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Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales.
The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts.
The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia.
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions.
At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records.
It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece.
In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps.
The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe.
Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone. China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost.
As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square.
The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals.
A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history.
Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps.
In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store.
When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training.
Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art.
It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported.
This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass.
According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought.
In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general.
Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge.
Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
But it points clearly to a time when Goda€™s mercy will be withheld from those who have persistently rejected the authority of Heaven. Notice that the final issue involves a false allegiance to the beast power, so often referred to in Bible prophecy. Those who do not have the mark of the beast are described as obedient to those commandments, and the rest suffer the wrath of God.
At last, the majority of eartha€™s inhabitants will accept the authority of an antichrist counterfeit power, in disobedience to Goda€™s great ten commandment laws.
The interest of multitudes has been destroyed by the influence of pastors who would not take seriously the solemn words of Johna€™s prophecy. Soon one third of the heavenly host had joined the disaffection of Lucifer, and the great controversy was under waya€”a controversy that was to rage for over 6,000 years, and which would finally demand the decision of every living creature in heaven and on earth. Here it will continue until it reaches a desperate climax in the division of eartha€™s multitudes for or against the commandments of God.
With devilish cunning, he has experimented with successive forms of warfare against God and His plan for this world. Please note that the beast of Revelation 13 symbolizes a gigantic antichrist power that attempts to displace God entirely.
Later in this same chapter, we read that this beast power will exercise so much influence over the earth, that it causes men to receive a mark in their foreheads or hands (Revelation 13:16). We will not dwell on them at this point in detail, but let us remind ourselves again that this issue will involve eternal life or death for all. He has not the faintest idea about the beast or his mark, even though his destiny hinges upon the issue. The answer is found in verse 17, a€?These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.a€? There it is. These kingdoms are referred to often in Bible prophecy and are called by name in some related prophecies of Daniel.
Although Daniel had seen living wild beasts like those portrayed in the first three prophetic symbols, he had never seen anything resembling the fourth terrible beast. The extension of its cruel domination of the earth has been well documented in the pages of ancient history.
Fierce tribes came sweeping down from the north country, and overwhelmed the territory of Western Europe, dividing it finally into ten parts. They were the Anglo-Saxons, Alemanni, Heruli, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Suevi, Lombards, Burgundians and Franks. This indicates that a human being would be at the head of the power represented by the little horn.
Jesus had forgiven a man his sins, and the scribes said, a€?Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? First of all, the papacy did arise in western Europe, at the very heart of the territory of the pagan Roman Empirea€”in Rome itself. The Vandals, Ostrogoths and Heruli were Arian powers that strongly opposed the rise of the Catholic Church. Everyone who has any knowledge of the Middle Ages is acquainted with the fact that millions of people were tortured and killed by the Catholic inquisitions. As far as the world was concerned, and by all outward appearance, the Catholic Church was dead.
We are now ready to identify that strange, composite animal described in the book of Revelation. But that wound was to be healed, and finally the whole world would give its allegiance to the papacy again. At that time, the Pope was actually made king once more, and the Vatican City was set up as a political sovereign power.
The incredible influence of the papacy in world affairs is attested to by the headlines in todaya€™s newspaper. Where did she receive the authority to rule over the world for 1,260 years and to persecute so many millions of people for their faith?
Abraham had grown up right there in Mesopotamia, near the place where the great tower of Babel was attempted, and where the empire of Babylon developed. Because Satan worked so closely through that nation to destroy Jesus, pagan Rome is represented by the same symbol in prophecy as the devil.
The Bishop of Rome, in the seat of the Caesars, was now the greatest man in the west, and was soon forced to become the political as well as the spiritual head.a€? The Rise of the Medieval Church, p. Because a mark of the dragon power is to counterfeit and substitute, we will be able to see in this religio-political system t he operation of Satan at his infernal best.
At that time, the day was adopted by the papacy and called the birth of the SON, instead of the birthday of the SUN.
As you can readily see, the adoption of December 25 was based purely upon the heathen observance of the festival of sun worship. Even the symbols, the bunny rabbits and eggs, are retained as reminders of its pagan origin.
If tradition and heathen custom have crept so easily into the church, what about other doctrines?
May our eyes be opened to recognize these counterfeits and to remain loyal to the exact truth in its original form. We grant that it is possible for such a thing to be a mere happenstance if we had only this one mark of identity to lean upon.
We have already learned that this power was to counterfeit many of the great truths of God.
