In the previous part, we saw how to create a decent blog template quickly using Bootstrap 3.
If you've read part 1, I believe you should've already gained the knowledge to craft templates for any website using Bootstrap. After reading this part, I'm sure you'll gain enough knowledge to decorate any Bootstrap template. The two very important elements that influence a website's theme are: typography and colour scheme.
The default theme provided by Bootstrap uses "Helvetica Neue" font face and white-gray colour scheme.
We can override the colours of the default panel by duplicating the selector and changing the values of properties in our custom stylesheet. Bootstrap is built on dozens of LESS files containing hundreds of variables which controls structure and style of all components. This approach works well in most of the cases where you want to create a unique theme for your website.
There are other nice tools available for editing and compiling LESS and one of the popular one I used initially is Crunch.
I realised a bit of inconvenience in using two tools: one for editing html, CSS and other for LESS. Remember I told you earlier this plugin runs a "compiler" when you need to compile LESS files. Next, to invoke the compiler from anywhere, you need to update the system environment variables. Web designs are more like buildings, they exhibits mathematical properties - order, symmetry and limitation. LESS is one of the popular CSS pre-processor and Bootstrap has chosen it for some good reasons. LESS provides lot of built-in functions for mathematical operations, colour processing and others. To know about the complete language features and functional reference visit the LESS website. This folder contains the distributable, compiled and minified CSS files, js files and fonts. The bootstrap.less file is the main one that imports all the others and compiles them into one CSS file. Create a new folder called "less" at the root of the project to keep all our custom LESS files.
Create a new folder called "bootstrap-custom" at the root of the project to keep all the compiled CSS files and the dependencies. This folder is only used when compiling all LESS files at once through *Tools \ Less>Css \ Compile all less in less base directory to css*. If you open the MyBlogTemplate.sublime-project in Sublime Text, you'll see the following content.
You've to update the Bootstrap references of all the HTML files to point to the generated CSS file i.e. Many websites that display stunning typography utilizes different fonts for heading and content.
The Google Fonts website provides you search and filter tools to narrow down the font you are dreaming. Click the "Quick-use" menu at the right bottom which will take you to another page where you can select the styles, character sets required for the font.
Drop the copied link to all the four html pages (index, single-post, contact and about-me) of our template. This will not make any change in the appearance because we haven't used the font anywhere in stylesheets. There is variety of fonts that matches my requirement, like Oswald, Open Sans Condensed, Yanone Kaffeesatz and more.
You can know the important variables that control the typography of Bootstrap by visiting the Typography section of Bootstrap customization page. I recommend you all to first check the Bootstrap customization page to know the different LESS variables that controls different things. We can group the above variables based on the property they influence like font-family, font-size and line-height. You may not see a big change and it's because both the "Open Sans" and "Helevetica Nueue" are from the same sans-serif font-family. Before creating the colour palette for our Bootstrap template, first we've to know the variables that control the colours. Brand Colours are used in components like buttons, panels, progress bars and labels to represent different action or information.
We are going to use shades of green to create the colour schemes for Gray and Brand colours. Before you kick the compiler, I need you to update three more parameters: body background colour, link colour and horizontal rule border colour. You can classify the panels into four types: default, primary, success, warning and danger. From the customization page, you know the two variables that control well's background and border. Tutorials that will teach you how to combine several layer styles to create a beautiful yet simple navigation bar. In this tutorial I will show you some very easy techniques, using gradients and layer styles, that we can use to produce nice subtle 3D effects in our web designs. This tutorial will show you how to make a semi-transparent Vista-inspired menu using gradients, shadows, and blurring to produce a stunning modern effect. Don’t hesitate to contact us for any questions, advertising, consulting, tutorial request or just to say hi! Editor(s) have the right to edit or delete any comment at any time to keep comment within the policy guidelines. CSS is an very useful and effective tool which help you separate the representation definitions of such structured documents as HTML, XHTML, XML from content.
This tutorial I will show you how to slice up the menu design (step by step) and put them together with CSS.
