard, all the participants chose to use the keyboard. The International Journal of Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJCSSE) published since 2014 (E-ISSN 2409-4285) is an International refereed research publishing journal with a focused aim on promoting and publishing original high quality research dealing with theoretical and scientific aspects in all disciplines of Computer Science and Software Engineering.
All technical or research papers and research results submitted to IJCSSE should be original in nature, never previously published in any journal or undergoing such process across the globe. National Communications System, “Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems,” Technical Information Bulletin 04-1, 2004.
The effective current flowing through the minimodule with pieces cells is times of that through the minimodule with full-size cells. It can be observed that for cut-cell modules, the cell resistive loss remains the same, and the reduction on power loss is due to the reduced ribbon resistive loss. The International Journal of Research in Computer Science (IJORCS), a research journal of an international repute, is a notable and distinguish platform to publish quality research papers. IJORCS is a repository of materials besides providing a platform for the reinforcement of science, fast operative publication, results of scientific researches and representation of the scientific conception of the society. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractThe popularity and usage of digital games has increased in recent years, bringing further attention to their design.
The keys are interactive and players’ actions are solely mediated through the keyboard. Both the keys and the tree are interactive and players’ actions can be mediated through either of these.
To find a path from their current location to a desired location the participants manually traced the connections between platforms in the puzzle area. They would trace their paths manually and would choose a direction that led them towards the next closest collectable ball. The tree was used for the same purposes as in version IT+NK: examining their current state to find a way out of a trap or to locate areas to avoid.
Price, “What sells where and why?” Lecture Notes from Game Developers Conference, Europe, 2002. IJCSSE is an international scientific research journal focusing on issues in Computer Science research. All the submissions will be blind peer-reviewed by the panel of experts associated with IJCSSE. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractAn overview of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is presented and relevant security concerns are addressed.
Equation (6) shows that if we cut the solar cell into stripes, the power loss in the ribbon scales with a factor . IJORCS is a purely Computer Science research journal and is acknowledged by various universities and international professional bodies.
Some digital games require a significant use of higher order thought processes, such as problem solving and reflective and analytical thinking. However, the keys are inactive and players cannot express their choices through the keyboard. Players express their choice of action in the same manner as either version IT+NK or NIT+K. After finding the path they wanted, they would click the arrow to move in that direction without examining the choices provided by the decision tree. As in version IT+NK, manually tracing a path became more difficult as the participants progressed through the game.
A large number of manuscript inflows, reflects its popularity and the trust of world's research community.
Submitted papers should meet the internationally accepted criteria and manuscripts should follow the style of the journal for the purpose of both reviewing and editing. To secure IP-based SCADA systems, it is vital to implement secure architectures which prevent access to the SCADA from corporate IT, in addition to excellent management practices in managing IP-based networks.
Through the use of appropriate and interactive representations, these thought processes could be supported. To express their choice of action, players click on the corresponding arrow directly below the root node of the tree diagram. To express their choice of action, players press the corresponding arrow key on the keyboard. That is, players can click on the corresponding arrow in the tree or press the corresponding arrow key on the keyboard. There were several occasions where one pair of participants chose a direction in the tree even though it told them that their choice led to a wall.However, after progressing halfway through the game the participants noticed the paths were quite difficult to find in the puzzle area.
IJCSSE is indexed with major indexing and abstracting organizations and is published in electronic format. We give an overall explanation of SCADA systems along with their security concerns and vulnerability. Equation (7) shows that the power loss on ribbon can be further reduced if a cell is cut into more pieces. For example, if players have the tree diagram shown in Figure 5 and want to move from node N to node A, they would click on the blue arrow just above node A that points down.
As the tree only exists as a visual support structure, and does not mediate any actions, it is assumed players would not use it as strongly to reason about their decisions.
This version reveals the preference players have over how to choose their actions, in addition to the same information as versions IT+NK and NIT+K depending on how players interacted with the game.
Some of them started examining the tree to look for potential routes, but it was still only one or two moves ahead. Version KThis version did not have the tree diagram, so participants played it as they would a typical maze-like game.
In this version [K] you just have to keep doing it to see what will happen, but in the other versions you can actually see this leads there. In the case of legacy SCADA systems, the concerns regarding security were minimal since it used proprietary networks; however, since the move of SCADA systems to the Internet, security problems have become an imperative issue, especially problems regarding IP-based systems. However, it is unknown whether including these extra representations will have a negative effect on gameplay. These interactive arrows are colored differently, to indicate this functionality is available, but all the other arrows are inactive and cannot be clicked on. The participants rarely used the side panel, and typically examined the first three rows that were displayed instead.
As in the other versions, participants manually traced a path to find the next desired platform and then moved in the appropriate direction. We also discuss various forms of threats and vulnerabilities on future SCADA systems applied with IPv6 over low-power, wireless personal area networks (6LoWPANs) and suggest security management methods to overcome these concerns.
Um, “Reducing security vulnerabilities for critical infrastructure,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, vol. Also, cutting cells into more pieces might introduce more problems (mismatch effect and additional gaps between the cells). To investigate this issue, a digital maze-like game was designed with its underlying structure represented as a decision tree. Given that the tree mediates players’ actions, it is assumed players would also use it to reason about their decisions. These participants even completed the easier levels faster than the participants of the other versions. DiscussionAs there was no enforced time limit, participants could take their time playing the game and had the opportunity to consider their actions before choosing what to do. In order to identify and remove various vulnerabilities and threats to SCADA systems over IP-based wireless sensor networks, especially for 6LoWPAN applications, we examine possible threats and propose proper and precise security management methods.1. A qualitative, exploratory study with children was performed to examine whether the tree supported their thought processes and what effects, if any, the tree had on gameplay. Players’ actions are mediated solely through the keyboard and there is no visual decision-support structure in the form of the tree.
