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What began as a sideline business selling polished metal mirrors to pilgrims in Germany (to capture holy light) evolved into an enterprise that altered the course of art, religion, politics and industry: Johannes Gutenberga€™s movable type and printing press. We judge ourselves by our noblest acts and best intentions, but we are judged by our last worst act. There are 10,000 species of ants, and for several million years they have coved the earth, except Antarctica [no pun intended]. Credit has existed globally since the early days of trading and mercantilism, but it wasna€™t until the 1920s that oil companies issued a physical card to repeat customers who purchased fuel for their new-fangled automobiles. Therea€™s nothing so hollow as the laugh of the person who intended to tell the story himself. CHALLENGE #111: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)? English belongs to the very large Indo-European language family [Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Latin, Hellenic, Iranian, Sanskrit et alia, which led to Polish, Welsh, French, Greek, Kurdish, Punjabi, and English, to name a few].
The real test of character comes when doing the right thing may not be in our self-interest.
In the past 5,000 years the human genetic code changed 100 times faster than it had in any prevous period. In the 1880s, Samuel Augustus Maverick was a Texas cattleman who refused to brand his cattle, seeing it as cruel. CHALLENGE #111 was: Why is the numeric keypad on a computer (7-8-9 at the top) upside-down from the numeric keypad on phones (1-2-3 on top)? Researchers gave cash to experimental subjects who were instructed either to spend it on themselves or on others. BIG Q #26: Pericles argued in his Funeral Oration that democracy stimulates excellence because all citizens are stakeholders with public responsibilities.
When intensive-care units at Michigan hospitals followed a 5-step checklist for how to insert intravenous lines in patients, infections were virtually eliminated, saving the hospitals $175 million over 18 months.
The peace symbol began as the emblem of the British anti-nuclear movement 50 years ago on Good Friday: a combination of the semaphore positions for N and D [Nuclear Disarmament] within a circle [the earth]. CHALLENGE #114: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. BIG Q #27: Since poverty is deeper among children than the elderly, why does public spending on the elderly vastly outstrip spending on the young?
E-mail and Web searches consume 1.5% of the nationa€™s electricity last year, and if current trends continue, by 2010 the power bill to run a computer over its lifetime will surpass the cost of buying the machine. Biologically speaking, humans have changed little in the 100,000 years [or 3,000 generations] since modern humans emerged on the African savanna--not enough time for serious adjustments. Rembrandt was a master of chiaroscuro (kee-ahr-uh-SKYOOR-oh), the use of contrasts of light and shade to enhance the depiction of character and for general dramatic effect. CHALLENGE #114 was: He was a fighter who was obsessed with boxing and he abused drink and drugs. CHALLENGE #115: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms?
BIG Q #28: Why do girls, on average, lead boys for all their years in school, only to fall behind in the workplace?
Only 11% of CEOs of top 500 companies have an Ivy League degree, but 20% of the top 60 women in Forbes a€?most powerful womena€? list did. The hormone oxytocin is naturally released in brain after a 20-second hug from a partner, triggering the braina€™s trust circuits.
CHALLENGE #115 was: What proportion of the cells in your body are not actually yours but belong to foreign organisms? CHALLENGE #116: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail. Featured Quote: a€?The truth of the matter,a€? is that a€?we havena€™t sacrificed one darn bit in this war, not one. BIG Q #29: Why are the most powerful people in the world old white men and pretty young women?
When lima bean plants are attacked by spider mites, they release volatile chemicals that summon another species of mites to attack the spider mites.
Funeral directors promote embalming: replacing body fluids with formaldehyde, a carcinogen that eventually leaches into the environment when the buried body decays [800,000 gallons annually]. In 2001, President Bush exempted some 3,500 plants that spew toxic chemicals from the Right-To-Know law.
Consultants get paid up to $500,000 to name a drug, and insist that letters are imbued with psychological meaning: P, T, and K, they claim, convey effectiveness.