In Revelation 7:2, 3, we learn that the seal of God is placed in the forehead, just as the mark of the beast is set in the forehead. It must contain the name of the authority, the office or title of the authority, and the territory over which he has power.
The Ten Commandments, containing the seal of God, are set up in competition with the mark of the beast.
Their sacred day was the first day of the week, which they named Sun-Day in honor of the sun god.
William Frederick states the same historical truth: a€?The Gentiles were an idolatrous people who worshipped the sun, and Sunday was their most sacred day.
The Church, using the power of binding and loosing which Christ gave to the Pope, changed the Lorda€™s day to Sunday.a€? Page 243.
Stephen Keenana€™s A Doctrinal Catechism has this to say: a€?Questiona€”Have you any other way of proving that the Church has power to institute festivals of precept? 179, makes this startling admission: a€?If the Bible is the only guide for the Christian, then the Seventh-day Adventist is right in observing the Saturday with the Jew.
And it not only compelled all to keep Sunday, but also urged all persons to labor on the seventh day under pain of anathema. The sign, or seal, of Goda€™s authority (Sabbath) is displaced by the papal institution of a substitute mark (Sunday) that she claims as her authority.


Yes, of course, it is inconsistent; but this change was made about fifteen centuries before Protestantism was born, and by that time, the custom was universally observed.
Then, the true Sabbath and the counterfeit (Sunday) will be so revealed that no one can escape a decisiona€”a decision to keep the true Sabbath with mind and hand, or to submit to the counterfeit Sabbath of the papacy. Certainly there is no spot on earth where freedom is so fully enjoyed as in our own United States.
The Pilgrim Fathers, to escape the religious persecutions of the papacy, fled to the New World of America where they could follow their conscience in worship. Since the first beast (papacy) received its wound in 1798 when General Berthier took the Pope captive, we should look for the second beast to be coming up at that time.
It came up peacefully, like a lamb, and the absence of crowns reveals that there were no kings at the head.
It came up peacefully, democratically, and established itself upon the two great principles of Protestantism and republicanism.
It may seem incredible to us as we read these things today that the United States would ever be persuaded to enact religious laws, and try to force people to worship a certain way, but prophecy has never failed. This opens the way for all the present confused, contradictory local state laws to be replaced by a national law that will standardize the enforcement of Sunday all over America.
Those who refuse to accept the false day of worship will face fines, boycott, prison and finally, the threat of death. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes.
Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period.
Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms.
The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus.
In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work.
But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra.
Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society.
Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered.
It will be an unparalleled performance on the part of God in His relationship to the human family. At last, the world shall stand divided into two great camps: those who worship the true God, and those who worship the beast of Revelation 13. Often it is dismissed as a confused, insignificant letter, applying only to a local problem in the early church. The story of that beautiful angel who coveted the position of God Himself is revealed through a number of Old Testament prophetic writings. Just as the rebellion began by disloyalty to the authority of God, so it will end by a defiance of His authority as vested in the law of His government. Through various insidious approaches, he has continued his efforts to overthrow the authority of God. Finally, those who have the mark will suffer the terrible wrath of God as described in Revelation 14:9, 10. How earnestly should we seek to understand who the beast represents and how we might avoid that mark! In order to understand the beast we must go back to the Old Testament book of Daniel and compare Scripture with Scripture. Here we have represented that grand empire of Babylon, so well symbolized by the king of beasts. The three ribs probably symbolize the three provinces of that kingdoma€”Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt.
But this powerful nation was also to be divided, as verse twenty-four indicates, a€?And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise.a€? Please notice that this is Goda€™s interpretation of the ten horns on this animal. Seven of those tribes are still in existence to this very day, having grown into modem nations.
We dare not guess or speculate concerning the historical identity of this a€?little horna€? of prophecy.
The eighth mark is also given in verse twenty-five, a€?and think to change times and laws.a€? Apparently, in its bitter opposition to the God of Heaven, in speaking great words against Him, this power also seeks to change the great law of God.
In other words, God closes every other option, and forces us to the only possible conclusion: the Catholic Church alone fulfills all the points of identity established in Daniel 7. It was a religio-political system quite unlike anything that had been seen in the world before that time. We need only to be reminded that the Catholic Church has ever attributed to itself the power to forgive sins. From a book written by a Catholic cardinal, which also bears the sanction of the Church, we read, a€?The Catholic Church a€¦ has a horror of blood. Please note this: the Catholic Church has removed the second commandment from her doctrinal books and catechism, because it condemns the worship of images. After exactly 1,260 years, in fulfillment of the prophecy, she lost her control of the world.
