Single-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname, earliest first.
References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author, etc. References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of pub., the earliest first.
Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial.
Works with no authors are arranged by the first word in the title (not including A, The, etc.) . Works specifically listing the author as Anonymous list entry alphabetically as if a name were listed. Works with corporate authors are listed alphabetically by the first significant word of the name.
Surname of the author (not including suffix such as Jr.) and the year of the publication are inserted at the appropriate point.
Elements of a parenthetical reference include the last name of the author, and year the work was published.
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. When there is no author listed or the author is unknown, begin the entry with the work's title.
If there are more than six authors, list the first six and "et al" indicating there are additional authors. Use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material rather than to the material itself.
For periodicals where each issue begins on page one, list the issue immediately after the volume number in parentheses. Note: A doi or digital object identifier is a unique number identifying the resource that may be used to locate the item. Note: Date of retrieval is only used for resources that may change or be updated, and not used for books or published articles in their final state. Example is for an article with a doi, where each issue at page 1 (note the inclusion of the issue number in parentheses).
Note: If there is no doi and the work was accessed online, list the URL for the homepage of the journal. Web documents share many of the same elements found in print documents (authors, titles, dates). Note: For material that may change over time APA requires the inclusion of a retrieval date.
Use [web log post] for messages posted to the blog and [web log comment] when citing a comment to a blog. List the primary contributors in the author position and indicate their contribution in parentheses (Director, Producer, etc). Works specifically listing the author as Anonymous list entry alphabetically as if a name were listed. Note: A doi or digital object identifier is a unique number identifying the resource that may be used to locate the item. Note: Date of retrieval is only used for resources that may change or be updated, and not used for books or published articles in their final state.
Note: If there is no doi and the work was accessed online, list the URL for the homepage of the journal.
Note: For material that may change over time APA requires the inclusion of a retrieval date. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style: What to Do When Information Is Missing Reference template What’s missing? Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Libraries Powerful Ideas.
RefWorks: A web-based tool that helps you manage citations, create bibliographies, and import references from databases. Work at the University level, and at UWM of course, is guided by ethical standards in all academic work including taking tests, writing research papers and publishing on the Web.
If a student is charged with academic misconduct, there are specific procedures, including the right of appeal, which must be followed by UWM. This is a guide to organizing your research and writing process so that you minimize the risk of plagiarism. Let’s set the record straight: Anything that a reader can retrieve, you can cite as a source in an APA Style reference list. However, the mere fact that information is published online is not reason to dismiss it as unreliable. A primary source presents information gathered firsthand, such as the results of an experiment or data from a survey.
Note: To learn how to cite individual tweets or posts that include hashtags, see our post on citing social media. The hashtag as an organizational tool wasn’t born on Twitter, but that's where I, and many others, first saw it used that way. That’s because, just like a search of a research database, finding and searching with the right hashtag is part of your research methodology. Of course, in your paper you might also refer to individual tweets, Facebook posts, pictures, or other online items that include hashtags. Use an individual’s name in the reference if he or she has proprietary rights to the program.
If the software is available online, provide the URL rather than the publisher name and location. A: If the reader can retrieve it, you can include a reference, following the template above. But, if you quote or paraphrase information from individual pages on a website, create a unique reference for each one. Say you are writing a paper about Division 47 (Exercise and Sport Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA). It may seems a little unusual to have so many similar references, but in the context of this research topic, it makes perfect sense.In-Text CitationsWhen you quote directly from a web page, be sure to include the paragraph number, in lieu of a page number, with the in-text citation.


We’ve all had that experience when a dog or a child walks up to you holding something dangerous, disgusting, or some other d-word that you absolutely do not want in the house. APA Style generally asks the same thing: “What are you citing, and where did you get it?” We also ask, “Who created it, and when?” But we usually don’t ask, “When did you consult that source?” One exception to this rule would be for material that is subject to frequent change, such as Wikipedia entries. So the next time you ask your dog to fetch sources for your research paper, make sure he tells you what they are, where he got them, who created them, and when they were created.
