Single-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname, earliest first. References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author, etc. References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of pub., the earliest first.
Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial.
Works with no authors are arranged by the first word in the title (not including A, The, etc.) . Works specifically listing the author as Anonymous list entry alphabetically as if a name were listed.
Works with corporate authors are listed alphabetically by the first significant word of the name.
Surname of the author (not including suffix such as Jr.) and the year of the publication are inserted at the appropriate point. Elements of a parenthetical reference include the last name of the author, and year the work was published. When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. When there is no author listed or the author is unknown, begin the entry with the work's title. If there are more than six authors, list the first six and "et al" indicating there are additional authors. Use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material rather than to the material itself. For periodicals where each issue begins on page one, list the issue immediately after the volume number in parentheses. Note: A doi or digital object identifier is a unique number identifying the resource that may be used to locate the item.


Note: Date of retrieval is only used for resources that may change or be updated, and not used for books or published articles in their final state.
Example is for an article with a doi, where each issue at page 1 (note the inclusion of the issue number in parentheses). Note: If there is no doi and the work was accessed online, list the URL for the homepage of the journal. Web documents share many of the same elements found in print documents (authors, titles, dates).
Note: For material that may change over time APA requires the inclusion of a retrieval date. Use [web log post] for messages posted to the blog and [web log comment] when citing a comment to a blog. List the primary contributors in the author position and indicate their contribution in parentheses (Director, Producer, etc). APA style is most commonly used in the social and behavioral sciences as well as in first-year composition classes at UTEP. In APA style, citations to sources are placed in the text of the paper in order to briefly identify sources for readers and enable them to locate the source of the cited information in the Reference List.
Appearing on its own page between the endnotes and the appendixes, the Reference List must include full citations for all sources of borrowed information. At some point in your academic career, you will have a professor that will not accept a paper unless it is in APA style. The main reason for formatting is to have some consistency - especially related to outside information. Yes, even professionals use guides and references to make sure they are doing it correctly. Subsequent pages should continue to have the running header in the left-hand corner with the page number in the right-hand corner. You should include everything you read while researching your topic, even if you don't quote it directly.
There are many rules to follow though depending on the type of text and the number of authors. Tip: To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above.


Learning how to write papers with the APA format is a very important proficiency, to both students and professionals. If quoting directly the page number (page is abbreviated as "p.") or paragraph number is also required.
The reference citation for a Web document often follows a format similar to that for a print document citation. Citations are placed within sentences and a paragraph so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.Option 1      Bartholemew (1992) believed that all institutions are "genuinely responsive to the essential problems but may be irrelevant to those problems if necessary legal services are not readily obtainable by those who might benefit from them” (p.
This is because the APA format, created by the American Psychological Association, exhibits a certain writing structure that is well-organized, neutral, and widely available for anyone.
It should not at all be biased to anyone or anything, therefore making it versatile and relevant.
But this is most significant to those who are planning to establish businesses and organizations alike.
Book Review Title [Review of Book Title, by Book Author(s) Name(s)].Title of Source Review appears in, Volume pages.
And lastly, the APA format is a writing format that has tons of resources – making it easy for everyone to follow its standards.
The APA format is the first step into creating formal papers, and learning the writing standard will lead you to higher grounds. 27), a methods section which "describes in detail how the study was conducted, including conceptual and operational definitions of the variables used in the study," (p.
29), a results section which summarizes the "collected data and the analysis performed on those data relevant to the discourse that is to follow" (p. 32), and the discussion, which is where the author should "examine, interpret, and qualify the results and draw inferences and conclusions from them" (p.



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