Let us read the description of that beast once more, which has the body of a leopard, the feet of a bear, and the mouth of a lion. From that day to this, the strength of the papacy has been advancing with tremendous strides. Almost every utterance of the pope is published to the ends of the earth, and millions and millions of people look to the papal power as the greatest influence in politics today. When he was cast out of heaven, there were only two people on the earth, and they represented the entire world. In Jeremiah 6:2 we read, a€?I have likened the daughter of Zion to a comely and delicate woman.a€? Who is Zion? Cain was on the dragona€™s side and wanted to substitute his own way instead of the way God had commanded him. The dragona€™s followers concentrated in Babel and tried to defy God by building a great tower that was to reach up to heaven. Remember, the prophecy spoke of enmity between the seed of the woman and the seed of the dragon. Thousands and thousands of Christians were martyred under the terrible persecutions of the cruel Roman emperors. So what he could not do through force, the dragon would now attempt by strategy and deception. It is very significant that the beast is actually made up of parts of the lion, the leopard, the bear and the nondescript animal of Daniel 7. Just as was the case with Cain, substitutes were fashioned to meet the commandments of God.
Please take note how easily a pagan institution can slip into Christian churches and can even be passed along in Protestantism. That day was dedicated to Ishtar, the goddess of reproduction, because of the new life and growth in nature. Those pagans chose the rabbit as a symbol of Ishtara€™s day because it was the most prolific reproducer. These examples have been presented merely to show how easily the devil was able to impose pagan ideas upon that church. The ancient method of deriving the number of a name is to take the numerical value of all letters and add them up to get the sum. But in the weekly Catholic newspaper, Our Sunday Visitor, of April 1915, we have the interesting statement that the letters of the official title are inscribed in the popea€™s miter. By getting the numerical value of the Roman numerals of the title Vicarius Filii Dei, we actually come to a definite number 666. But the fact is that this is the tenth of a long list of characteristic marks that the Bible uses to identify the beast power. It was a combination of pagan ideas with Christian doctrine which formed a conglomeration of confusion, well designated as a€?Babylona€? in the Scripture. The seal of Americaa€™s president contains the following words: Bill Clinton, President, United States of America. Romans 4:11 reveals that a€?seala€? and a€?signa€? are the very same thing, being used interchangeably in the Scripture. Now, in order to reach the people in this new field, it seems but natural, as well as necessary, to make Sunday the rest day of the Church.
The next several quotations are taken from well-known Catholic authorities that express clearly the claims of the papacy on the attempted change.
Protestants a€¦ profess great reverence for the Bible, and yet by their solemn act of keeping Sunday, they acknowledge the power of the Catholic Church.
They have continued the custom, even though it rests upon the authority of the Catholic Church and not upon an explicit text in the Bible. At that time, when the issues stand clearly revealed, individuals will accept the seal of God or the mark of the beast. In the next chapter you will learn the identity of the nation which will influence the world to accept the counterfeit Sabbath, and which will seek to enforce that mark of loyalty to the papacy. Please note that Wesley was looking for a nation to be rising within a very short time that would meet the description of the prophecy. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.a€? In other words, the time would come when the United States would change its peaceful, democratic tone. With the incredible strides being taken toward federal control of individual freedoms, this step to regulate the day of worship will not seem so drastic when it actually does take place. When the Sabbath question is thus made a national issue, people will be forced to accept one side or the other. You cannot shrug off the implications of this revelation concerning obedience to the Sabbath commandment.
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text.
Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on.
The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy.
The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period.
They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained.
Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period.
Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. For almost 6,000 years, His punishing judgments upon the most wicked men have been tempered with mercy.
The Bible makes it very clear that life or death revolves around the final decision concerning the beast of Revelation 13. For some reason the book called Revelation is counted a sealed book, instead of the obviously revealed truth that its name implies.
Isaiah says in reference to this glorious being: a€?How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! The purpose of this booklet is to expose the massive assaults that have been made, and are being made, by Satan against the foundations of truth. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. In the second chapter of Daniel the same four world kingdoms are symbolized by four metals in the great statue of Nebuchadnezzara€™s dream. We must not make the mistake of falsely identifying the little horn power, because it will prove to be the great antichrist power of history. This means that the little horn would be a different kind of power from those purely political kingdoms that preceded it.