CHALLENGE #116 was: A westerner and an easterner who each changed the world, but didna€™t want their names used to identify a religion--to no avail. CHALLENGE #117: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. Spoken language is instinctual, the brain collects the phonemes and abstracts the rules from what it hears, but written language must be taught. Busha€™s tax cuts for the rich have reduced annual tax revenue avaiable for public needs by $300 Billion each year. CHALLENGE #117 was: His father a€?bluffeda€? his way into law school using a faked transcript, and went on to finish first in his class and become a successful labor lawyer. FACTOID: Unusual English spelling shows the way the words were pronounced 100s of years ago. Chinoiserie (sheen-WAH-zuh-ree) is a style of ornamentation using motifs identified as Chinese. CHALLENGE # 118 was: If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there, does it make a sound? CHALLENGE #119: Which a€?booka€™ won the Pulitzer Prize for literature and drama, in successive years? Bharti Airtel Limited is a leading global telecommunications company with operations in 20 countries across Asia and Africa. There has been a significant tightening of regulations around the purchase and activation of SIM cards. As a result of the current situation in India, we have suspended sale of India sim cards and will offer instead an O O Mobile Global roaming TravelSim card which works globally as well as in India for talk text and data service.
Airtel Customer Service - For further assistance please feel free to contact us at 121 from your Airtel Prepaid number or 98101-98101 from your landline. In chapter one we explained how Europe's advantageous geography caused it to technologically advance faster than any other region on the planet, allowing the residents of Western Europe and their descendants in the relatively disease-free North America and Australia to become by far the wealthiest people in the world.
Though they began the second half of the twentieth century as impoverished countries, South Korea and Taiwan never needed to be so poor. In 1927, a war broke out between Chinese capitalists (represented by the Kuomintang), and the Communist Party of China (under the leadership of Mao Zedong).
Located on the Southern tip of the Malaysian Peninsula, Singapore is the third-smallest country in the world in terms of land mass (after Monaco and Vatican City), more accurately described as a city rather than a country.
In the 1970s, Singapore used its geographic position to its advantage -it invested in key infrastructure (especially seaports) which made it easier for ships to dock along the Singapore coast.
The booming territory of Hong Kong -the fourth and final Asian Tiger- is a large city of about 7 million people officially considered a province of China; however, due to its 100 year exposure to Western culture and capitalist ideology, it has traditionally had more in common with Europe and North America than with its Asian neighbors. Hong Kong's citizens gradually became much wealthier than the residents of other Asian nations as the city continued to attract copious amounts of foreign investment. From 0 AD to around 1500 AD, China reigned supreme as the world's dominant leader in technological innovation. Unfortunately, the communist ideology which Mao promoted turned out to be a grossly inefficient. From 3 BC to 6 BC (known as India's Golden Age), the extremely populous South Asian nation of India enjoyed relatively high standards of living and were prominent contributors to global technological progress, discovering important human achievements including the concept of zero, the decimal system and knowledge that the Earth was flat and rotated on an axis. In the 1950s, the Rockefeller Foundation (at the time the world's largest charity organization) began to become concerned with Earth's rapid population growth. While many of the citizens living in India's major cities have escaped from extreme poverty, the vast majority of citizens residing in either the countryside or dilapidated urban slums still remain extremely impoverished. In summary, the Four Asian Tigers owe their success in large part to their favorable geography which gave them plentiful agriculture as well as extremely advantageous locations which served to attract foreign investment.
In the better sets, the traditional flaws of plasma (burn-in) and LCD (limited viewing angle, weak blacks, weak fast motion) have been largely eliminated. In 1958, Dinera€™s Club launched the first card available for payment to general merchants: 27 participating NYC restaurants.
Kugel, an Orthodox Jew and author of a€?How to Read the Biblea€? says that there is essentially no evidence--archaeological, historical, cultural--for the events in the Torah. Koerner which he said depicts: a€?a horseman determinedly charging up what appears to be a steep and rough traila€?--representing his own political journey against steep odds and naysayers. The rope was not strong enough to carry them all; they decided 1 had to leave, or all would fall.
