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MLA Format is a set of guidelines for writing research papers defined by the Modern Language Association.
1 inch from the top of the page, type the author name, instructor, course, and date; double space. Set the text alignment to "Left," so that the right edge of the text on the page is uneven. A quotation of less than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and incorporated into the sentence. In block quotations, use double quotation marks to indicate that a phrase is a direct quote. Remember that all quotations, as well as paraphrased text from your research materials must be properly cited. Vivian Ernst, "Political Culture," cartoon, Broad Street Daily [Waynesburg] 17 June 2002: 12. Industry, 2002, American Memory Historical Collections for the Natl Digital Library, 7 Aug.
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DID YOU FIND THE ANSWER TO YOUR QUESTION ???If you did not find the answer to your question on my site, please ask me directly by using my contact formI check my email pretty regularly and should be able to get an answer to you fairly fast. For adults in the state of rest or semi-activity, optimal synchrony between HRV and breathing rhythms occurs at a specific frequency, this being 1 cycle in ~12 seconds, or 5 cycles in ~1 minute. There is growing acceptance within the broad medical community that HRV amplitude is a key indicator of health status, adequate amplitude being indicative of sound health and inadequate amplitude being indicative of health risk.
Referring to FIGURE 1, when in the state of rest or semi-activity, the autonomic nervous system takes its cue from the breathing frequency. There is an emerging understanding within the medical community that sympathetic dominance underlies many modern day maladies including anxiety and hypertension. Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the natural variation in heartbeat rate that occurs over a period of time. To make this clear, FIGURE 2 below presents a real measurement of 13 complete heart rate variability cycles, numbered 1-13 from left to right. The difference between the highest and lowest heartbeat rate on a per cycle basis is depicted along the center of the graph, 12, 7, 11, 16, etc. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate variability in general are governed by complex interactions between sympathetic and parasympathetic functions as well as neural feedback resulting from the mechanical action of the cardiopulmonary system. Figures 2 and 4 are records of the same person breathing at 7.5 breaths per minute and 5 breaths per minute respectively.
At this point, it is necessary to look more deeply into the relationship between heartbeat rate and breathing. 2) The fascinating thing about this is that increasing the breathing frequency by as little as 2.5 breaths per minute results in a dramatic shift upward in HRV valleys.
3) Contrasting the red and green lines representing the highest and lowest breathing rates, in relative terms, rapid breathing results in the heart working on a continuous basis much faster than slower breathing.
4) The average heartbeat rate, by definition being the HRV mean, shifts upward as breathing frequency increases. The critical issue is not that more rapid breathing results in increased sympathetic emphasis. If we accept that the valley represents the moment of maximal cardiopulmonary rest and relaxation and minimal arterial pressure, and that it represents the moment of minimal action on the part of the autonomic nervous system at large, then it is this rest period that is sacrificed. In other words, 15 breaths per minute yields 6% less sympathetic influence (a positive effect in the context of throttling sympathetic action), and 40% less parasympathetic influence (a negative effect in the context of parasympathetic influence and autonomic nervous system balance). It is very important to understand that these measurements are taken while seated and completely at rest with the exception of consciously breathing at different rates. Our specific interest is in understanding the state of optimal autonomic balance, this state being characterized as the harmonious equilibrium between sympathetic and parasympathetic functions as well as a synergistic harmony between autonomic and somatic aspects of the central nervous system. The cardiopulmonary system inclusive of central nervous system aspects behaves much like an oscillator. The present author proposes that this hypothetical cardiopulmonary oscillating system is approximated by that of FIGURE 10. This particular spectral signature is of special significance because it is representative of optimal autonomic nervous system balance, spectral components to the left of the peak being reflective of sympathetic activity and spectral components to the right being reflective of parasympathetic activity. Again, in order for HRV amplitude and coherence to be maximized, the breathing cycle must be highly aligned with the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm. Vertebrate biology is arranged to operate in a harmoniously balanced manner, the ebb and flow of which is principally governed by sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system governs cardiopulmonary function in an oscillatory manner approximating the operation of the pendulum (FIGURE 13), inhalation being coincident with increasing heartbeat rate and exhalation with decreasing heartbeat rate. Motion of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which provide the mechanical action of breathing, is governed by both autonomic and somatic branches, the autonomic function facilitating the unconscious breathing process and the somatic function facilitating the conscious breathing process.