What we want to do here, is instead of simply altering the state of the navigation item the user is currently rolling over, we want to alter the non navigation items as well. The question has been asked numerous times in the css forum, "Is a there way to create a css horizontal drop-down menu in css that will work on most browsers. In this tutorial author shows you solution how to preclude common problems with implementations. In this tutorial you’re going to learn to create a simple, yet cool menu with overlapping tabs. This tutorial introduced how to code simple vertical menu a simple way to display some teaser information for your vertical navigation. In this tutorial, we can learn how to create Mac-like multi-level dropdown menu that author’s created using border-radius, box-shadow, and text-shadow. In this tutorial however, no divs will be used, instead you will be forming a navigation bar using a unordered list.
In this article I am trying to mimic the navigation menu in Dragon Interactive website using only CSS (no images, no JavaScript). Follow these steps to build your own modern navigation bar design, starting with the initial steps in Photoshop to flesh out the design, then moving on to constructing the HTML and styling with the CSS image sprite technique.
My friend William asked to me to design for his project a simple navigation bar with tabs using CSS.
A pure CSS technique to transform your icon menu into an interactive zooming icon navigation menu inspired from Mac OSX Dock with fish eye effect.
Today we are going to cover how to build a pure CSS menu with infinite sub menus; an area of CSS that is seldom talked about, poorly written or misconceived.

Today we are going to build the second most common menu navigation, the vertical navigation menu.
In this tutorial you will learn the basics of creating simple vertical menus for your website using only HTML and CSS.
This article is the first of a 2 part series, and the second half will apply this tutorial into creating a CSS only dropdown menu navigation with the image rollovers that is compliant with IE6 and up. If you enjoyed this post, please consider to leave a comment or subscribe to the feed and get future articles delivered to your feed reader. Stack Overflow is a community of 4.7 million programmers, just like you, helping each other.
Anyone able to explain how to create the fixed navigation bar in the link below using an unordered list exclusively with HTML5 and CSS3 (no JavaScript, jQuery and the like)? Also, I'm aware of the compatibility issues with having a fixed navigation bar in older browsers, but this is for a college assignment, so no need to include browser hacks. Unfortunately I don't have the markup with me at the moment, I can submit an attempt I made earlier at it maybe? Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged html css html5 css3 or ask your own question. To travel 30 km from India to Sri Lanka, do I really have to take a 1500 km, 20 hour detour? Is it possible to improve brute-force guessing of a password with a picture of the keyboard used to enter it? I was quite busy with a mobile app that came on the way (still working on it) that delayed things little. If you haven't read it, I would encourage reading, though, it's not a necessity for reading this part. But the fact is, all the created Bootstrap templates bear the same look and feel provided by the framework as default. You should also get a glimpse of the CSS pre-processor LESS and the immense benefits it brings to the stage.
It's a way to coordinate all the elements that go into making the web page so that they complement one another and reinforce the site's subject matter. In this approach, we'll duplicate the Bootstrap CSS rules in our custom stylesheet, where we add new styles to it or override the existing ones. When it requires more, then the stylesheet soon will become bloated with lot of rules exposing threat to maintenance (I really hate to see "!important" everywhere). Not only that, the customization page also helps you to choose only the required components and plugins for your website; which will help to reduce the size of the generated CSS and JavaScript files. Every time you exclude a JavaScript plugin or modified couple of LESS variables you've to visit the customization page and start everything all over again. I may recommend Firefox because of the add-ons like FireBug, ColourZilla which will help you very much in customization. We've to download the Bootstrap source-code which contains the core LESS files that needs to be edited and compiled (we are not really going to modify them). Drop the downloaded zip file under the "lib" folder of our project and extract right there.
Some of the interesting functions that help to operate on colours are darken, lighten, spin and mix. For that, you've to reference less.js script file in your html pages after your stylesheets. This is especially useful if you have one LESS file which imports all your other LESS files. When this setting is set to "true" the LESS compiler will be instructed to create a minified CSS file. We are going to configure here at project level and for that first we've to convert the project folder to Sublime project.