According to the Energy Department, vampire gadgets account for about 25% of total residential electricity consumption in the U.S. Guppy submitted a fish to the British Museum that was already classified, but the name stuck [and the fish is still in a jar at the museum]. Headquartered in New Delhi, India, the company ranks amongst the top 4 mobile service providers globally in terms of subscribers. Some operators are saying that it will take at least 4 days to activate a SIM card once purchased.


If you find a particular feature that is not working we have provided the steps and settings you can enter manually.
Or simply dial *123# and then the calling button, you will get the balance amount on your handset screenor Enter *121# to access an interactive menu. By the 1980s the distribution of wealth across the planet was extraordinarily lopsided, with just one fifth of the world's population (mostly those in Western Europe and their descendants in North America and Australia) holding 82% of the world's wealth. The majority of its agrarian population was left homeless , their farms having been completely destroyed by air bombings. Both possessed beneficial geography which could have caused them to become just as wealthy as the Western Europeans.
The war lasted until 1950, when the Communists eventually took over the Chinese mainland and the pro-capitalist Kuomintang were forced to retreat to the small island of Taiwan, where they established a new economy based on market principles. Singapore was previously owned by the British Empire until it was invaded and conquered by Japan during the Second World War; it later succeeded from the United Kingdom to become a sovereign state in 1965. The region immediately became a haven for petrochemical refineries; ships carrying oil from the Middle East to Japan and China would simply stop in Singapore, refine the chemicals, and continue on their way.
This nation's modern history begins in 1839, when the British Navy went to war with China over the right to sell narcotics (a conflict termed the "Opium War"). By the 1960s, Hong Kong was one of Earth's major producers of textiles (clothes and carpets), and had a virtual monopoly on European and North American tourism to China during the 1960s and 70s. Some of mankind's greatest inventions, including gun powder, the printing press and magnets, were all invented or discovered in China; many believe that for centuries, China had the highest standard of living in the world.
The basic idea behind communism is that everyone works to create goods, then the government takes possession of the goods (creating a massive pile) and hands equal portions out to everyone. The large surge in wealth helped China to transition out of subsistence and into the second stage of development. Economic historian Angus Maddison revealed that in 1700, India held roughly 24% of the world's wealth (roughly equal to Europe's 23%).
It reasoned that if the population continued growing at its current rate there would simply not be enough food to feed Earth's vast population, leading to enormous famine and death by mass starvation. More than 900'000 Indians still die each year from drinking contaminated water and breathing polluted air, more than a third of the country is still illiterate and most of the physical infrastructure in India's rural districts are still abysmal. Some of the success of South Korea and Taiwan can be attributed help from the United States, who agreed to subsidize Korean exports and gave billions in foreign aid to support Taiwanese agriculture.
But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. No man spoke, but the woman said she would voluntarily let go of the rope, because, as a woman, she was used to giving up everything for her husband, kids and men in general, and was used to always making sacrifices with little in return.
What little infrastructure South Korea had prior to the war was also largely obliterated, as were most of the national schools and public hospitals.
Since independence, Singapore has enjoyed a rapid rise in incomes as a result of a boom in foreign direct investment. Singapore used this original surge in wealth to invest in public education; soon, it had a skilled workforce able to attain high-paying jobs in the computer engineering sector. The British eventually used their superior military technology to win this war; in 1897, they forced the Chinese government to allow the British to "rent out" (essentially colonize) Hong Kong, a large trade city overlooking the Pacific Ocean. It used this continuous flow of wealth to build vital infrastructure, including highways, subway systems and high-rise buildings at breathtaking speed.
