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admin | Category: Reverse Phone Lookup For Free | 04.01.2015
In this article we'll look at conditional forwarding, a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003. Conditional forwarding is a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to speed up name resolution in certain scenarios. When a name server is queried in DNS, the way it responds depends on the type of query issued, which can be either iterative or recursive. If, when you promoted your standalone server to the role of domain controller using dcpromo, your machine was disconnected from the Internet and there were no other DNS servers on your network, then dcpromo creates a root zone (".") in its DNS database that specifies itself as the root name server for all DNS name resolution (that is, "the buck stops here"). If however, when you promoted your server to a domain controller, your machine was connected to the Internet, then Windows contacts the first available Internet root name server and downloads a list of all Internet root name servers, which becomes its list of root hints. Now that's a lot of steps, and if the company has a slow WAN link to the Internet then you're using valuable bandwidth.
On the forwarders list it finds the IP address of the external name server hosted by the company's Internet Service Provider, so it forwards the query to the ISP's name server to handle. Note that this procedure takes about the same number of steps as before, but most of these steps are performed offsite by the ISP's name server, so the amount of bandwidth used over the Internet connection is considerably less and the processing load on the internal name server SRV220 is minimized as well. What's different in Windows Server 2003 is the concept of conditional forwarding, which I'll look at next. If you compare this to the previous figure for Windows 2000 DNS above, you'll see a few differences. To improve name resolution between two separate companies that need to provide their users with access to resources in the other company's intranet.
To improve name resolution within an Active Directory implementation that has a disjointed namespace (separate forests or multiple domain trees) or a deep hierarchy of subdomains. Finally, is there anything you need to watch out for regarding using conditional forwarding?
The second caveat concerning conditional forwarding is not to get to carried away implementing it. Mitch Tulloch is a well-known expert on Windows Server administration and cloud computing technologies.
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TechGenix Ltd is an online media company which sets the standard for providing free high quality technical content to IT professionals. Conditional forwarding can be used to speed up the DNS name resolution process by directing queries for specific domains to specific name servers. They can also be used to help companies resolve each other's namespace in a situation where companies collaborate a merger is underway. In an iterative query, the client asks the name server for the best possible answer to its query.
A simple example is a company that has Active Directory deployed on its internal network and uses a private top-level domain like .local for its forest. In this case, SRV220 realizes it can't answer the query and returns a "name not found" error to the client and Bob can't open the Google home page. First, if you just want to configure a regular forwarder here, leave "All other DNS domains" selected in the DNS domain listbox, enter the IP address of the forwarder (typically the address of your ISP's name server) in the dotted box, and click Add. In this kind of situation you can set up conditional forwarding so users in one domain can avoid having to go all the way to root to find resources in a separate forest, another domain tree, or way down the domain hierarchy in a tree. Two things come to mind First, conditional forwarding is suitable if you are dealing with a fixed DNS infrastructure.
You might think you could improve name resolution for your users by adding dozens of forwarders for the most popular Internet sites they use for work purposes, but this might be a bad idea. He has published over a thousand articles on information technology topics and has written, contributed to or been series editor for over 50 books. This tutorial explains in detail when conditional forwarding can be useful and how to set it up.
This article will look in detail at how conditional forwarding works, how to configure it, and when you might use it.
For example, say a company has a single Active Directory domain named test2003.local, a domain controller (and DNS server) named SRV220 and has a dedicated connection to the Internet.

A forwarder is a name server that handles name queries that can't be resolved by another name server. Of course, if the forwarder doesn't respond within the timeout configured, the server can either try another forwarder (if configured) or use root hints (if available) or give up and return an error.
What this does is speed up the name resolution process by eliminating the need to go up to root to find this authoritative server. Just set up DNS servers in each company to forward name requests for resources in the other company's network directly to the IP addresses of name servers in the other company and you're done.
That means in a merger or supply-chain scenario you must be sure the other company doesn't plan on changing their DNS infrastructure by decommissioning old name servers, deploying new ones, or changing the IP addresses of existing ones. The reason is, when you have a long list of conditional forwarders configured, your name server has to go through the entire list until it either finds the domain requested or fails to find it, in which case standard forwarding is used (if configured), after which root hints is tried and standard recursion employed.
But first, let's briefly review the concepts of forwarding and forwarders in traditional DNS, starting with different types of name queries. Of course, this can also be done using stub zones as I discussed in my previous article DNS Stub Zones in Windows Server 2003 and I'll compare the two approaches in a moment. If they do change their infrastructure and don't inform you of this, then your name server may suddenly find itself forwarding queries to non-existing name servers resulting in failed name queries and frustrated users flooding help desk with calls.
The result of this is that your name server has to perform extra processing to go through the forwarders list each time a query is received, and in addition to increasing the CPU load on your server this can also result in slower name resolution rather than faster due to the time it takes to process an especially long list. In that case, it might be better to create stub zones on your name servers for zones for which the other company's name servers are authoritative. And if the forwarder itself is also part of your own company's DNS infrastructure then be aware that the added load of receiving forwarded queries from other name servers and performing recursive queries to resolve them means your forwarders will experience especially heavy CPU utilization and may need to have their hardware beefed up considerably to handle it. That's because stub zones automatically update themselves with the current list of name servers in the zone while configuring forwarders is a process that has to be done manually. Same thing in a large enterprise that has a complex Active Directory forest--if you aren't sure that administrators in other divisions of your company are going to tell you in advance when they change their DNS infrastructures, don't implement conditional forwarding--use stub zones instead.

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