The main complaint was the use of the mouse to click on the arrows for movement, as shown by comments such as “I think it would take much longer to play this version. However, once the participants reached the harder levels they found it very difficult to trace their paths.
However, the participants that were used to playing faster-paced games approached this game as though they had to act immediately. IntroductionA supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system refers to an industrial control system (ICS); it is a common process automation system which is used to gather data from sensors and instruments located at remote sites and to transmit data at a central site for either controlling or monitoring purposes [1]. This paper reports the findings of this research and discusses the implications for the design of games in general.1. Players express their choice of action in the same manner as version NIT+K: by pressing the corresponding arrow key on the keyboard.
These participants often used extensive experimentation to figure out all the available routes before they managed to find the correct path.When the participants who played version K were shown the other versions their responses were mixed. They did not take the time to examine their choices in detail and were not able to plan their actions far enough in advance to avoid the various traps. The collected data is usually viewed on one or more SCADA host computers located at a central or master site. Calculation of Ribbon Resistance in a ModuleIn a module, we use tin-coated copper ribbons to interconnect the silicon wafer solar cells.
IntroductionDigital games have become a significant force, not only in popular culture but also in the commercial market place. This version is thus similar to typical digital games that do not have visual structures to support the decision-making processes of players. The other participants took their time and tried to plan out their moves, though initially it was not very far ahead. Based on information received from remote stations, automated or operator-driven supervisory commands can be transmitted to remote station control devices, which are often referred to as field devices.
View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus“Botnets, cybercrime, and cyberterrorism: vulnerabilities and policy issues for congress,” CRC Report RL32114, 2008.
Popular games can sell millions of copies each, with revenue from the digital game industry reaching billions of dollars [1, 2].
This version is used to compare how the inclusion of the decision tree affected gameplay and reasoning, as the tree is not available in it.
All the participants, regardless of which version they used, had difficulty with the harder levels. SCADA systems are used to monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes such as telecommunications, water control, oil and gas refining, and transportation.
However, there is concern about the impact digital games may have on players, particularly on children [3, 4].
SCADA systems can be relatively simple, such as the one that monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or incredibly complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity in a nuclear power plant. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractIn a silicon wafer-based photovoltaic (PV) module, significant power is lost due to current transport through the ribbons interconnecting neighbour cells. Exploratory StudyAn exploratory study was conducted to compare the four versions of the game. Although the participants with access to the decision tree did not initially use it, all of them used it to assist them in the harder levels.At first, the tree was used to simply rule out which directions would lead the participants into a wall, automatically removing undesired outcomes. Using halved cells in PV modules is an effective method to reduce the resistive power loss which has already been applied by some major PV manufacturers (Mitsubishi, BP Solar) in their commercial available PV modules. Currently, there is great hope that games can play an important role in promoting the highly-valued skills of the 21st century, namely, expert problem solving and complex communication [7].
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the inclusion of a decision tree in the game would have any effect on the players’ analytical reasoning and decision-making strategies and, if so, how. Then, they examined which paths would lead them into traps, at first only noticing obvious traps and then noticing some more subtle ones. First, analytical instruments that sense process variables and operating equipment connected to instruments.
In this paper we are interested in the design of digital games that promote mindful, analytical reasoning skills. More importantly, the study also examined how including the decision tree, independent of its other effects on the participants, affected the gameplay of the digital game, or the participants’ enjoyment of the game.
By the more difficult levels, some participants were even using the tree to determine how to reach certain desired areas.
Second, one or more field data interface devices, usually remote terminal units (RTUs), or programmable logic controllers (PLCs). In this paper we investigate theoretically and experimentally the difference between modules made with halved and full-size solar cells. Previous research indicates that strategies can be incorporated in digital games that support players’ higher-order thought processes, such as analytical thinking and reasoning [8].
As this was only an exploratory study, the primary objective was to look for the existence of such effects to determine future areas of research.
For example: they needed to be a specific color, or needed to collect a specific ball, and would look through the tree to find the appropriate path.
RTUs connect to sensors in the process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system.
Theoretically, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.8% absolute and output power of 90?mW for the halved cell minimodule.
One design strategy that may affect players’ reasoning in a digital game is incorporating visual structures in the game through which play is mediated [8, 9]. Therefore, we gathered qualitative data about how the participants played the game, the manner in which they utilized the decision tree, and why they did or did not enjoy playing the game.
The participants who did not use the tree played through the entire game using luck and experimentation to complete the levels, and found it quite difficult to choose which directions would benefit them in the long run.
PLCs are used as field devices because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs.
Experimentally, we find an improvement in fill factor of 1.3% absolute and output power of 60?mW for the halved cell module. Designing a game in this manner may change how players approach it, and thus may actually impact the resulting gameplay. This suggests the inclusion of the decision tree may have positively affected the participants’ reasoning skills, in that it focused their reasoning on how to complete the overall level rather than on how certain platforms were connected. Third, communication infrastructure used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the supervisory system. Culler, “IP is dead, long live IP for wireless sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems (SenSys ’08), pp. Also, we investigate theoretically how this effect confers to the case of large-size modules. If we are going to design digital games that prepare the next generation of players who are critical thinkers, one of the research questions that need to be explored is what effect interactive visual support structures would have on gameplay.