The ~12 second cycle, The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, depicted by FIGURE 15 below, consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic phase of activity. Autonomic balance or lack thereof is a relative matter and for this reason it is best to conceive of it as a spectrum along which numerous psychophysiological factors lie.


See the special report: Galvanic Skin Response, A Window Into Breathing and Autonomic Nervous System Function.
Maximal autonomic balance with resulting maximal coherence requires that The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, as evidenced by the heart rate variability cycle, and the breathing rhythm be synchronized. Breathing rate strongly influences sympathetic nervous system emphasis, the higher the rate, the higher the sympathetic emphasis.
With this in mind, there is a specific breathing frequency, with commensurate depth that yields optimal autonomic nervous system balance, this being the frequency of resonance. The second method is based on a fundamental breakthrough, this being the fact that the intrinsic autonomic rhythm - The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, will synchronize with the breathing cycle if the breathing cycle is highly tuned with the natural frequency of the autonomic rhythm. While at rest, the adult cardiopulmonary system inclusive of central nervous system aspects, resonates at a specific frequency, 1 cycle in ~12 seconds – the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, this frequency being essentially the same for all adults. Human cardiopulmonary functions are organized to work most effectively and efficiently when in harmony with this rhythm.
Optimal autonomic balance - with optimal coherence, is a result of synchrony between the breathing cycle and this Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm. Rapid breathing while at rest results in autonomic nervous system imbalance, specifically a shift toward sympathetic emphasis.
Because, while at rest, the average adult breathes at a rate of 10-20 breaths per minute, they exist in a state of persistent sympathetic emphasis. By breathing at the frequency at which the cardiopulmonary system (inclusive of central nervous system aspects) naturally resonates, one can achieve optimal autonomic balance and avert sympathetic dominance.
It is desirable to achieve and maintain autonomic balance on an ongoing basis as life circumstances permit.
COHERENCE provides Breathing Pacemaker products for the purpose of synchronizing the breathing cycle with an external reference signal operating at the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm of ~12 seconds, resulting in Coherent Breathing and optimal autonomic nervous system balance. For those that are interested, much of this author's focus has been on the function of autonomic balance and coherence in the practice of yoga and meditation.
On most Chevrolet engines the #1 cylinder is the first cylinder at the front of the engine on the driver side (left side) of a rear-wheel drive car or truck. The cylinders are numbered in a staggered sequence going from side-to-side, starting with the #1 cylinder going towards the back of the engine (see illustrations below). The correct firing order is very important because mixing up the spark plug wires may prevent the engine from starting, cause it to backfire and run very poorly if at all.
NOTE: On engines where two adjacent spark plugs fire right after each other, it is important to make sure the spark plug wires are not routed right next to each other for a long distance.
On engines with distributorless ignition systems or coil-on-plug ignition systems, the firing order is controlled by the ignition module or engine computer. When you have a permanent block on your number you will need to dial *82 before dialing the number you are calling. You might not want someone to know that you are trying to reach them for the 15th time in a row, or you might be calling a business and might not want them to know your number. If you want to test it, just call your home phone, or anther phone that has a caller ID from your cell to confirm that the block worked. Be careful when signing up for a caller ID spoofing service - some fake caller ID services are illegal.
