Single-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname, earliest first. References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author, etc. References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of pub., the earliest first.
Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial. Works with no authors are arranged by the first word in the title (not including A, The, etc.) . Works specifically listing the author as Anonymous list entry alphabetically as if a name were listed.
Works with corporate authors are listed alphabetically by the first significant word of the name. Surname of the author (not including suffix such as Jr.) and the year of the publication are inserted at the appropriate point.
Elements of a parenthetical reference include the last name of the author, and year the work was published. When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. When there is no author listed or the author is unknown, begin the entry with the work's title.
If there are more than six authors, list the first six and "et al" indicating there are additional authors. Use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material rather than to the material itself. For periodicals where each issue begins on page one, list the issue immediately after the volume number in parentheses. Note: A doi or digital object identifier is a unique number identifying the resource that may be used to locate the item. Note: Date of retrieval is only used for resources that may change or be updated, and not used for books or published articles in their final state. Example is for an article with a doi, where each issue at page 1 (note the inclusion of the issue number in parentheses). Note: If there is no doi and the work was accessed online, list the URL for the homepage of the journal. Web documents share many of the same elements found in print documents (authors, titles, dates). Note: For material that may change over time APA requires the inclusion of a retrieval date. Use [web log post] for messages posted to the blog and [web log comment] when citing a comment to a blog. List the primary contributors in the author position and indicate their contribution in parentheses (Director, Producer, etc). APA style is an editorial style commonly used by writers and students in the Business, Nursing, and Behavioral and Social Sciences (including Education, Psychology, Sociology, Economics, and Criminology) disciplines. All guidelines and rules appearing in this guide are taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition or the APA Style Blog. Please note that the examples that appear in this guide are not double spaced and do not have hanging indents. Include author, date, title (with e-reader book type in square brackets if applicable) and source url or DOI information.


To cite a Twitter, Facebook, or Youtube feed as a whole or to discuss it in general, it is sufficient to give the site URL in text, inside parentheses. In addition to the author or group’s real name, provide social media identity information. Treat legal references like references with no author; alphabetize by the first significant word or abbreviation in the entry.
Use parenthetical citation with the author's last name and year of publication just next to the material that you are citing. If the quotation contains fewer than 40 words, include it in the text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks. Campbell & Campbell (2006) concluded that "one of the strongest predictors of Western diseases was blood cholesterol" (p. If there is no author, provide the first few words of the title (use parentheses for articles or chapters of books and italics for titles of books) and the year.
For different authors that have the same last name, include initials with the last name of the first author. If a source has 6 or more authors, list only the name of the first author, followed by et al. While personal communications are not cited in the reference list, they do appear as an in-text citation. Kibler (1993) reviewed literature that demonstrates that various forms of academic dishonesty have been with us since ancient civilizations and that academic dishonesty, for a variety of reasons, has increased.
Check with your professor for guidelines on essay format and structure, especially concerning the inclusion of cover pages and running heads. On the first page only, the running head is also preceded by the words Running head and a colon (Running head:).
The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.
Each reference cited in the text of your essay must appear on the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text.
If two or more entries have different authors with the same last name, list them alphabetically by their first initial. If two entries have the same author (or same 2 or more authors in the same order), list them in order of year (earliest first). Entries with the same first author but different second author are alphabetized by the second author.
List authors’ names by giving the last name and first and middle initials for up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six, then three ellipses, and add the last author’s name. In a reference to an edited book, use the editors’ names in place of the author and enclose the abbreviation Ed.
If a work has an agency, association, or institution as its author, use the group’s name as the author. If an entry does not have an author, move the title to the author position, and alphabetize the entry by the first significant word of the title. For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, give the year and exact date including month or month and day in parentheses.
For a book title, capitalize only the first word of the title (and subtitle if any) and italicize the title. For an article, book chapter title, or web page, capitalize only the first word of the title (and subtitle if any) and any proper nouns. Guidelines on the inclusion of publication information (APA 6.28) are specific to the item type. The Style pages directly from the American Psychological Association, perhaps the best way to stay up to date.


If quoting directly the page number (page is abbreviated as "p.") or paragraph number is also required.
The reference citation for a Web document often follows a format similar to that for a print document citation. On Twitter and Youtube, provide the author’s screen name in square brackets (if only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets). Moreover, the percentage of students who report ever using a cheat sheet doubled from 34 to 68 percent.
In his Plagiarism Handbook, Harris (2001) noted that a "free-term-paper site, run by a 16-year-old, receives 13,000 hits a day" (p. On all other pages, just the running head itself and the page number appear, without the words Running head and the colon. Materials that are exceptions to this rule are references to classical works (such as the Bible) and references to personal communications.
Book Review Title [Review of Book Title, by Book Author(s) Name(s)].Title of Source Review appears in, Volume pages. For the title of the article, capitalize only the first word of the title (and subtitle if any) and any proper nouns. Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. Capitalize only the first word of the article title (and subtitle, if any) and any proper nouns. Capitilize only the first word of the article title (and subtitle if any) and proper nouns.
Ingraham (personal communication, October 5, 2013) stated that she found her career as an educational psychologist intellectually stimulating as well as emotionally fulfilling. A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse.
For the title of the book, capitalize only the first word (and first word of the subtitle if any) and italicize the title. Personal communications include interviews, emails, letters, memos, and informal electronic communications. Implementing a process approach to information skills: A study identifying indicators of success in library media programs. Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. For publication information (APA 6.30), give the location (city and state or, if outside of the United States, city and country) where the publisher is located. Include the issue number (if available) in parentheses after the volume number, do not italicize it. Harris gave an example of a librarian who studied plagiarism herself and could not order a paper from a paper mill because the site was "flooded with 800 orders a day" (p. His book marshals lively instructional cartoons that could be used in teaching and discussing the subject of plagiarism. If each issue of the volume begins on page 1, include the issue number (if available) in parentheses after the volume number, do not italicize it. If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.



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