It may also have affected their decision-making strategies by favouring directions that would help them complete the game rather than simply reach the next platform.
The infrastructure can be radio, telephones, cables, satellites, and so forth, or any combination of these.
It is found that the performance increment of halved cell PV modules is even higher for high-efficiency solar cells.
For instance, if a game were designed such that gameplay would be mediated through visually explicit decision-support structures, how would the design affect gameplay and children’s reasoning and decision-making strategies?The purpose of this paper is to examine the above question. As this was a qualitative study, the sample size did not need to be as large as required for a quantitative study [20]. Fourth, host computers are the center of human monitoring and control of the processe—storing databases and displaying statistical control charts and reports. After that, the resistive loss of large-size modules with different interconnection schemes is analysed. To do this, a game was designed and a study was conducted to investigate four subordinate, yet, inter related questions: (1) would the inclusion of the decision tree have any effect on children’s reasoning and, consequently, their decision-making strategies? When the path became too long, they would restart the level to get a shorter path but only if the level was not too complicated.
Finally, factors influencing the performance and cost of industrial halved cell PV modules are discussed.1.
Even though some of them had seen factor trees in their mathematics classes, they had not been exposed to abstract decision trees as represented in this game.
The more complicated levels took too long for them, and they did not mind losing some score if it meant they would not have to redo the level. Fifth, a human-machine interface (HMI) is the apparatus or device which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator monitors and controls the process. IntroductionCell-to-module (CTM) losses are a concern for every silicon wafer-based PV module manufacturer. Nowadays, the distinctions between SCADA and the distributed control system (DCS) have mostly disappeared since each has adopted the strengths of the other as networking infrastructure with higher capacity has become available. These CTM losses occur generally for one of two reasons: (1) optical losses that are caused by the module encapsulation processes, for example, increased reflectance loss, and parasitic absorptance losses in the cover glass and front encapsulant layer [1, 2] and (2) resistive losses due to the ribbons and the configuration of the silicon wafer solar cells inside the module. Each participant was paired with another participant or, in the absence of other participants, with one of the researchers so that the participant could think aloud more naturally.
The other participants were less concerned about their score, or considered their score irrelevant. This pairing was based on the codiscovery learning method, encouraging the participants to converse with each other in a more natural way [21].
Some liked to find the shortest route while others were only interested in completing each level. In the past, the systems operated in an isolated environment and relied mainly on proprietary software, hardware, and communication technology. This also provided the researchers with a better understanding of the participants’ thought processes when interacting with the game. These participants only restarted when they were stuck, and would not redo the level to find a shorter path if they were close to the level’s exit.
Current SCADA systems are distributed, networked, and dependent on open protocols for the internet, which make them vulnerable to remote cyber terrorism.


The participants were given a brief introduction to the game and a brief period of time to familiarize themselves with it. Thus, the score awarded for finding the shortest path had minimal effect on the participants’ motivation to play the game. They are particularly vulnerable to unauthorized access, and we have examined a typical vulnerability and corresponding measures for security and present an example of concrete measures for the security of mass transportation as a critical infrastructure [2]. BackgroundTo examine digital games in more detail, particularly with regard to their design, it is best to define the games that this paper examines. Additionally, finding the shortest path did not have the highest priority for all of the participants, as many were content simply to finish the harder levels.
In the following section, we discuss the key security issues during the development of SCADA systems.
A variety of terms have been used such as computer games, video games, console games, and electronic games. Each of the play sessions were approximately 90 minutes in length, composed of two consecutive 45-minute sessions separated by a 10-to-15 minute break. This suggests something other than scoring may need to be used in the design of the game for future studies in order to encourage long-term planning through the maze. A review of SCADA systems evolution allows us to better comprehend various security concerns that exist.2. We will use the term digital games to refer to all games that exist in a digital format, regardless of hardware platform, as opposed to games existing in a physical or non digital format. The groups were videotaped for the entire play session, with the intent of capturing body language and discussions between the participants.
The length of the paths through the puzzles may also need to be adjusted, though this does not suggest that the puzzles were too difficult as discussed below.How the participants enjoyed the game was determined by their reaction to it.
Vulnerability of SCADA SystemsIn the past, when SCADA systems were independent and vendor-controlled systems with no connections to other systems and when the network protocol was proprietary, only a few people, such as developers and hackers, knew of the existence of SCADA installations.
A wide variety of digital games exist, with one category being games that require analytical thinking and reasoning in order to play them effectively. This data would provide insight on the decision-making strategies players used to decide on their actions, how they performed their actions, their interpretation of the outcome of their actions, how much planning they were performing, and so on. The participants did not mind the inclusion of the decision tree, and many did not like version K because it did not include the tree. Players of these games will analyze the state of the game, determine what decisions can be made, and then make the decisions that they deem are best for the current situation.
Researchers also asked questions at various points to encourage the participants to clarify or expand on the reasoning used in their decision-making strategies and on any difficulties they were having with completing the game. This suggests the inclusion of the decision tree, as a visual support structure, did not negatively affect the participants’ conscious enjoyment of the game. Since the systems are dependent on open protocols for the internet, they are vulnerable to external remote cyber threats as discussed in [2]. 4 into the IP Architecture,” Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance, White Paper #3, 2009.
