Single-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname, earliest first. References with the same first author and different second or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author, etc.
References with the same authors in the same order are arranged by year of pub., the earliest first. Works by different authors with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial. Works with no authors are arranged by the first word in the title (not including A, The, etc.) . Works specifically listing the author as Anonymous list entry alphabetically as if a name were listed. Works with corporate authors are listed alphabetically by the first significant word of the name. Surname of the author (not including suffix such as Jr.) and the year of the publication are inserted at the appropriate point.
Elements of a parenthetical reference include the last name of the author, and year the work was published.
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.


When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. When there is no author listed or the author is unknown, begin the entry with the work's title. If there are more than six authors, list the first six and "et al" indicating there are additional authors. Use "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material rather than to the material itself.
For periodicals where each issue begins on page one, list the issue immediately after the volume number in parentheses.
Note: A doi or digital object identifier is a unique number identifying the resource that may be used to locate the item. Note: Date of retrieval is only used for resources that may change or be updated, and not used for books or published articles in their final state. Example is for an article with a doi, where each issue at page 1 (note the inclusion of the issue number in parentheses).
Note: If there is no doi and the work was accessed online, list the URL for the homepage of the journal.


Web documents share many of the same elements found in print documents (authors, titles, dates).
Note: For material that may change over time APA requires the inclusion of a retrieval date.
Use [web log post] for messages posted to the blog and [web log comment] when citing a comment to a blog. List the primary contributors in the author position and indicate their contribution in parentheses (Director, Producer, etc).
Comments about these pages should be directed to: Mike Hill, RSCC Learning Center Director.
If quoting directly the page number (page is abbreviated as "p.") or paragraph number is also required. The reference citation for a Web document often follows a format similar to that for a print document citation. Book Review Title [Review of Book Title, by Book Author(s) Name(s)].Title of Source Review appears in, Volume pages.



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