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Here we list common old building electrical wiring system safety concerns and we illustrate types of old electrical wires and devices. Older homes often have electrical receptacles and fixtures that are ungrounded, and many local codes do not require that they be rewired so they're grounded.
The building electrical grounding system provides a third path for electricity to travel along, so if there is a leak of any sort, it will flow into the earth rather than into the body of a person who touches a defective fixture, appliance, or tool. A building or home electrical system is grounded with a grounding rod driven at least 8 feet into the ground outside the house or by connecting to a cold water pipe. Each individual branch circuit must be grounded as well, either with a separate wire that leads to the neutral bar of the service panel or with metal sheathing that runs without a break from each outlet to the panel. Often an older building has poor or no working local electrical ground, relying instead on the incoming neutral wire from the electrical service. Modern electrical grounding at residential properties requires use of one or more grounding electrodes connected by an un-spliced wire between the electrode and the ground and neutral bus in the main electrical panel. Bare aluminum electrical ground wires are sometimes found to have corroded entirely through where the wire touched a damp foundation wall. Our photo shows a single hot wire and a single neutral wire which is grounded by the utility company somewhere upstream from this home. See AMPS VOLTS DETERMINATION for a detailed procedure on determining the whether your building is served by 120V or 240V.
Even if a building has had additional electrical circuits installed, thus improving the distribution of electrical power in the home, if the main electrical panel has not been up-graded it is possible that it is too small for the current usage in the building.
If your building has been wired correctly, the circuit breakers or fuses should protect the building from a fire due to overloaded circuits, and what will remain is an inconvenience: having to replace fuses or re-set circuit breakers.
If the building wiring is incorrect, damaged, or obsolete, the combination of those conditions with insufficient incoming building amperage may increase the risk of fire. See DEFINITIONS of ELECTRICAL TERMS if you're not sure about the definitions of Amps, Watts, or similar electrical terms. See AMPS VOLTS DETERMINATION for a detailed procedure on determining the ampacity available at a building. Warning: this list of electrical wiring defects and safety concerns in older homes is incomplete. Knob and tube electrical of wiring has been installed in homes from the 1920s right up into the 1970's in some jurisdictions. Knob and tube electrical wiring may be functional in a home and it was in its original concept a safe wiring method, separating the two conductors in air (see our photo at left) and using durable ceramic insulating knobs and tubes to mount the wire. Knob and tube electrical wiring may not need to be replaced, but it certainly deserves careful inspection and possibly replacement or repair, because knob and tube systems lack an electrical ground (less safe), may have damaged insulation (less safe), or may have been improperly modified or extended (unsafe).
Please see KNOB & TUBE WIRING for a detailed discussion of the identification, inspection, and repair of this electrical wiring system.
Loose taped wires, old wire damaged because ita€™s exposed, and multiple wires slipping off a single terminal screw may seem like minor problems, but are not. See ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS, SHORTS for more about short circuits, how they happen, how they are corrected.
As modern homes use more appliances and more electricity than folks did even twenty years ago, if the number of circuits in a home has not been increased it's likely that the home's electrical circuits are overloaded. Too often in an older home, especially one using a fuse panel, occupants are tempted to simply screw in a higher-amperage fuse to stop fuses from 'blowing". A 15-amp fuse or circuit breaker is what's needed on a 15-Amp #14-gauge copper electrical wire. For an example of installing an additional electrical receptacle, see Electrical Outlet-how to add. Carson Dunlop's sketches show why it's important to respect polarity when connecting an electrical receptacle, a lamp or any other appliance.
We've found appliances (a coffee maker) that simply burned up when connected in this fashion.
See ELECTRICAL GROUND SYSTEM INSPECTION for details about how to inspect the electrical grounding system at a building. Also, see details about electrical grounding at ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS, SHORTS, and at ELECTRICITY BASICS, HOW IT WORKS.
Do not attempt to work on your electrical wiring, switches, or outlets unless you are properly trained and equipped to do so. Even when a hot line switch is off, one terminal on the switch is still connected to the power source. Continue reading at OLD ELECTRICAL WIRING TYPES or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Question: suspected electrical short circuit increasing electricity usage in an older home? The lower hot and neutral pair are dark from age but also have green corrosion where they wrap around the terminal screw, but the upper pair do not. The inconsistencies make no sense to me but I hope they might to you, and maybe a solution to my many thousands of dollars in power I have never used. Find our email at the page bottom CONTACT link to send me some sharp photos and we can comment further. Stand at the meter and watch the dial spin rate (or time it to be more accurate) or on a digital meter note the number change rate per second or 30 seconds.