These decisions could involve what paths to take through the game space, how to manipulate specific game objects, which objects to manipulate, and so on. All the groups were asked questions of this nature, but the questions were asked sparingly and not in an attempt to distract the participants from the game.
However, the participants did not like the decision tree mediating their actions, as implemented in version IT+NK.
SCADA systems are different from general information systems in terms of security management. The complexity of the game state and the decisions to make are dependent on the complexity of the digital game and are widely varied. As well, all the participants who played version IT+K chose to interact with the game using the keyboard and not the mouse. In the risk and security management of general information systems, after analyzing the assets, threats, and vulnerabilities of information systems and calculating the degrees of a risk, security measures are prioritized for calculating the remaining risk. For example, the decisions in a block-arranging puzzle game are less complex than those in a simulation game. After the completion of the game, the participants were interviewed and asked a variety of open-ended questions regarding their interaction with the game. The participants who played IT+K preferred the keys to mediate their actions and not the decision tree. In contrast, for SCADA systems, the analysis of the assets is performed not from the viewpoint of systems but from the viewpoint of target facilities managed and operated.There are two distinct threats that can affect modern SCADA systems. This category of games is not synonymous with any genre of digital games, but instead contains games from multiple different genres.The design of digital games often places gameplay as a core concept of design decisions [10, 11]. These questions were meant to understand the participants’ overall thoughts and feelings about the game, what they did or did not enjoy about the game and why, why they played the game in the manner they did, whether they thought they used the decision tree at all, what they would change to improve the game, and other similar questions. This could be attributed to the decision tree not being integrated into the game well enough. The first one is the threat of unauthorized access to the control software, whether it is human access or changes made deliberately or unintentionally by virus infections and other software threats existing on the control host machine. This is because gameplay has a significant impact on the enjoyment of the game for players.
Analysis of these questions would aid in understanding whether the decision tree had any effect on their decision-making strategies and gameplay.
Many of the participants found it difficult to click on the individual arrows, as they were smaller than the nodes of the tree. Thus, the designer must ensure that gameplay is good for players to actually enjoy the game.
After all participants were interviewed, they were shown the other three versions of the game.
They also became frustrated at having to keep moving the mouse and clicking, suggesting that the arrow keys provided a more natural method of interaction. In particular, security researchers are concerned about security and authentication in the design, deployment, and operation of some existing SCADA networks.
Voigt, “Secure communication for the internet of things—a comparison of link-layer security and IPsec for 6LoWPAN,” Security and Communications Network. Halved cells are produced by cutting the normal full-size cells into half by laser, along a direction perpendicular to the busbars. Gameplay has a variety of definitions, ranging from the game’s mechanics to the actual experience players feel while playing the game [11, 12]. They played the most challenging levels and were asked to express their thoughts and feelings about the other versions, and how the other versions compared to the one they originally used. This suggests our implementation of mediating actions through the decision tree was inadequate and may need to be altered for future studies.Most of the participants felt that the game would be too difficult without the existence of the decision tree.
Moreover, they need to also take into consideration whether the SCADA networks are secured just because they are physically disconnected from the internet. In addition, security researchers are also concerned about the existing security and authentication protocols in the design, deployment, and operation of SCADA networks, with the belief that SCADA systems have the benefit of security through obscurity through the use of specialized protocols and proprietary interfaces. This method has already been applied by some major PV manufacturers (Mitsubishi, BP Solar) in their commercial available PV modules [7, 8]. We will consider gameplay in a similar manner, by defining it as the choices players make and the consequent actions they perform that leads to their overall enjoyment of the game.
This suggests that the challenge in the game was balanced towards the players utilizing the decision tree.
The following list suggests ways to help protect the SCADA network in conjunction with the corporate network as discussed in [3]. Also, the batch performance of such kind of PV modules has been reported by BP Solar in [9]. In this paper, we describe the theory behind the benefits of using halved cells in a silicon wafer-based PV module, and we quantitatively analyse the magnitude of the benefit by simulation and experiment. The structure of a game provides its formal definition, including its rules and logic, identifying what actions players can perform and how the game should respond.
Although the inclusion of the decision tree was only helpful once the participants became adjusted to it, it was not a detriment to the game. IP-Based SCADA SystemsOne of the main reasons why the Internet Protocol (IP) is enormously successful is that it can be used over virtually any physical media.
In the theoretical section, we summarize the mathematics required to simulate the modules with cells cut into pieces and present a quantitative analysis on the module characteristics using LTSpice. Not only does this structure describe the information needed to implement the game but also it directly influences how players can play the game. In complex SCADA architectures, there is a variety of both wired and wireless media and protocols involved in getting data back to the central monitoring site. Gilligan, “Basic Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers,” RFC, 4213 (Proposed Standard), 2005. Experimental results confirm the benefits of using halved cells on minimodules (see Figure 1).
Gameplay contains the choices players make, but the choices available to players are determined by the structure of a game. This allows implementation of strong IP-based SCADA networks over mixed cellular, satellite, and landline systems. In addition to defining the actions available to players, the structure also defines how players perform those actions. ConclusionsThis research examined whether the inclusion of visually-explicit decision-support structures in the design of a digital game, and mediating its gameplay through these structures, would affect its gameplay and the reasoning and decision-making strategies of its players.
SCADA communications can employ various ranges of both wired (telephone lines, optical fibers, ADSL, cables) and wireless media (radio, spread spectrum, cellular, WLAN, or satellite). These effects were examined through an exploratory study with children, using a simple maze-like digital game. The choice depends on a number of factors that characterize the existing communication infrastructure.