This new science is based on a breakthrough in the understanding of autonomic nervous system balance and its relationship to subtle heart and breathing rhythms. When operating at this pace, cardiopulmonary efficiency and effectiveness are maximized and in keeping with the fundamental underlying autonomic nervous system rhythm. For adults in the state of rest or semi-activity, if the breathing cycle is synchronized with the heart rate variability cycle, the resulting center frequency and primary component of the heart rate variability frequency spectrum is .085 cycles per second or 1 cycle in ~12 seconds. The relationship between the heartbeat rate and the breathing cycle is such that heartbeat rate tends to increase coincident with inhalation and decrease coincident with exhalation.
While science recognized the existence of HRV and RSA as early as the 1700s, until the advent of powerful computing, the tools did not exist to thoroughly characterize its action and role in vertebrate physiology. For completeness, FIGUREs 5 and 6 present HRV signatures while breathing at 15 and 30 breaths per minute.
Note that while this heart rate variability difference is very large, there is only a 12% difference in average heartbeat rate, 5 breathing cycles per minute being 12% lower than 15 breaths per minute. From this observation, it appears evident that the cardiopulmonary system inclusive of central nervous system aspects, takes its cue from the breathing rate, i.e.
It has a natural center frequency of 1 cycle in ~12 seconds that is determined primarily by the characteristics of hypothetical oscillating and feedback-loop elements.
Consequently, the system tends to operate at the center frequency of 5 cycles per minute but is modified by the frequency of respiration. FIGURE 11 presents a spectral analysis of the heart rate variability signal while breathing at the Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, plotting HRV frequency vs. If the frequency of the breathing cycle occurs even slightly to either side of the 5 cycles per minute center frequency, HRV amplitude and coherence will not be maximized. In this way, oxygen is transferred into the bloodstream upon inhalation and delivered rapidly throughout the body via an increasing heartbeat rate and increasing blood pressure. The importance of this dual control is obvious, for without both autonomic and somatic control, either we would have no ability to breathe consciously, for example hold the breath, a function that is vitally important to survival, or we would have to breathe consciously 100% of the time! At this pace, sympathetic and parasympathetic functions are optimally balanced, the result being the optimized synchronization of the myriad of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions and activities throughout the body. Research results published to date, corroborated by this authors own research and personal experience, suggest a broad spectrum of actions on the human organism. Per FIGURE 15, this requires inhalation to occur on the positive going sympathetic phase of the autonomic cycle and exhalation to occur on the negative going parasympathetic phase. This results in strong sympathetic stimulation and weak parasympathetic stimulation as depicted by the red quadrant.
This condition is one wherein the breathing rate is not exacerbating sympathetic nervous system emphasis, but parasympathetic emphasis is not being elicited. As it is the objective to counter the tendency toward sympathetic over-emphasis, the net effect is autonomic nervous system balance. The first method involves consciously synchronizing the breathing cycle with the actual heart rate variability cycle.


Research on which this paper is based has been confined to a control group of 8 individuals.
COHERENCE asserts the theory that the root cause of sympathetic dominance is in fact suboptimal breathing. As such, the amplitude and frequency of the heart rate variability pattern relates strongly to the depth and frequency of respiration. At this juncture, several decades of research aided by contemporary computing, in particular, real time fast Fourier transformation, have passed.
For purposes of comparison, FIGURE 8 presents a sinusoidal model approximating the HRVs of FIGURES 2, 4, 5, and 6, these being represented by blue, green, orange, and red, respectively. If we once again examine the HRV corresponding to 5 breathing cycles per minute, we see that its sympathetic aspect (peak) is just as pronounced as that of 30 breaths per minute, both approximating 93-95 beats per minute. 15 breaths per minute, the breathing rate of the average adult, it would look something like this.
For this reason, average heart beat rate belies the true condition of cardiopulmonary status, heart rate variability being a far more comprehensive measure. Consequently, it stands to reason that breathing frequency and depth play a key role in moderating blood pressure.
