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Mitosis is a form of eukaryotic cell division that produces two daughter cells with the same genetic component as the parent cell. The replicated chromosomes are attached to a 'mitotic apparatus' that aligns them and then separates the sister chromatids to produce an even partitioning of the genetic material. Mitosis, although a continuous process, is conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The chromosomes, led by their centromeres, migrate to the equatorial plane in the mid-line of the cell - at right-angles to the axis formed by the centrosomes.
The final stage of mitosis, and a reversal of many of the processes observed during prophase.
Meiosis is the form of eukaryotic cell division that produces haploid sex cells or gametes (which contain a single copy of each chromosome) from diploid cells (which contain two copies of each chromosome).
Homologous pairs of chromosomes (bivalents) arranged as a double row along the metaphase plate. The events of Meiosis II are analogous to those of a mitotic division, although the number of chromosomes involved has been halved.
Chromosomes replicated during the S phase are divided in such a way as to ensure that each daughter cell receives a copy of every chromosome.
This separation of the genetic material in a mitotic nuclear division (or karyokinesis) is followed by a separation of the cell cytoplasm in a cellular division (or cytokinesis) to produce two daughter cells.


In diploid multicellular organisms sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote. The nuclear membrane breaks down to form a number of small vesicles and the nucleolus disintegrates.
The centromeres divide, and the sister chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart - or 'disjoin' - and move to the opposite ends of the cell, pulled by spindle fibres attached to the kinetochore regions. The nuclear membrane reforms around the chromosomes grouped at either pole of the cell, the chromosomes uncoil and become diffuse, and the spindle fibres disappear.
In plants a cell plate forms along the line of the metaphase plate; in animals there is a constriction of the cytoplasm. The process takes the form of one DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear and cellular divisions (Meiosis I and Meiosis II). The arrangement of the paired chromosomes with respect to the poles of the spindle apparatus is random along the metaphase plate. At a certain point - the restriction point - the cell is committed to division and moves into the S phase.S phase. Mitotic divisions of the zygote and daughter cells are then responsible for the subsequent growth and development of the organism.
A structure known as the centrosome duplicates itself to form two daughter centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell.


The spindle fibres bind to a structure associated with the centromere of each chromosome called a kinetochore. As in mitosis, meiosis is preceded by a process of DNA replication that converts each chromosome into two sister chromatids. In the adult organism, mitosis plays a role in cell replacement, wound healing and tumour formation.
The centrosomes organise the production of microtubules that form the spindle fibres that constitute the mitotic spindle.
The number of possible arrangements is 2n, where n is the number of chromosomes in a haploid set. Metabolic changes assemble the cytoplasmic materials necessary for mitosis and cytokinesis.M phase.
Each replicated chromosome can now be seen to consist of two identical chromatids (or sister chromatids) held together by a structure known as the centromere.



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