To show this effect, we have quantified the benefits of cutting cells into half for various short circuit current density values. Players of a digital game interact with the representations of the game’s interface, which results in gameplay.
Four variations of the game were developed, of which one did not contain the support structure. Factors such as existing equipment, connections, available communications at isolated sites, data rates and polling frequency, remoteness of site, installation budget, and ability to accommodate future needs all impact the final decision for SCADA architecture. Schumacher, “IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs): Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals,” RFC4919 (Proposed Standard), 2007.
It is observed that for high efficiency solar cells, when they are made into halved cell modules, the resistive loss is reduced by an even larger amount. In the context of digital applications, representations refer to collections of symbols that encode causal, functional, structural, and semantic properties and relationships of a represented world, either abstract or concrete, and interactions refer to players acting upon these representations and the representations reacting to these actions (for a similar conceptualization of this in the context of other interactive tools, see [15]). The other three variations contained a visual support structure in the form of a decision tree, and mediated the actions of players through this tree or through the keyboard.From the study, four tentative conclusions can be made.
A major enhancement in new SCADA systems comes from the use of WAN protocols such as the Internet Protocol for communication between the central station and communications equipment. After that, we discuss strategies for the configuration of industrial-size halved cell modules and the additional benefits that these modules can have at the system level.
In digital games, the represented world is the internal information defined by the game structure. First, the inclusion of the decision tree may have positively affected the players’ reasoning by aiding and focusing their decision-making process. At last, factors influencing the performance and cost of industrial-size halved cell modules are discussed.2. For the digital games this paper examines, the internal information is the choices or paths available to players. Second, the inclusion of the decision tree did not have obvious negative effects on the players’ enjoyment of the game. As part of playing a game, players will need to decide what actions to perform next and how to perform the desired actions. Third, our implementation of mediating actions through the decision tree seemed to have negatively affected the players’ enjoyment of the game. Another advantage brought about by the distribution of SCADA functionality over a WAN is that of disaster survivability. Resistive Losses in Full-Size Cell and Halved Cell MinimodulesFor a minimodule, such as shown in Figure 1, made from silicon wafer solar cells, the series resistance can be broken down into two parts: (a) the series resistance of the cell (), which includes bulk silicon resistance, metal-semiconductor contact resistance, and resistance of the metal electrodes, and (b) the series resistance of the ribbons (). Most games are currently designed in such a way that the representations of the interface minimize the difficulty players have with performing their actions [16]. And fourth, designers should be careful about how the actions of players are mediated in a digital game if decision-support structures are included to ensure that gameplay is not negatively affected.
By distributing the processing across physically separated locations, it becomes feasible to build a SCADA system that can survive a total loss at any one location. In this analysis, we assume that the contact resistance between the busbars of the cell and the ribbons is negligible. Although the study participants whose actions were mediated by the decision tree were able to utilize it better, they preferred having their actions mediated by the keyboard. Many of the traditional utility devices such as RTUs or even relays are today equipped with Ethernet interfaces. Designing games in this manner suggests that the thinking of players is directed towards the game world; the game does not support the reasoning required of players to decide on their next action, only on how to perform that action. This suggests a more natural implementation of mediating their actions was required and should be examined in future studies of this nature. This, however, does not imply that all services can be migrated immediately in a plug-and-play manner to an IP-based communication infrastructure.
In the real application, the cells can be cut into two or more pieces so that the resistive loss can be reduced. However, it may be possible to change the focus of thinking for players on what actions to perform, rather than how, through the use of different representation and interaction strategies. The inclusion of the decision tree did decrease the study participants’ perceived challenge of the game, but they felt the game would be too difficult if the tree was not included. One strategy with the potential to focus and aid the decision-making and reasoning of players is that of visual support structures [8, 9, 17].One type of visual support structure is a decision tree. Just as with any digital game, designers should examine all components of the game that affect gameplay to ensure that the difficulty is balanced.
However, new operational and business processes often require new, higher-level functionality not included in the original components.
Farooq Ahmed, “A unified security framework with three key management schemes for wireless sensor networks,” Computer Communications, vol. This is a simple visual representation of all possible choices available to players and the consequences of each choice. This includes any support structures incorporated into the game.Although these conclusions require further research to verify, the ideas behind them still have implications for the general design of digital games. Such extensions, including new physical and logical communication network connections, bear additional risks in terms of cyber security. Nodes of the tree encode choices or consequences, while the branches of the tree encode the act of making a choice and can be annotated with the specific option chosen or probabilities of that option being the correct one.
Incorporating a decision tree as a support structure may provide a benefit to the reasoning and decision-making strategies of players.
SCADA systems were traditionally walled off from business systems and operated independently via the operational network only.
Thus, the hierarchical structure of the tree encodes how the various choices are connected to one another, clearly indicating the consequences that arise from following a path from the root, or starting, node to any other node.
However, designers must ensure that the decision tree clearly and accurately represents the choices that players need to make while playing the game. Prior to the awareness of the risk of possible attacks, this seemed to provide all the protection the SCADA system needed. When it encodes the internal information of a game, a decision tree provides an overview of all the possible choices for players as well as specific details on the consequences of any particular choice. Otherwise, as suggested in this study, players may have difficulty understanding the support structure and may not receive its full benefits.