An example of this is depicted in FIGURE 12 where the breathing rate is 4 cycles per minute. Consequently, inhalation - activation of the diaphragm and intercostals ideally occurs coincident with the sympathetic phase, and exhalation - deactivation of the diaphragm and intercostals ideally occurs coincident with the parasympathetic phase. All of them appear to be of a desirable nature relative to overall health, well being, and performance. When one breathes at the prescribed rhythm with appropriate depth, it results in autonomic nervous system balance and cardiopulmonary resonance. This requires monitoring the heart rate variability cycle and synchronizing inhalation with accelerating heart rate and exhalation with decelerating heart rate.
With this, the optimal state of coherence is achieved and will persist as long as the breathing cycle persists at this rate. All measurements depicted in this document with the exception of FIGURES 3 and 8 are measurements taken on this author under differing breathing circumstances. Sympathetic emphasis is characterized by relatively faster average heartbeat rate, reduced heart rate variability, increased heart duty cycle, and reduced heart rate variability coherence, as well as other physiological and psychological changes.
Breathing at the The Fundamental Quiescent Rhythm, brings about autonomic nervous system balance, correcting the state of sympathetic over activity and parasympathetic under activity and its consequences including internal tension, anxiety, and potentially the myriad of other psycho-physiological challenges to health and well being resulting from this imbalance. Heartbeat rate refers to the absolute number of heartbeats occurring during a 60 second period. The gray line represents the actual heartbeat rate as it varies in time from left to right. Consequently, FIGURE 2 represents a modest heart rate variability with relatively shallow synchronous breathing.
Even now , HRV(av) is difficult to calculate for chaotic signatures without sophisticated processing techniques. Again, FIGUREs 2 and 4-6 are HRV signatures of the same person deliberately breathing at 4 different frequencies and otherwise seated and at rest.
On the other hand, the valley relating to 30 breaths per minute as compared to 5 breaths per minute diminishes by over 30 beats! Given that the average adult (at sea level) breathes between 10 and 20 times per minute(3), does suboptimal breathing not play a significant part in the present hypertension pandemic?
In this regard, the behavior appears highly similar to the functioning of the cardiopulmonary system during exercise, but in the exercise case the system accelerates in order meet the increasing energy requirement.
While, generally speaking, the oscillator will synchronize with the breathing cycle as long as the breathing cycle is synchronous, the amplitude of the output is maximal when the frequency and phase of respiration are identical to that of the oscillator. This spectral signature is highly symmetrical, demonstrating that theassociated HRV signal possesses a high degree of spectral purity, frequencies being largely contained to a relatively narrow band around the center frequency of .085 cycles per second.
Any form of monitoring will work that allows one to clearly distinguish the accelerating phase from the decelerating phase.
This second method is the basis of the COHERENCE Breathing Pacemaker(TM) series of audio-visual products.
Kitney, Cardiorespiratory and Cardiosomatic Psychophysiology, Heart Rate Variability in Normal Adults, Published by P. Michel, How to Avoid Misinterpretation of Heart Rate Variability Power Spectra, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 68 (2002). Porges, Cardiorespiratory and Cardiosomatic Psychophysiology, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia: Physiological Basis, Quantitative Methods, and Clinical Implications, pg. The top peaks of the gray line represent the highest heartbeat rate in beats per minute (BPM) on a per cycle basis. As noted in the figure, this HRV signature was recorded while consciously breathing at 7.5 cycles per minute. For this reason, most HRV investigators have their subjects employ some form of synchronous breathing so as to take advantage of respiratory sinus arrhythmia effects. Summary prepared by Ichiro Kawachi in collaboration with the Allostatic Load Working Group. Lehrer, Heartbeat Synchronizes With Respiratory Rhythm Only Under Specific Circumstances, Chest - The Cardiopulmonary and Critical Care Journal, 2004. Nolan, Functional Assessment of Heart Rate Variability: Physiological Basis and Practical Applications, International Journal of Cardiology 84 (2002). Lanza, Autonomic Nervous System Function Assessed By Analysis of Heart Rate Variability At Rest and During Exercise In Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 17, Issue 5, Supplement 1, May 2004.




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