Instead of saying, a€?a time, times, and half a time,a€? it says, a€?a thousand two hundred and threescore days.a€? Thus we see that the two periods of time are exactly the same. Nevertheless when confronted by heresy a€¦ she has recourse to force, to corporal punishment, to torture. Remember, that we have noted how the papacy began its reign, by order of Justinian, in 538 A.D.
Yes, the wound has certainly been healed, and the world continues to follow after the beast.
By deceiving Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, Satan led all the world astray and came into temporary possession of the earth. The plan failed, of course, and that site of the tower of Babel later became Babylon, which in 606 B.C. It was a blasphemous idolatry, filled with immoralities, licentious ceremonies and degrading rites. And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns a€¦ and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. Goda€™s illustrative depiction of the papacy reveals that she was made up of parts from all those old pagan kingdoms.
How clearly these statements show that the papacy received her seat and power from pagan Rome! All Christian groups recognize that Easter Sunday is often as much as five weeks apart from one year to the next.
The very word Easter has been transliterated from the name of the goddess Ishtar, whose worship was memorialized by the adoption of Easter.
As the papacy developed, it was open to the reception of unbiblical customs that marked it clearly as the real counterfeit power described by God in Revelation 13.
We do not have any commandments concerning the observing of Christa€™s resurrection or His birth.
So far in our study, we have described nine identifying marks of the beast power and its application to the papacy.
If we want to apply this test to the papacy, we must find the official name of the pope, who is the head of his church. It only adds weight and strength to that which has already been said in making the application to the papal power. When that seal is placed upon a law or an official document, it shows that the presidenta€™s authority is supporting that declaration.
In other words, the Sabbath is the seal of Goda€”the mark of the only one who can create and who is authorized to rule the earth. It appeared more convenient to let the pagans keep their own day of worship on Sunday and ask the Christians to join them in it.
At this time, it was necessary for the Church to either adopt the Gentilesa€™ day or else have the Gentiles change their day.
13, 1955 edition, states: a€?The Bible does not contain all the teachings of the Catholic religion, nor does it formulate all the duties of its members. The book of Revelation describes a final edict of this eartha€™s governments that will actually seek to enforce the mark upon all the world.
Secondly, this second beast would come up a€?out of the earth.a€? This is in contrast to the first that rose out of the water. The United States of America was the only nation a€?coming upa€? to power in 1798, as the first beast received its deadly wound.
Under some influence, it would begin to compel worship, a€?saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.
Church and state will be united enough to enforce religious laws and will thus closely resemble the papal system. Based on Goda€™s Word we have shown it to be the counterfeit Sabbath set up by the beast power.
Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on.
The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive.
Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.


On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade.
90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography.
Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century.
The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period.
He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C.
But now the measure of rebellion reaches a point which makes it necessary for God to intervene and to expose the terrible extent of mana€™s treason against Goda€™s government. The confederation of evil will consolidate for a desperate last-ditch struggle to engage the loyalty of eartha€™s inhabitants. No one ever saw a creature with the body of a leopard, the mouth of a lion, and the feet of a bear. Just as we have the American eagle and the Russian bear in our modem political vocabulary, God used animals long, long ago to represent countries also.
Any schoolboy who has studied his lessons carefully in ancient history will know that Greece arose as the next world ruler. But for a man to make such claims would constitute blasphemy, according to the Biblea€™s own definition. By comparing these Scriptures, we understand that a time is a year in Bible prophecy, times is two years, and half a time is half a year.
This means, then, that the little horn power would rule for 1,260 years, instead of merely 1,260 days. Lucii Ferraris, contained in the book Prompta Bibliotheca Canonica Juridica Moralis Theologica. Notice, please, that this beast is doing exactly the same thing as the little horn of Daniel.
This is Goda€™s graphic illustration of the papal power, as it came up to exercise arbitrary authority over the earth for 1,260 years. The great controversy between good and evil, which had started in heaven, was now transferred to this planet. Do you remember how God told each one of them to bring a lamb, but Cain substituted fruit or vegetables for that which God had commanded as a sacrifice?
But soon the dragona€™s followers quarreled among themselves, and Medo-Persia came into power.
The masterstroke of Satan to destroy Jesus on the cross was foiled on that Sunday morning when the Crucified One broke the bonds of death in the resurrection.
He would bring in pagan doctrines and philosophy from the old empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome and combine them with Christian teaching.
A whole set of counterfeit doctrines was added so that the papacy could gain prestige with the pagan peoples of that age. The pagans worshiped the sun, and they noticed that in December, the days were becoming shorter and shorter and the sun was getting farther away from them.