Although decision trees are a part of decision-making strategies in artificial intelligence [18], they are also inherent in many types of games. For example, the flow of the storyline in games can be represented using a decision tree, with the nodes encoding the choices players can make at key plot points. Additional, more rigorous studies need to be conducted in order to determine the validity of the findings of this research and whether these findings can be generalized.
These advantages include the efficient use of bandwidth to avoid the allocation of capacity where it is not necessary, widely accepted standards based on proven technologies and a high degree of interoperability. Although these choices can simply change how the story unfolds, they can also affect whether players successfully complete the game (for an example of this used in training, see [19]). Further research in this area will also provide clarity on the full effects of visual support structures.
Also, reliability is enhanced because in IP networks, packets are instantly rerouted if a node or link fails. In other cases, such as strategy games, players must examine a variety of choices to determine the best order in which to perform them. For example, we have examined how to support directional-based decisions for navigation, but what about games that require different decisions? Other related advantages are scalability to cope with growth, high degree of freedom to evolve network performance according to the strategic needs of use, optimization of the total cost of ownership, and taking into account initial investments and later costs of operation. Vasseur, “Design and Application Spaces for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs),” RFC6568 (Proposed Standard), 2012. For example, many strategy games involve players guiding a small military force to complete some goal.
How can designers support more complex decision-making, such as managing a large interconnected system? Players must determine how to arrange their forces, either for a better offensive position, defensive position, or to have a balance of both. As well, supporting different decision-making processes may require visual representations that are different from a decision tree.
These features include unlimited locations for servers and clients where users can install and move their SCADA servers, RTUs, and terminal servers to any site, which gives high flexibility in terms of redundancy and security and in the case of failure in SCADA servers where servers connected to the IP network provide mutual backup for optimized availability. Also, other benefits we can consider are service takeover and remote support as the control centers are not manned during the night.


This involves allocating resources towards acquiring new forces, improving their existing forces, improving their overall infrastructure to acquire better resources, and so on. Most importantly, how will designers be able to know which visualization is most beneficial to the decision-making process required for their digital game? During this period, other regions can either take over the control or supervise log-ins via VPN in case of emergencies.
Each action players choose requires time to complete, and this will prevent players from performing other actions.
These questions need to be investigated in order for designers to gain a better understanding of how to design enjoyable digital games that will promote the desired reasoning skills of tomorrow.AcknowledgmentsThis research has been funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Likewise, in many puzzle games the order in which players perform their actions is very important. Changes will probably need to be made at the front-end processor (FEP) server to switch the SCADA driver from a serial protocol to an Ethernet protocol. Solving one part of the puzzle may prevent players from solving the rest of it, and thus players must examine their actions in a hierarchical manner; choosing to perform one set of actions may prevent them from choosing other required actions.
The authors would also like to thank the reviewers for their comments and suggestions for improvement. Telecommunications media and hardware may need to be upgraded or replaced, and finally changes will need to be made in the field controller hardware as well. For a visual structure to support the thinking of players, it should aid their reasoning process in some manner.
With the shift to IP communications, the risk to cyber threats is much greater since packets can be routed into field devices from other external networks, and attacks no longer require physical access to the analog circuits.
To successfully complete many of the games this paper is interested in, players must understand the choices available to them and the consequences of those choices. As decision trees describe the choices and consequences in a game, a decision tree of the internal decisions of a game made explicit for players may act as a visual support structure to aid their decision-making process.3. Security of IP-Based SCADA SystemsSCADA systems were originally designed to control and monitor industrial processes using proprietary serial protocols.
The game required players to find their way from the starting point to the exit point of each of the game’s maze-like puzzles, collecting a set of specific objects along the way. However, in recent years, SCADA systems have been connected to corporate networks and the internet. The challenge of the game revolved around finding the shortest path through each puzzle, which required players to plan their actions ahead of time to ensure no incorrect or unnecessary actions are performed. This can enable businesses to monitor line processes and to support and enhance the process of making correct and beneficial decisions.
To compare differences among different support structures, four versions of this game were designed.
Three of the versions included a decision tree and varied in how the players’ actions were mediated.
With IP-based communications, unexpected threats that did not exist with legacy serial communications can occur at any point and anywhere.
It is imperative that we understand how to securely design and to manage SCADA systems in internet-based settings and environments [4].We need to understand why a conventional SCADA system is more vulnerable when connected to an IP-network. Broken down into a series of steps, the tree provided players with possible paths through the game’s maze-like environment to help them understand how their choices were integrated into the overall solution for each puzzle. All SCADA systems involve sensors, instrumentation, or other metering devices in order to acquire information about the physical processes that they control and monitor.
An exploratory study with children was conducted to investigate whether the inclusion of the decision tree would affect the children’s reasoning and decision-making strategies as well as their enjoyment of the game.
The sensors, instrumentation, and metering devices are connected to field control devices such as PLCs or RTUs.
These devices are used to receive physical input signals, voltages, and currents from sensors and instrumentation.
Structure of the GameTo design the digital game used in the study, a typical activity was chosen.
They then transmit the signals to digital data and determine the next decision based on predesignated programmed commands or logic of the system operators.
The decisions can terminate or initiate other equipment or change system control parameters. A maze is a space composed of interconnected passageways that, at some point, form an uninterrupted path from a single starting point to a single finishing point. These field devices used to be separated and isolated from cyber threats that faced computer systems, as they were initially deployed over serial analog circuits, and the attacker had to make physical contact with the analog circuits to clamp onto the channel and inject serial data into the circuit or otherwise disturb or capture the serial protocol. This suggests that a maze can be represented as a graph, with connections between nodes encoding individual passageways.