To configure the parameters for the plugin, create a new node called "settings" below "folders".
Let's start customizing one of the principal components that influence the look of any website - typography. It also provides preview about how each font appears when you use it in a word, sentence, paragraph or poster. Though I prefer the serif font "Times New Roman" in writing word docs, for web I would prefer to go with sans-serif for its calm and pleasing appearance. At the very middle you'll see a section called "Add this code to your website" where you can copy the link.
I don't bother much about the type, whether it is serif or sans-serif, for the time I stick with sans-serif. In the "Choose the styles you want" section please select Light 300, Normal 400 and Bold 700 as well. Not only in web, colours play a key role in every part of life like art, buildings, science and culture.
If you visit the Bootstrap customization page, there is a section that list out the LESS variables that control colours. Many times we choose different colours for these variables and it makes no sense at that time calling them "gray*".
For example, if you take buttons, there are buttons to represent actions like success, warning, danger, info etc.
For that, we've to replace all the default panels (panel-default) with primary panels (panel-primary). The reason is, we are using "list groups" inside them and their default background is snow white. If you remember we've used inverse navigation bar (navbar-inverse), so we better concentrate only on those set of variables. It opens the doors to a lot of powerful and rich opportunities such as create a whole new look, feel, and effect of sites.
This will help focus the users attention on the item they have selected on, and create a new look and feel for the site overall. With the mobile web becoming more important than ever before, load time and the size of a web site are some of the biggest factors to consider when developing a site for mobile users. This tutorial will show you how to style and control lists in CSS, as well as showing you the valid ways of using lists and where to use them. Many user interface elements that require images in order to have appropriate visual appearance now can be styled only with CSS3.
However, if all that sounds too strenuous, there’s also a handy download of the source files especially for you! Markup wise it’s just a regular nested UL list, turned into a drop down menu using a very small JavaScript code. One of many ways to style html list tags into interactive, usable, and accessible menu using pure CSS. This pure CSS menu with infinite sub menus technique makes use of CSS2 selectors so it will not work in IE6 and below without help from JavaScript. Here we are going to be using only pure CSS and un-ordered lists to create our vertical navigation menu with three levels of pop outs.
This is by no means the only way of going about it, nor is it the “right” way if there is such a thing, but I’ve found this to be a very quick and efficient way of accomplishing our task.
The default theme provided by Bootstrap is good for wikis but not for an e-commerce website that sell top-notch products.
I would be happier if you learn the trade to create and sell dozens of website templates in a short time with less work and little creativity. In this workshop, we are going to create a custom theme by primarily customizing these two things. Not only that, the worst part is, you are increasing the load of the page which makes performance suck. This approach is not productive for websites that needs to customize the look and feel, because in this case, we've to modify things frequently.

In this approach, we'll download the complete source code and update the required LESS variables manually. To install plugins for Sublime Text easily, I recommend you to install Package Control, which is a plugin by the way. But in the background, Package Control queries for all the packages, you can notice a simple progress message is displayed at the bottom status bar (Sublime Text really should improve in showing progress!).
We've to do some configuration for this plugin before using it which we'll see in the "Setting up the project" section.
They are around us quite a long time and some of the famous ones in the market are: SASS, LESS and Stylus.
You don't have to duplicate a colour in dozen places and worry whenever you need to change (who easily get satisfied in choosing colours, huh?).
They are the ones that control typography, colour scheme, grid system and the styles of all the components.
I told you earlier we've to modify the source LESS files (mostly the variables) to customize the typography, colour system and other things. A relative path is useful when your projects always use the same structure, like a folder named "less" to keep all your LESS files in. Please note that this setting is only used when compiling a single LESS file and not when compiling all LESS files in the LESS base folder through *Tools \ Less>Css \ Compile all less in less base directory to css*. You can easily do that by opening the Project menu and select the "Save Project as" option. Under that, create one more node called "less2css" where we set the values for those parameters.