Audiovisual materials like videos, podcasts, movies, and television shows can make excellent sources for academic papers. To cite a direct quotation from an audiovisual source, include a timestamp in the in-text citation alongside the author and date indicating the point at which the quotation begins. Here are two examples from a YouTube video about cognitive behavioral therapy that features interviews with both practitioners and clients. The treatments of cognitive behavioral therapy may seem extreme to a person who does not experience the difficulties associated with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. One patient who experienced the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy stated that it was so remarkable for her that “I began to think impossible things, like I could even invite people home” (OCD-UK, 2009, 4:50). I’m writing a paper for class, and I’m using some obscure sources my professor posted on the class website (but aren’t available elsewhere—I checked!). Q: In my paper I am writing about a Google search that I performed and the resulting number of websites on a specific topic. Although you may not be writing a meta-analysis article for publication, this is a good model of how to describe a search in your paper. Thanks to developments in technology and feedback from our users, the APA Style team has updated the formats for citing social media, including content from Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. If you discuss any website or page in general in a paper (including but not limited to social media), it is sufficient to give the URL in the text the first time it is mentioned.
Finally, if you paraphrase or quote specific, retrievable information from social media, provide an in-text citation (with the author and date) and a reference list entry (with the author, date, title, and source URL). First, provide either an individual author’s real last name and initials in inverted format (Author, A. Provide the year, month, and day for items that have a specific date associated with them, such as status updates, tweets, photos, and videos; otherwise, provide only the year.
If the date is unknown but can be reasonably approximated, use “ca.” (for circa) followed by the approximated year, in square brackets. Provide the name of the page or the content or caption of the post (up to the first 40 words) as the title. Do not italicize the titles of status updates, tweets, pages, or photographs; do italicize the titles of items that stand alone, such as videos and photo albums. Provide a retrieval URL that leads as directly and reliably to the cited content as possible (click a post’s date stamp to access its archived URL). For more information on all kinds of electronic references, see the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, Sixth Edition (available in PDF and Kindle formats), as well as the APA Publication Manual. Not surprisingly, we receive a lot of questions about how to create references for all sorts of different sources. If quoting directly the page number (page is abbreviated as "p.") or paragraph number is also required.
The reference citation for a Web document often follows a format similar to that for a print document citation.
Each book listed in the bibliography is identified by its Author, Title, Publisher, Place of Publication, and Date of Publication. The citation may include the article title, periodical title, book title, place of publication, publisher, volume, pages, and date.
Many students do not understand the extent of the rules for citing someone else’s work in the research process, and thus do not know when they are plagiarizing. You can use another scholar’s words, facts and ideas, but this borrowed material must not be presented as your own creation. Sanctions imposed by the university in response to academic misconduct range from reprimands to expulsion.
However, many readers believe certain sources aren’t allowed in APA Style, and they write to us looking for a definitive list of what is off limits.
Things the reader can’t retrieve (like a conversation, an unrecorded webinar, or a personal e-mail) can be cited as personal communications (see PM § 6.20). Rather, APA recommends that sources be reliable, primary accounts that represent the most up-to-date information wherever possible. Two indicators of reliability are the expertise of the author and the vetting standards of the place of publication. Many scientific, medical, and governmental organizations—such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institutes of Health, U.S. Secondary sources present information secondhand—an example would be a textbook summary of a topic or a Wikipedia article. And, as Chris Messina, who introduced the idea to Twitter, has said, "it's left nerd-dom and now it's out there in the world." Indeed, the hashtag is a common sight on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Vine, Google+, Flickr, Tumblr, Pinterest, Kickstarter, and other platforms. For instance, you might want to quote the most popular Tweet that used the hashtag or just show some representative cases. A: The Publication Manual specifies that a reference is not necessary for “standard software.” What is “standard”? For example, let's say you used an open source software package to display items to the participants in your study. You might also find these post about how to write about yourself and whether and how to cite one’s own experiences helpful. In your paper, you begin by providing some background information about APA and about APA’s divisions, and then you provide more detailed information about Division 47 itself. Because this information is designed to be constantly updated, it’s important to let readers know when you retrieved it.
You probably won’t need to ask when he got them, unless he’s a lazy dog who does all his research in Wikipedia. To point the reader of a paper to a specific spot in an audiovisual source—such as when you cite a direct quotation—include a timestamp in the APA Style in-text citation, just as you would include a page number under analogous circumstances for a print source like a book or journal article. The first citation is for a block quotation, and the second is for a shorter quotation (<40 words). Neither of the individuals quoted above are the author of the video (which for retrieval in the reference is the name of the user who posted the video to YouTube, OCD-UK). Again, this same principle governs when you should include page numbers (or section names, or any other part of a source [link to post]) in paraphrased citations to print materials. The video is more than 2 hours long, so the timestamp will help the reader find the part we’ve referenced, even though the information is only paraphrased.
He hypothesized that scientists may even be able to learn which therapies (such as cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, or even gene therapy or psychogenomics) will be most effective for a given individual, allowing therapists to personalize treatment for best results.
But this website is on my school’s intranet, so only students and faculty at my university can access these sources.