Unfortunately, cyber threat risks are now much greater with entry into IP communications [2]. With IP communications, packets can be routed into the field devices from anywhere and attackers are no longer required to gain physical access to analog circuits.
In both cases, the start is colored blue and the finish is colored red.The design of the digital game was based on a generalization of the chosen activity, and thus it did not contain a maze but a maze-like environment.
Therefore, SCADA systems that are networked via IP communications are more vulnerable than serial communications.To protect SCADA systems from cyber threats, we have to perform the following tasks [4].
The goal of the game is to find a path from the start to the finish, performed by finding the connections between nodes of the graph. Thus, the decisions players must make while playing this game involve finding the connections and following the resulting path.
Logical separation is more complicated to implement effectively and runs the risk of ineffective configuration. At each node in the graph, players must decide which direction to follow in order to reach the next node.
One should avoid the use of the virtual LAN technology for keeping SCADA IP communications logically separated from corporate IP communications, as VLAN technology is not designed as a security measure but as a bandwidth-shaping tool.
They should not be allowed direct connections with components in the SCADA system networks; devices inside the SCADA system networks should not be able to communicate directly with the internet. However, the interface of the game already includes representations that encode the internal structure as a graph, except in a more implicit manner as shown in Figure 2. Occasionally, existing corporate IT network infrastructure such as switches, routers, and WAN links must be used as a transport method for portions of the SCADA communications. The graph structure provides information about how various nodes are spatially related to each other.
If that is the case, then the SCADA communications should be encrypted and routed through a VPN tunnel that runs through corporate IT or other noncritical networks. Players can trace a path from one node to another on a graph, but they can just as easily trace a path through game components. Avoid SCADA devices that are dual-homed to two or more networks at different security zones or trust zones. Additionally, the key decisions players must make in the game are about how to reach specific nodes in the fewest number of moves. Although players can determine this information by tracing paths through the graph, it does not explicitly provide the information that the players need. Lastly, a solid cyber defense must offer active blocking devices such as firewalls, IPS, and in-line network antivirus appliances. Develop quality insurance techniques to ensure that all security requirements are recognized during the design phase and then executed and tested within the final product.
In addition, consider using the ISA S99 security levels as a model when constructing SCADA systems based on IP protocols.
If remote access to the SCADA system is permitted over an IP-based network, do not allow users to undergo a similar authentication process used to log into the corporate network.
Directions that do not lead to a node in the graph are still encoded in the tree, albeit differently to indicate that there is no destination node.
Since the graph contains cycles, the tree will contain duplicate nodes and duplicate paths. First, disable unnecessary services which apply to IP-enabled telecommunication devices, network equipment, PLCs, RTUs, protocol gateway converters, and any other embedded device.
This tree, unlike the graph, explicitly describes what paths are available from a given node to any other node and the sizes of these paths. This information is what players need in order to decide what direction to take to reach a desired node. Third, ensure that the latest version of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is up to date, since most IP-enabled telecommunication devices are supported for monitoring the health and performance of the devices. Fourth, keep an event log resident on the device and have a copy sent down to the centralized Syslog server.
Fifth, consider deploying in-line network appliances at the choke points that perform network intrusion prevention and antivirus functions.
In this way one can filter and drop packets and traffic known to be malevolent based on heuristics and signature matches.
Sixth, firmware for IP-enabled telecommunications equipment and control devices should be kept up to date with the latest version. The objective of each level is for players to find a path from their starting location to the exit. Eighth, any network devices in front of control devices should be given rate-limiting commands to restrict and limit data from flooding the device.5. Threats to SCADA Systems over 6LoWPANOne major advantage of the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is that it provides larger address space.
Being a more recent protocol, IPv6 has a few design enhancements over IPv4, particularly in the areas of autoconfiguration, mobility, and extensibility.
However, from a security standpoint, IPv6 implementations are much less mature than their IPv4 counterparts, making it likely that a number of vulnerabilities will be discovered and mitigated before their robustness matches that of existing IPv4 implementations [5]. In [6], Hui and Culler presented the design of a complete IPv6-based network architecture for wireless sensor networks and validated the architecture with a production-quality implementation that incorporates many techniques pioneered in the sensor network community.
The main 6LoWPAN features are summarized as follows: the compatibility with respect to stateless address autoconfiguration and neighbor discovery, IPv6 header compression and fragmentation, and support for IP-based routing [8]. The internet of the future is an IPv6 network connecting traditional computers and a large number of smart objects. This IoT will be the foundation of many services and our daily life will depend on its availability and reliable operation.
Billions of devices will use direct, secure, always on, and ubiquitous connections [9].The challenge of implementing secure communication in the IoT must be taken into consideration for a future model of SCADA systems.
On the traditional internet, IP security (IPsec) is the established and tested way of securing networks. IPv6 includes optional support for IPsec authentication and encryption, and web services typically make use of secure sockets or transport layer security mechanisms. It is therefore sensible to explore the option of using IPsec as a security mechanism for the IoT. Smart objects are generally added to the internet using 6LoWPAN, which defines IP communication for resource-constrained networks. Consequently, determining the vulnerability level estimation and the possible countermeasures can be classified as imperative and substantial. Throughout this section, we provide an overview of layer-based security threats for 6LoWPAN and introduce countermeasures regarding attacks for each layer.