Make a note of what appliances (or in your theory current shorts to ground) that are located on that circuit and you've got a good idea who's using the juice. Elizabeth Sluder, Montross, VA, the original author of this article, is a public school teacher who writes basic educational articles about a variety of building, construction, and other topics. John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060.
Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
Recommended books on electrical inspection, electrical wiring, electrical problem diagnosis, and electrical repair can be found in the Electrical Books section of the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. You can get missions by using the provided Tow truck that spawns on the lot after you buy it.
Once you complete one towing mission, another one won't be available right away, but if you drive away (a few blocks) from the destination, you can try honking the horn and get another mission. For missions where you need to rescue drivers from railroad tracks, push them off the tracks with your tow truck before hooking up to the car. Note that some people will shoot at you when you try to repossess their vehicle, so be prepared. Don't forget to use Franklin's special driving skill to take sharp corners or get through a lot of traffic without crashing. Be careful not to hurt or kill the driver or damage their vehicle as this will fail the mission. If you have any questions, comments, or GTA 5 towing hints or tips, please post them in the comments below.
Clorox, with a powerful stable of brands and a relatively small market cap, is on this Fool's radar. These solid and dependable dividend stocks are great candidates for a retirement portfolio. Clorox is best known for its production of its namesake bleach but also manufactures laundry additives, cleaning items, water-filtration systems and food products.
Laundry products such as liquid bleaches, laundry stain removers, and both dry and liquid color-safe bleaches are sold under the Clorox and Clorox 2 brands.
Auto-care products such as protectants, cleaners and wipes, tire- and wheel-care products, washes, waxes and automotive fuel and oil additives, are sold under the Armor All and STP brands. Professional products are sold to the institutional, janitorial, healthcare and food-service markets under some of the same brands listed above.
Most of Clorox's products are advertised and sold in the United States to wholesalers, retail stores, and grocery stores.[6] The company also sells janitorial, healthcare, and food-service versions of its products through distributors.
In May 2007, Clorox announced its 'Centennial Strategy' to guide it through its 100-year-old anniversary in 2013. With foreign sales accounting for only 20% of total revenue in 2009, Clorox is highly dependent on the domestic US household and personal product market.[3] This limited international exposure is a source of concern for the company in the long run, since spending on Household and Personal Products (HPP) is growing slowly in North America. In the past decade, Clorox has faced stiff competition from private label brands or "store brands" of large retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target, and supermarket chains.
Large retailers are close to the consumers, have the point of sale data on consumer behavior and are in better position to understand consumer behavior. Clorox is a relatively small firm compared to its giant competitors Colgate-Palmolive Company (CL), Procter & Gamble Company (PG), and Kimberly-Clark (KMB), with revenues $13 billion and higher. The household and personal product market is growing much faster in emerging markets outside of North America. Clorox also competes with Kraft Foods (KFT), Unilever NV (UN), and Reckitt Benckiser across a number of specialty group business segments, including trash bags, salad dressing, charcoal, and STP autocare products.
The largest stone building block ever carved by human hands has been found by German archeologists. Massive stone blocks of a 64-foot length were used for the podium of the huge Temple of Jupiter. The stone was found next to a previously discovered 1,000-ton stone known as Hajjar al-Hibla, or the The Stone of the Pregnant Woman, along with another block weighing 1,240 tons. Archeologists believe that the stone was probably abandoned, along with the others, due to their quality and the difficulty that transporting them would pose. This article series answers basic questions about assessing and repairing the electrical service, capacity, wiring type, condition, and safety in older homes.
Still, grounding is worth adding to your system because it adds protection against electrical shock.
We also find that the ground wire between the electrical panel and a building water pipe or grounding electrode has become separated, loose, spliced, or lost entirely, as shown in our photo.
You cannot and should not install grounded electrical outlets on circuits where no ground path is actually present (such as knob and tube wiring). People use lamp cord (Zip cord) or extension cords as permanent circuits, sometimes even routing such wires through walls and ceilings - a fire hazard, and certainly not in compliance with electrical codes. In short, reversed polarity on a light fixture means it's easier to receive a dangerous electrical shock by touching the shell of the bulb socket or even the side of the bulb itself while screwing in a new light bulb. Electrical components in a building can easily cause an electrical shock, burn, or even death.