But as mentioned in Chapter One, a series of bad policies by the Chinese government (helped by geographical circumstance) eventually caused incomes in China to fall behind European incomes around 1500 AD; this marked the beginning of a slow and steady decline of Chinese global leadership resulting from terrible government policies. Even domestic economic growth is influenced heavily by geography, as shown by the map right which depicts the richest regions of China in red and the poorest in beige. But India's dominance as a major economy began to dwindle throughout the last 300 years as overpopulation, massive famines, the declining value of silver (which happened to be India's main currency) and chronic internal conflict between India's Hindu and Muslim citizens repeatedly hindered India's economic growth. So to solve this problem, the Rockefeller Foundation funded a project to create new, "high-yielding" seeds; these were essentially bio-engineered seeds of maize and wheat that when planted, would produce more food than the average seed. Yet now the government has the money to make the crucial investments in health, education and infrastructure needed to enter the second stage of economic development; the boost of foreign direct investment has meant that India is no longer stuck in the poverty trap.
China's economic prosperity is attributed to a massive increase in agricultural productivity thanks to a transition away from Communal farms and the opening of free trade zones along the Pacific coast. So, plasma has truer color and does better in darker rooms, and LCD has more vivid color and does better in bright rooms.
In practice, some SIMs are activated within 12 hours since the rule has changed, and other SIMs have taken almost a week to activate. By 2009, their quality of life rivaled that of historically rich European nations such as Germany and Britain. Economists at the time surely would have looked at this nation's illiterate population and decimated cities and predicted that South Korea would remain trapped in extreme poverty for at least the rest of the twentieth century. For South Korea and Taiwan, both were stuck fighting brutal civil wars which completely demolished their infrastructure and exhausted their resources. To help grow these crops, the Japanese also set up irrigation systems on Taiwanese farms which aided in food production.
Singapore soon became a major exporter of computer hardware and biotechnology, generating further wealth in the region. The British "leased" Hong Kong from the Chinese government for the next century, making the city an very important trade portal connecting China with the rest of Europe. As Hong Kong families became wealthier, they could now afford to send their children to school, causing the city became rapidly well-educated. Perhaps the pivotal turning point in Chinese economic history occurred in 1434 when the emperor banned international trade, closing off China from the rest of the world economy. Certainly fairer distribution of wealth is a good thing, but under communism it comes at a terrible cost. As you can see, those areas where foreign companies can easily transport their materials for manufacturing are usually the areas closest to the water.
European powers including Portugal and the United Kingdom eventually took advantage of India's internal conflicts and conquered India the 18th century, aided by their superior military technology. This was understandable at the time, since many in India were distrustful of corporations from Britain and other former colonists.
This meant that farmers in third world countries could now grow more food than ever before. Gradually, health and education in India will dramatically improve as the government invests money in vaccines and treatment to cure tuberculosis and AIDS, builds more schools to give India universal primary education, and invests in paved roads, wells and electrical grids to give rural citizens access to electricity and clean drinking water; since all of these investments will increase worker productivity and make India more attractive to foreign direct investment, India will become rapidly wealthier over the coming years as it enters the cycle of prosperity. India's prosperity was rooted in the reversal of detrimental economic policies during the early 1990s. And, just to make things more difficult, there is very little rhyme, reason or logic to how long any of these things take.
Later during the Cold War, Taiwanese food production received a further boost by the US government; to help support the capitalist regime in power, the United States sent a total of about $4 billion to Taiwan from 1951-65.
As you can see from the map to the bottom left, Singapore happens to be situated in the perfect geographic location to promote foreign investment -the tip of the Malaysian peninsula, where every ship going from Japan, China or Korea must pass right beside to get to consumers in Europe.