Threats are possible which target a specific layer in the protocol stack, that is, the physical, data link, network, transport, application layers, or a combination of any of the mentioned.
Eavesdropping, tampering, or jamming radio signal are also possible attacks on the physical layer. For this specific situation, enforcing spectrum techniques for radio communication can be used to prevent attacks. Attacks can also target the data link layer by interfering with the cooperation of the layer’s protocols.
Simply by inducing a collision or contention or by deliberately fragmenting packets to bypass the Intrusion detection system (IDS), an attacker is able to disrupt an entire message.
Fortunately, the induction can be prevented by ignoring excessive requests without identifying authenticity or by adopting proper admission control mechanisms. Network layer protocols can extend their connectivity from neighboring nodes to all other nodes within the wireless sensor network range. To prevent incoming attacks such as message interruption, fabrication, and modification, commanding encryption mechanisms should be applied at the network layer.
Additional attacks may be brought against routing protocols such as Wormholes, Sinkholes, or Sybil attacks. These attacks are prevented by building a durable key management and securing the routing protocols. They can be inhibited by controlling the number of connections which a node can make or by using proper authentication mechanisms.
Attacks including message interception, fabrication and modification, subversion, and malicious code can be aimed at the application. Simple malicious code detection, isolation, and enforcing a strong encryption mechanism are sufficient to prevent these types of attacks.SCADA systems will utilize 6LoWPAN in the near future.
6LoWPAN remote assets (RAs) do not participate in networking and can only assume the role of leaf sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion, or pollutants at different locations.
By communicating natively with IP, 6LoWPAN networks are connected to other IP networks simply by using IP routers. As shown in Figure 3, 6LoWPANs will normally function on the edge, acting as stub networks. The 6LoWPAN may be connected to other IP networks through one or more border routers that forward IP datagrams between diverse media.
Connectivity to other IP networks may be provided through any arbitrary link, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, GPRS, or satellite. Resource scarcity is the main constraint of 6LoWPAN technology and also affects the selection of the most appropriate security countermeasures [12]. To raise security to an acceptable level, appropriate risk management and security planning are needed.
Such an approach allows for comparison between different configurations of the system, that is, with or without security countermeasures such that performance cost versus security improvements can be properly considered. In addition, existing IP security technologies have to be simplified to be implemented on 6LoWPAN small devices. The interaction between a SCADA server and a SCADA RA can be done in a specific sequence as shown in Figure 5.
This process will let the gateway acknowledge the message so that the sensor nodes get bound to the gateway. The autoconfiguration is performed in the neighbor discovery (ND) process during bootstrapping. To protect the network against different forms of attacks, it is critical to discover a secured node.
During this phase, sensor networks are vulnerable and exposed to a variety of attacks as noted previously. Providentially, SCADA RAs can utilize predeployed keys at which point an authentication is required upon access to the data, allowing only those who possess authorization permission to access the information. Once the SCADA server authorizes the network, the server can get data from the node or send actions to it. Internet key exchange (IKE), the key management solution for IPsec, is considered to be too large due to great number of signaling messages. Having a smaller packet size and low communication overhead without compromising the security level would be considered as the key management solutions for 6LoWPAN.
6LoWPANs that require medium to low security authentications can use symmetric keys for tightening their security communication. In contrast, in an environment which may require an extreme security protection, like a nuclear power plant monitoring system, one may establish an asymmetric key-based system as it provides higher-level security.
When one of the keys from the key pair is used to encrypt a message, the other key is required to decrypt the message.
Thus, if a SCADA master’s public key is utilized to encrypt a data, then only SCADA RAs can decrypt the data. Unfortunately, since public key algorithms are slower compared to symmetric algorithms, it is impractical to use them to encrypt large amounts of data.
In the real world, symmetric algorithms are used for encryption and decryption of most data. SCADA security experts may choose appropriate key management schemes depending on the desired outcome.The intrusion detection system (IDS) must continuously monitor the network for abnormal activities and malicious nodes once the bootstrapping phase between the SCADA master and RAs is established. Once a malicious node has been detected, there exists an additional mechanism requirement to remove such a node.
After malicious node isolation or abnormal activity detection, a key management process can be applied like the bootstrapping phase.
All these requirements can be fulfilled by using a solid authentication and encryption mechanism.6LoWPAN security architecture will be augmented with IP security technologies whenever available. Modified IPsec may be a feasible option for securing the IoT in terms of packet size, energy consumption, memory usage, and processing time [14].
A comprehensive but light weight key management system is also required to securely generate, distribute, and update keys to be used by AES.
A result of utilizing 6LoWPAN is the proficient extension of IPv6 into wireless embedded domains, thus enabling end-to-end IP networking and features for a wide range of embedded applications, such as IP-based SCADA systems over wireless sensor networks.7. Presently, operator consoles, SCADA servers, and control room system components are already most likely connected to an internet network.
The last components to move to IP are embedded devices which include field controllers, meters, instrumentation, and telecommunications systems linking the control room with embedded devices in the field. Moving to IP-based communications opens up these devices in the field to other networks and systems. Unfortunately, the risk from cyber threat is therefore much greater, as these devices do not have the ability to support typical security features that most computing systems require (such as antivirus, authentication, encryption, and end-point security) and many do not support network monitoring and logging. Thus, to secure IP-based SCADA systems, it is vital to implement secure architectures which prevent access to the SCADA from corporate IT and other third-party networks and to enforce excellent management practices to manage IP-based networks.




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