Before doing any work on the switch, the power source must be turned off by setA­ting a circuit breaker to OFF or removing a fuse.
I thought water or perhaps mouse urine from the attic, but then the top outside of the box would be corroded too, as would the top pair of hot and neutral wires.
One or two of them will usually define the main energy users in the home when you see the electric meter spin rate drop significantly. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. NASA is restructuring its education-related activities in order to streamline and maximize the services it can offer within allocated fiscal resources. A wide variety of NASA educational materials, activities, video clips and other related information is available on line.
After completing Tonya's last Towing mission, "Pulling One Last Favor," she will call Franklin to tell him that there is a new property up for sale and suggests that you should buy it. It's flagship product, Clorox, has become synonymous with bleach, and its other brands such as Pile-Sol and Kingsford are also widely known; according to the company 93 of its brands are the No 1. Plastic resin costs account for an average of 6% of Clorox's cost of goods.[2] Continued consolidation among consumer packaged goods companies has made it difficult for Clorox to pass on price increases to consumers.
A wide range of products from the North America segments and a few additional items such as brooms, candles, air fresheners, fabric refreshers and insecticides are offered under various brands internationally.
Clorox uses plastic resins in a variety of products, especially in its trash bags, accounting for 6% of the company's total cost of goods.[2] In response, Clorox has raised prices, exited the low-margin private-label trash bag manufacturing business, adjusted volume expectations, and focused on promoting higher-margin products.
In 2009, Clorox’s top five largest customers accounted for 43% of its revenue[1], with Wal-Mart Stores (WMT) alone accounting for 27% of the company's sales.[11] As supermarkets consolidate, a smaller number of firms account for larger percents of Clorox’s total sales, making each of them more important to Clorox’s bottom line. Most of Clorox's competitors have penetrated the global market, gaining a valuable head start in capturing global market shares.
Clorox's closes private-brand competitors have a close #2 position in trash bags and other categories.
The stone, which could be more than 2,000 years old, was found in a quarry in Baalbek, Lebanon.
The new stone measures 64 feet lengthwise by 19.6 feet wide and 18 feet tall, bringing it to a hefty 1,650 tons. I have not been able to afford to have the kind of exploratory work done to find the problem, but I did find some thing odd in a wall outlet the other night. At some point the the upper hot must have touched somewhere because there is a bright brass splash in the screw, and it has not darkened over time--it looks polished.
Her articles appearing at the InspectAPedia TM Website have been edited, illustrated, and on occasion content has been added by the website author.
As a result, many activities are being restructured or eliminated as they complete their natural period of performance. Money flows into the Staples sector had lifted valuation multiples since the beginning of 2016, the analyst said. With little presence markets beyond the United States, Clorox is the least exposed of the big industry players to high-growth emerging markets.
But because private labels don't put as strong an emphasis on innovation and new product creation, they are far less burdened by the costs of new product development (and when a new product does make it big, these private companies can ride along on Clorox's coattails to produce knockoffs that cleverly sidestep the patents). The newly discovered stone is still partially buried, so it remains to be seen whether it wasn't transported for similar reasons. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Or if she won't answer, wait a bit, and she will eventually text you with the next mission.) Once you buy this business, it will open up the towing pastime.
Private companies also get an added advantage in the event of a commodities costs decrease: while large firms like Clorox must stick to hedge-like long term purchasing contracts, private labels can usually purchase at the current market price, reaping the benefits of a temporary downswing in raw materials costs.
Any information provided by Wikinvest, including but not limited to company data, competitors, business analysis, market share, sales revenues and other operating metrics, earnings call analysis, conference call transcripts, industry information, or price targets should not be construed as research, trading tips or recommendations, or investment advice and is provided with no warrants as to its accuracy. The archeologists hope that this revelation will help them better understand ancient mining methods.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Stock market data, including US and International equity symbols, stock quotes, share prices, earnings ratios, and other fundamental data is provided by data partners. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Company names, products, services and branding cited herein may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The use of trademarks or service marks of another is not a representation that the other is affiliated with, sponsors, is sponsored by, endorses, or is endorsed by Wikinvest.

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