You’ve noted that the reference list is provided to help readers find the sources you used in preparing your paper, and thus it doesn’t make sense to include sources that your readers cannot retrieve.
It shows one way to describe a search for studies that met the criteria of the authors’ research project.
These guidelines are the same as you’ll find in our APA Style Guide to Electronic References, Sixth Edition (available in PDF and Kindle formats). In our first investigation, we analyzed the content of CNN’s Twitter feed during the year 2012. A personal communication citation should be used because there is no direct, reliable path for all readers to retrieve the source. The guidelines below explain how to format each of these elements for any social media citation, and examples follow.
On Twitter, provide the author’s screen name in square brackets (if only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets).
To cite social media items not covered here, follow the format that is most similar, and also see our post on what to do if your reference isn’t in the manual. As has been discussed in past blog posts, a reference can be put together by asking a number of (very good and pertinent) questions: Who? Book Review Title [Review of Book Title, by Book Author(s) Name(s)].Title of Source Review appears in, Volume pages. Articles from newspapers, journals and magazines include the title of articles, the authors, the journal or magazine, where it was published and the Volume, Issue Number, the Date of the Publication and the Pages the article appeared on. In order for research to move forward, it is necessary to read what others have already discovered and written before us. However, it is your responsibility to learn and use appropriate research writing techniques. When writing a research paper, you should not merely review publications and extract a series of quotations from them.
Two of the most common questions are about whether it’s okay to cite websites and whether sources have to have been published within a certain time frame to be cited, such as the last 5 or 10 years. For example, an article written by a researcher and published in a peer-reviewed journal is likely to contain reliable information and thus would make a good source. Census Bureau, and even the APA—publish reliable information on their websites and social media sites. APA recommends citing primary sources whenever possible, because this allows you to verify the accuracy and completeness of the information yourself rather than rely on someone else to do this for you. Some fields develop faster than others, and even within a field, some information will remain relevant for a long time, whereas other information will become outdated. If the reasoning behind the wording of the hashtag is not obvious, you might want to elaborate.
You can (and should) create references and cite tweets or other online posts that you’ve quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise relied on in a paper.
This may mean your reference list contains a number of references with similar, but distinct, URLs. In the process, you might quote or paraphrase from a number of pages on the APA website, and your reference list would include a unique reference for each.
Thus the quoted individuals’ names or descriptions appear in the narrative, and the citation appears parenthetically.
Ingraham (personal communication, October 5, 2013) stated that she found her career as an educational psychologist intellectually stimulating as well as emotionally fulfilling. This allows the reference to be associated with and alphabetized alongside any other works by that author. On Facebook and Google+, when the author is an individual, spell out his or her given name in square brackets. Having a cup of coffee before closing your eyes is the most effective way to combat daytime drowsiness, according to research. A supertelephoto lens allowed Colleen Pinski to capture this image of an annual solar eclipse. Scientists and research organizations might publish blogs or YouTube videos that are worth citing. Secondary sources can be reliable, but it is a best practice of scholarly writing to investigate for yourself if you can. For example, foundational works may be quite old but still worth citing when you are establishing the context for your own work.
If this paper is for class only, then provide a complete reference for your electronic source.
Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. Sounds counterintuitive, but it takes 20 minutes for the caffeine to get into your bloodstream. We must give credit to original research and acknowledge the sources we have used in our writing. Evaluate each source on its own merits for reliability when determining whether to cite it in a paper. There is no year-related cutoff where sources must be published within the past x number of years to be used in a paper. But if class is only the first step for this paper—for example, you may plan on submitting it for publication, or it may be posted on your school’s Internet website, where anyone could read it—then you can treat the source as an irretrievable personal communication (see the Provide a Reliable Path to the Source section of the What Belongs in the Reference List? Each source must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether the information in it is timely and relevant. No one else has a plaster cast.” And the idea is you often have to do things in a very different way in order to put them right. The answer will often clarify how the reference should be formatted. In fact, the retrieval question is the guiding beacon at the heart of many seemingly impossible reference questions we receive, such as How do I create a reference for a PowerPoint presentation?
But it’s not so tricky: A PowerPoint presentation posted online is no different than any other file posted online. Show your readers how to retrieve the particular e-book file you read. Do you have additional questions about how to get readers to your sources?
The basic reference template is made up of four pieces: author, date, title (with format in brackets if necessary), and source (theURL). When one or more of these pieces is missing, use the method shown above to adapt the template.
This content may be reproduced for classroom or teaching purposes provided that credit is given to the American Psychological Association.



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