If this is the number of a man, it would naturally be the man who is the head of the organization. It is the capstone proof in conjunction with all the other marks laid down so clearly in the Scripture.
Now we ask, a€?What is the seal?a€? If we can establish this point, it will help us to identify the mark.
The three requisites of a seal will be found only in the one that includes name, title and territory of God. And to make His law authoritative, He has placed the seal in it, showing that He stands behind every single commandment in that law. Constantine professed conversion to Christianity and opened the doors of the church to all his heathen followers.
Take, for instance, the matter of Sunday observance, attendance at divine service, and abstention from unnecessary servile work on that day.
Thomas, Chancellor of Cardinal Gibbons, in answer to a letter regarding the change of the Sabbath: a€?Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change was her act. When we understand the issues we must make a tremendous decision either to keep the true Sabbath and recognize Goda€™s authority, or to take the false Sabbath and recognize the Catholic Churcha€™s claims. 106, 107, says: a€?It is quite clear that however rigidly or devotedly we may spend Sunday, we are not keeping the Sabbath. The reason we observe the first day instead of the seventh is based on no positive command. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.a€? Then immediately John saw a second beast in vision that he describes in the next verse. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.
The keeping of Sunday instead of the Bible Sabbath is claimed as a mark of allegiance to the Catholic Church by her own priests and leaders. The mark of the beast will then be placed upon all who choose to disobey the commandment of God to keep the Sabbath day holy.
As the test becomes more severe, every individual must choose to obey God or man, to follow the commandments of God or tradition, to keep the true Sabbath or the counterfeit, to receive the seal of God, or the mark of the beast. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map.
It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making.
See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes.
Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands.
Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic.
Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere.
But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer.
Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today.
And they worshipped the dragon that gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast?
Once the symbol is interpreted in any prophecy, the rule will apply in every other prophecy.
Then, to be more explicit, God added this in verse 23, a€?The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth.a€? If the fourth animal represented the fourth empire of history, then the first three would have to represent the first three empires. Alexander the Great came marching from the west, laying the world at his feet in a very short time. In that very year the French general, Berthier, marched his armies into Rome and pulled the Pope off his throne. Verse five continues, a€?And power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.a€? How long is forty-two months? A pure woman stands for the true church, but a fallen woman symbolizes a false religious system.
Forty days later, He was caught up to heaven in perfect fulfillment of the words of the prophecy. According to Revelation 13:2, the dragon gave the beast his power and seat and great authority.
Pagan idols were left at the door, but idols of Peter, Mary and the saints took their place.
In the next chapter we shall discover, though, that other pagan doctrines were introduced which strike at the very heart of true Bible religion. Hence, to the Bishop of Rome as head of the church, was given the title, a€?Vicar of Christ.a€™a€? At present, the popea€™s miter does not contain the Latin title, but the words are incorporated into the coronation ceremonies of each newly crowned pope.
The Church could naturally reach them better by keeping their day.a€? Sunday and Christian Sabbath, pp. One will search the Scriptures in vain for authority for changing from the seventh day to the first. The second beast, coming out of the earth, would depict a nation rising in some area of the world where there were no previous civilizations and multitudes.
By accepting the mark of allegiance to the papacy (Sunday), they reject the mark that God claims as His sign of authoritya€”the seventh-day Sabbath. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps.
The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds.
Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts.
Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail.
In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond.
Obedience to God or to Satan, as manifested through the beast power, will be the only alternatives open to man.
You cana€™t really know who the beast is.a€? Listen, will God warn us about the fearful danger of this beasta€”a danger so deadly that it will mean life or deatha€”and then tell us it is impossible to know what it is? And sure enough, Babylon arose very quickly to take its place as a ruler of the entire world. Listen to these claims: a€?The Pope is of so great dignity, and so exalted, that he is not a mere man, but as it were God and the Vicar of God. There has been only one man-child who was destined to rule all nations and who was finally caught up to Goda€™s throne. We have learned that the dragon actually symbolizes the pagan Roman Empire, as well as the devil himself. Then on December 25, for the first time, they could tell that the sun was coming back closer; the days were beginning to lengthen out again. In sharp contrast to Christianity, Mithraism recognized Caesar e as the bearer of the divine Grace, and its votaries filled the legions and the civil service. Hiscox, the author of the Baptist Manual: a€?There was and is a commandment to keep holy the Sabbath day, but that Sabbath day was not Sunday.
The early Christians began to worship on the first day of the week because Jesus rose from the dead on that day.