In 1900, Hong Kong's trading seaport was the fourth largest in the world, attracting large amounts of foreign investment from companies in both China and Europe. Hong Kong soon became one of the world's leading manufacturers of high-tech products, including computer hardware, software and other electronics such as televisions, radio and microwaves. This was a profound mistake; China's goods could have been sold to foreign nations in Europe or the Middle East, giving China additional money which might have created a more specialized workforce and fueled more technological innovation. And so while major cities on the coast are booming with economic activity, those inland landlocked provinces are still trapped in poverty since it is costly for foreign companies to travel there. However, it made raw materials very expensive and thus hindered India's service sector economy for many decades. When these seeds were exported to certain regions of India in late 1960s, those regions experienced what is now known as the "Green Revolution"; the introduction of the new bio-engineered seeds caused food production to double (and in some places triple) in a very short period of time. However, it should also be noted that India and received help in the form of  large amounts of fertilizer and high yield seeds from the Rockefeller Foundation. But, therea€™s no such thing as a 1080p TV broadcast (cable, satellite, anything), and wona€™t be for years. Actually, it was an illustration for a Saturday Evening Post short story, a€?The Slipper Tongue,a€? about a slick-tongued horse thief fleeing a lynch mob.
All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. Athens, to honor god of wine & drama, Dionysus [Baccus], where comic actors wore padded phalluses as part of their costumes.
These developing economies are predicted to reach an average income of  $40'000 per person (roughly the current income of the very rich United States) by the year 2050. Its citizens enjoy very high incomes and a standard of living rivaling that of even traditionally wealthy nations such as Britain and Germany. The time spent under colonial rule had done little to improve Korea's subsistence economy, and the failure to hold democratic elections after the war had caused escalating political tension which eventually resulted in a war between the Communist North and the Capitalist South.
Taiwan used much of this money to invest in fertilizers and infrastructure to further boost crop production, leading to a surge in food productivity. As a result, Singapore has always had a huge advantage over other nations in being a center for international trade. The Port of Singapore is currently the busiest in the world, transporting one fifth of all shipping containers and half of the world's annual supply of crude oil. This city received another sudden boost in foreign direct investment in the 1940s, when China's Communist Party began winning the civil war; hundreds of Chinese merchants fled China, fearing that the Communist government might take over their business.


Hong Kong's considerable wealth also contributed to the rise of its banking sector, which became the major lender to businesses all over Asia. Yet alas, it did not happen, and over the next three centuries China continued to fall further behind Europe. The problem is that each individual farmer is guaranteed roughly the same amount of food no matter how much rice he produces; if the whole town of one thousand families averages ten pounds of rice for each family, then he'll get ten pounds of rice no matter what (his contribution is negligible). For the next fifty years, the British government would repeatedly refuse to help starving Indian farmers suffering from famine, leading to mass death by starvation.Under the leadership of Mahatma Ghandi, India gained independence from the British Crown in the mid 1900s using only widespread non-violent civil disobedience.
Although the Green Revolution freed much of India from starvation, most of the country still remained trapped in extreme poverty. These allowed farmers to grow more food than ever before and lessen the burden of starvation on India's citizens.
It boasts the world's greatest number of people with internet access, and is home to many of the world's leading technological developers including Samsung, LG and the Kia Automotive company. By 1960, Taiwanese farmers were producing an average of three tons of rice per hectare (10'000 square meters) of farm, the highest crop efficiency in all of Asia except for Japan; this efficient agricultural production provided a boost of wealth to the rest of the economy and helped transition Taiwan out of subsistence.
Its success as an extremely wealthy state stands as a testament to the role geography plays in promoting certain economies over others.
By the 1990s, Hong Kong was one of the most expensive cities in the world to live in with a standard of living matching that of Europe and North America.Many have pointed to Hong Kong's favoring of right-wing market freedom (involving very low taxes, strong property rights and extensive market deregulation) as the reason for its rapid rise to prosperity. Eventually the English invaded China, ironically defeating them with the one of the very inventions that China had created; gunpowder. So perhaps the man doesn't work as hard and only achieves half the average rice yields; he's not too worried, since he'll still be getting ten pounds of rice from the community even if he only contributes five pounds of rice.