Bootstrap uses the same font "Helevtica Nueue" everywhere like heading, body and other places like forms, buttons etc. You also have options to see the font in different styles (italic, bold) and grab the font link to quickly use in websites. You can search for san-serif fonts by selecting only the "Sans-serif" option from the filters drop-down menu. I didn't put much effort to search a better sans-serif font because I already know "Open Sans" will fit my need. To search such fonts, along with selecting the "Sans serif" option in the filter I also have to select the Width.
By changing the values of these variables you can customize the font, line-height and colour for content and headings of any website designed by Bootstrap.
So if you don't find something interesting then it's better to check out the source files starting from variables.less. For that, we've to filter the variables shown in the above table that controls the content and change them according to our needs. Note that, we've to customize the font of the text used in components like buttons and others. Now let’s take it to the next level — code an advanced (un-typical) list menu utilizing the CSS position property. I’ve not written this to show you something you can use in every browser today (though as we shall see it degrades gracefully in browsers that don’t support various CSS3 features), but to show what will soon be possible, and coming down the pipelines of CSS in real live browsers. This tutorial will teach you how to create different menu styles for a main menu, submenu, and footer menu. It should also be easy to understand its “inner workings”, as we will see during this tutorial.
In order to prove that I assigned myself a task to create Windows 7 start menu only with CSS3 (and some icons). If you want, you can change tabs colors simply modifying the image which I used as background for each tab. Note that the menu’s background should be a solid color instead of a background image, as the later property is reserved to show the right arrow images that appear next to menu items with additional sub menus. This version of the vertical navigation menu will work in IE5, IE6, IE7 and IE8 as well as FF and Safari. Finally, the modified LESS files are compiled into CSS which we'll be referencing from the html files.
If you are little familiar with node you can try that, for more information refer this page. Web designs can be created by applying mathematical principles that use variables and functions to represent properties, objects and their relationships. Likewise, there are LESS files that controls the styles for dropdowns, form elements, tables, grids etc. It's not a good idea to directly modify the source files, we may lose the track about the changes and it's difficult to upgrade to newer versions.
This file tells you about the purpose of the plugin, how to install it and configuration parameters. When compiling all files at once it will also process all subfolders under the base folder.
We want the generated CSS files to be stored in the "css" folder under "bootstrap-custom", so the value of outputDir is "bootstrap-custom\\css". Most of the variables are present in variables.less but some do exists in individual LESS files.
The same applies for panels and labels, where they are used to represent different information. Pure CSS menus use the hover pseudoclass, on the LI tag, to hide and show drop-down menus without JavaScript. Important things like subscribing, searching and account information are right up top where you would expect them to be. Unlike Bootstrap's customization page, these tools provide side-by-side preview when you modify things which is very useful. You've to wait with patience still the Package Control list down all the available packages. The idea of expressing designs using variables and functions helps to alter and create new designs very easily! I want the body font-size stay in 13px, so let's increase the decimal factor in the formulas.
Coming back to web design, one should wisely choose the colours such that they should fuse with website content.
If your installation went fine, you can open the Package Control widow from the Preferences menu. Compared to other programming languages, CSS miss variables, functions and many other goodies.
For example, the normalize.less file contains the basic styles defined for the html elements. We can create our own LESS files, import the bootstrap source LESS files in them and override the interesting variables by duplicating them in the new files and assigning new values to it. You cannot open the project directly by clicking the project files but you can do that from Sublime Text through the Project > Open Project option. Finally, we need to minify the generated CSS files and for that we've to set the property minify to true.
It does not make much sense to use heavy black for a website that talks about health and medicine, probably green would be better!
Without variables, we've to duplicate values of many things like font, colour throughout files.
Unfortunately, CSS don't have the ability to represent things in mathematical way and we've to lean on CSS pre-processors. Colour theory itself is a separate science and as a web designer we should know the basics to utilize them efficiently in websites.

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