Historians record that there was something wonderful and providential about the rise of this country.
That is exactly what is predicted, and it is also exactly what is shaping up right now in American politics. A  Due to the format of the B of A email, and the copious amounts of "filler" statements they use; the series is a bit difficult to follow. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate.
It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries].
Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.
Would He say to us, a€?You will be cast into the fire if you have the mark, but Ia€™m not going to tell you what it isa€”ita€™s just too bad if you have ita€?? And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.a€? He saw the prophetic water just as John did, but Daniel saw four beasts arising instead of only one.
Within eight years, he had completely subjugated the world and sat down to weep because there were no more worlds to conquer. The Pope is, as it were, God on earth, chief king of kings, having plenitude of power.a€? Volume VI, pp. So these people said, a€?The sun is reborn to us.a€? They called December 25 the birthday of the sun or sun god. We know of the change only from the tradition of the Churcha€”a fact handed down to us from earliest times by the living voice of the Church. But the Catholic Church appears and says in effect, a€?No, dona€™t keep the Sabbath; keep the first day of the week.
It will be said, however, and with some show of triumph, that the Sabbath was transferred from the seventh to the first day of the week. A  I usually write correspondence to fit the lowest common denominator, but how low can one go?A  Although I'm willing to bet that if I reverted to primal grunts, and what could be considered a primitive, yet well understood gesture even in our modern world; that someone on the other side of the Banking Center counter might have their mind bulb flash, if only momentarily. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias.
The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. But he could not conquer himself; he died as a young man of thirty-three at the height of his power. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date.
Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form.
Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. At his death the kingdom was divided among his four leading generals: Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through.
He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface.
It serves as its own divine commentary and provides the key for understanding the prophecies.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu.
But what a pity that it comes branded with the mark of paganism, and christened with the name of the sun god, when adopted and sanctioned by the papal apostasy, and bequeathed as a sacred legacy to Protestantism!a€? (From a paper read before a New York ministersa€™ conference held November 13, 1893.) This great Baptist leader condenses into a few sentences all that has been said in the pages of this booklet. I have a few of my portion of the email, as I cut and pasted it into my regular email service; don't know how they lost theirs. They relate to the Merlin Teller, and how a fully paid balance of mine is being carried on their books as an outstanding balance on their system for months after I paid the account in full, probably sometime in October of 2007. I was repeatedlyA  told this same information by various B of AA  staff that I spoke with in person, numerous times, in various locations, but I did not record the conversations and wish that I had. When first asked how and why they would do that; as it didn't sound logical or legal to me, I was informed by more than one staff person at more than one branch that it was expected to be carried for 16 to 19 Additional months!A  That is some kind of accounting system. A  That didn't sound accurate, as I was able to access the information on both the old 3732 account AND the new account until approximately January of 2008, and the phone rep I spoke who made arrangements for a balance transfer from another VISA Account I have at another bank for me on either April 3 or 4, 2008, said he would have copies of those 3732 statements mailed to me that day, at no charge to me.A  (I have received an envelope at my P.
Box from B of A; I'll expect the contents are the account statements, but won't know for certain until they are forwarded to me. A  Bank of America?A  I'm almost on their side for this particular incident; as I know that avoiding lawsuits and payouts is high on their priority list.
Unless some staffer slipped up, yapped out my private account activity, and didn't take time to note it in my file.
A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole!
We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now?
Please do your employer a favor, and provide me with the written documentation that I have repeatedly requested.A  Thanks for your cooperation. A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? Stockton: Please forward this email to someone up the ladder who can provide WRITTEN confirmation and information on who requested, and was provided, information on my Visa Card ending in 3732, activity in July or August of 2007. Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? Rose, Good afternoon and thank you for contacting Bank of America in regards to account documentation.
Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw? For B of A to be carrying its customers former credits and debits on their books for 16 plus months would be an accounting nightmare, in addition to being out of compliance with several Federal Banking Regulations.
Please adjust all records statingA A  any balance due on my past and present Visa accounts to reflect the current credit balance only.A  Also, please update day ph. A  But do note that when I asked him a specific question about them, he couldn't answer it. A  And he didn't volunteer any details on the account maintenance that he appeared to have access to.A A  A A  This message is not flagged.
A Can you please provide me with your 16 digit credit card number so I can review your account?
Gordon: The minimum payment is 1% of your balance and any finance charges and applicable fees. The system will not allow the rate to change until the cycle closes and a new cycle starts.



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