The newly independent democracy soon elected its first Prime Minister: Jawaharlal Nehru -one Ghandi's key spokesmen and lobbyists for independence. Private businesses could only manufacture goods if they had the required licenses, and the number of items they could sell was determined by the license regime, not by free-market demand. This original boost in the production of valuable foods helped dramatically increase wealth throughout these regions (since food has value and farmers now have more of it than ever before), strengthened the developing nations' economies by promoting health (a better fed population is always healthier) and gave the nations something valuable to export (such as rice or wheat). While the economies of South Korea, Singapore, China, and India were able to pull millions out of extreme poverty, Africa has barely advanced or even regressed in terms of foreign investment and per capita income. In the center of this new economy lies the spectacular city of Seoul (pictured left); its skyscrapers stand sparkling where rumble lay just fifty years ago, a modern miracle of economic development. Starting in the 1960s, the capitalist regime in power decided to lower tariffs (taxes) on all imported and exported goods.
For example, in its annual Index of Economic Freedom, the conservative Heritage Foundation has ranked Hong Kong as the "most free" economy in the world for the past 15 years (since the study began in 1995), and cited this as the reason for Hong Kong's rise to prosperity as an Asian Tiger. England terrorized China into opening up its borders once more to international trade, allowing the English to purchase tea from Chinese merchants (which at the time was very popular in Europe) and forcing the Chinese to buy narcotics from the English.
It ended the License Raj, lifting the laws which restricted businesses from pursuing profitable activities.
We also learned that when a foreign company builds a factory or office building in the third world nation and employs the nation's poor citizens, they tend to make that country wealthier through creating jobs. So how did South Korea inexplicably transform itself from an extremely poor country to one of Earth's greatest economies in just 50 years time? With abundant infrastructure and with the civil conflict with China largely over, rich world corporations began to flock to Taiwan and construct factories, using its cheap labor to produce clothes and other knickknacks (such as small toys or ornaments) at a very low cost. Yet other economists, including Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman (both former winners of the Nobel Prize in Economics) have noted that extremely high economic freedom does not necessarily lead to the best economic growth. This English invasion to attain Chinese tea in exchange for narcotic drugs has been termed by many historians as the "Opium War." Decades later another invasion, this time from Japan, further destabilized China and sent it spirally into civil war. Its fine if one or two people don't work very hard and produce less rice than expected, but if the entire community does this then total rice yields will plummet and the entire community will suffer.
The country was further compromised by frequent droughts, which routinely decimated agricultural productivity.
It also promoted foreign investment from rich world corporations through liberalizing the percentage of a company which could be foreign owned and the number of sectors in which foreign companies were allowed to invest.
In addition, since the company is located in the poor nation (such as China), the government of the country is allowed to collect taxes on the company. And why was Asia the one that was growing, while the even more impoverished continent of Africa was simply standing still?
This boom in foreign investment once again gave the government a surge of wealth, which it used to invest in Taiwan's "Ten Large Construction Projects"; investments in infrastructure which included the building of highways, seaports, airports and power plants. Communist revolutionaries, led by the future Communist dictator  Mao Zedong, emerged as the winners of the war in 1949 and gained control of mainland China. I mentioned before that throughout the 1980s and 90s, companies from the West were looking to move to third world countries in hopes of finding employees willing to work for cheaper wages.
The government can invest this tax money in health (investing in hospitals which allow people to live longer and be more productive), education (building universities such as India's IIT buildings), physical infrastructure (building roads and ports needed to reduce transportation costs) and state-of-the-art technology (such as cell phones and internet) for their citizens. In this chapter we'll investigate how China, India and the so-called "Asian Tigers" were able to achieve substantial economic growth, and try to understand how Africa can replicate that rapid increase in wealth and begin the ascent up the ladder of development. Like Korea, Taiwan also invested in technological education, creating a generation of students familiar with high-tech products. Although Hong Kong's favoring of capitalism certainly gave it an advantage, I must conclude that its rapid growth had more to do with its strategic location (which made it the portal of trade between China and Europe, thus making it a haven for foreign investment) than with its favoring of right-wing extremist economic policy.So in conclusion, contrary to our previous expectations, there is nothing particularly interesting about the rise of the Asian Tigers. The role was eventually filled in 1978 by a man named Deng Xiaping, a reformer who led China away from Communism towards market economics.
Unfortunately, India was an unattractive place for them to move to since it had enormously decrepit infrastructure which made transportation costs enormous. This increases the competitiveness of the country, which causes further foreign direct investment.
The common theme, we shall see, is correcting terrible economic policy which had for many years prevented nations with relatively advantageous geography from becoming wealthy. These places have risen out of extreme poverty to become some of Earth's richest nations; they stand as proof that extreme poverty is not an absolute trap, that actions can be taken to make populations astoundingly wealthier over the course of just a few decades. Both of these investments caused Taiwan's exports and industrial production to grow rapidly.
One of his first major decisions as leader was to privatize China's agricultural sector; everyone now owned their own farm. Luckily, Western companies which were looking to move also included corporations from the "Information Technology" sector; designed to program software, perform telemarketing, transcript writing from written print to digital type and analyze data for major businesses. The wealth generated by this foreign direct investment is used to further improve health, education, infrastructure and technology, once again making the country more competitive on the global market and generating more wealth through foreign investment.
We'll begin this chapter by tracing the history of the Four Asian Tigers in an attempt to determine how they became so successful.
During the 1980s, Taiwan used its skilled students to shift to an economy based on production of computer hardware and software; by 2003, 30% of the world's computer products were made in Taiwan, and incomes were relatively high (averaging $14'000 per person).
South Korea and Taiwan are almost entirely surrounded by water with regular and plentiful rainfall and have a variety of rivers to act as base infrastructure. What this meant was that each man got to keep the amount of food he grew; this dramatically raised each individual farmer's incentive to work hard.
This cycle, in which foreign investment fuels more wealth, and wealth fuels more foreign investment, continues until the country becomes very rich. Thus high food yields (once again helped in part by US foreign aid supporting the capitalist regime) combined with low tariffs, good infrastructure and a highly educated population to make Taiwan into one of the most prosperous economies in all of Asia. Singapore is placed in the perfect spot on the globe to act as a port for fuel services, and its very small size help to make it appear more successful than it actually is (notice that the land mass just behind Singapore with less favorable geography is impoverished, but does not recorded as a part of Singapore).
This caused an enormous boom in agricultural production throughout China; each farmer now had a surplus of food to sell in the free market. But then the companies caught sight of India's students from the Institutes of Information Technologies, and found the workers they were looking for.
Hong Kong happened to be leased by the British in 1897 and acted as an intermediate between the trading giants Britain and China, making it the perfect spot for European foreign direct investment in China. Deng's second major reform was to allow foreign companies to build manufacturing plants in certain designated areas in China called Special Economic Zones.
These companies began rapidly outsourcing to India in the 1990s, hiring the educated Indian workers to perform computer-related tasks.
The rise of the Asian Tigers thus stands as proof that favorable geography can play a dramatic role in development, acting as an important catalyst for economic growth .
Companies which manufactured clothes, shoes, toys, electronics and a variety of other knick-knacks could now move to China, where the poor peasants would work for one tenth the wage of North American workers. Since the thing which these companies were exporting -digital documents, telemarketing services over the telephone- could be exported using satellites instead of trucks and roads, India was able to achieve a sudden flood of wealth from foreign investment without having the prerequisite infrastructure in place; the satellites allowed India to escape from the "lack of infrastructure" poverty trap described in the previous chapter. The company's products would now be manufactured in China and then exported to Europe or the United States. Because they were made using cheaper labor, the company could now sell the product at a cheaper price in North America, saving consumers in the rich world money. Within two decades, Chinese manufacturing exports soared from a few billion dollars in 1980 to more than $200 billion in 2000.



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