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Ben Rogers is a Staff Software Engineer for the IBM zSeries and System z9 Client Technology Center (CTC), where he specializes in enterprise security with a focus on RACF, LDAP, and WebSphere security.
IntroductionThe issue of user ID and password proliferation, coupled with the ever increasing number of applications with which end users must interact, has become a critical issue for many IT shops. Ksetup.exeBefore beginning, map out the names of the systems that will be involved in this solution.
RDEFINE APPL SKRBKDC UACC(READ)The PTKTDATA class is also required by Kerberos when using a RACF back end.
KEY ENCRYPTION TYPE= DES NODES3 NODESDCreate the realm definitionSince the KDC is using RACF as a back end, you must create a REALM definition within RACF. The first time you sign in to developerWorks, a profile is created for you, so you need to choose a display name. Keep up with the best and latest technical info to help you tackle your development challenges. As many of you are probably aware, DNS is now the name resolution system of choice in Windows 2000. SummaryThis article has covered much of the information needed to successfully install, configure, and troubleshoot a DNS server. Reverse lookup zones in DNS servers of Windows server 2003 are used to resolve IP addresses to their respective FQDN names. From the opened snap in expand the name of your computer (which is PCTIPS-3000 in this case).
From the list right click on Reverse Lookup Zone and from the context menu click on New Zone.
On Zone Type page make sure that Primary zone radio button is selected and click on Next button. On Active Directory Zone Replication Scope page leave all the settings default and click on Next button.
On Reverse Lookup Zone Name page ensure that Network ID radio button is selected and type the network ID for which you want to create this reverse lookup zone. On Dynamic Updates page make sure that Allow only secure dynamic updates (recommended for Active Directory) radio button is selected and click on Next button. When you create a reverse lookup zone you can automatically create the PTR records for this zone while creating Host (A) records.
Taking a look at SPN Configuration, Duplicate Service Principal Names and DNS Configuration mismatch. In the first part we took a look on troubleshooting time and date issues, application pool accounts and the basic Service Principal Name (SPN) configuration.
It is always nice to get feedback on the articles and a couple mentioned that they could not get websites to work with Kerberos if they used Internet Information Server 7 on Windows Server 2008. This problem occurs because Kernel-mode authentication is enabled by default, causing the Kerberos tickets to be decrypted with the SharePoint web frontend machine account. Let us take a look at our environment from part 1 of this article that I will use in the example. We want to see some more packet details, so, before trying to access the website I start up Wireshark, a network protocol analyzer, on DC1 and PC1 so we can investigate the Kerberos errors on the wire. The Service Principal Name maps to the domain account SPContentPoolAcct and lets us check the IIS Application Pool that the website uses.
But because of the new structure in IIS 7 on Windows Server 2008 this is only used if Kernel mode authentication is deactivated or the host configuration is altered.
ADSIEdit – manually go through the user and computer accounts one by one and check that the value does not exist on multiple accounts.
A good solid DNS configuration must be in place in every domain today and when using Kerberos this is no exception. Both commands must return correct host-name and IP address – but a good idea is to check the DNS configuration manually. This white paper provides interviews with the following four early users of ChangeAuditor 6.0 across multiple industries. These users shared their views about how the product's new features and core attributes make their lives easier by giving them visibility, control, and convenience to audit changes made to their Windows Environment.
TechGenix Ltd is an online media company which sets the standard for providing free high quality technical content to IT professionals. To this end, many organizations have turned to Kerberos technology; the underlying philosophy of Kerberos is that machines trust other machines through a third party Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC). If AD and the domain name server (DNS) are not already set up, you can use the Window dcpromo.exe command to install and configure AD and DNS. Enter Zone nameSelect Do not allow dynamic updates and click Next.Validate the information you have entered is correct and select Finish. Verify new zone informationYou will now see a folder under Forward Lookup Zone that corresponds to the zone (domain) of the System z server (Figure 12). Select resource record typeThis record name is _kerberos and the Text of this record must be the full System z realm name.

Enter values for the TCP service location recordNext, you will create the _kerberos UDP service.
Enter values for the UDP service location record Create the _kpasswd TCP service by selecting _kpasswd for Service and _tcp for Protocol. Enter values for the TCP service location record Finally, create the _kpasswd UDP service by selecting _kpasswd for Service and _udp for Protocol.
Enter values for the UDP service location recordNow, all services have been defined to the Windows DNS. Check text entriesNext, check the TCP service records and make sure both a _kerberos and _kpasswd service location record exist for this entry, and that they point to the System z server hosting this service. Check TCP service location recordsNext, check the UDP service records and make sure both a _kerberos and _kpasswd service location record exist for this entry, and that they point to the System z server hosting this service.
Specify network ID valuesSelect Do not allow dynamic updates, then Next.Verify the information, then click Finish. Verify new zone informationNext, create a new pointer record for the reverse lookup zone you just created.
This preference lists the sites that are permitted to engage in SPNEGO authentication with the browser. Your display name must be unique in the developerWorks community and should not be your email address for privacy reasons. To start contributing, enable JavaScript by changing your browser options, then try again.
However, most Windows NT administrators are used to relying on WINS for name resolution on local area networks and some have little or no experience with DNS.
The concepts you learn here will help deploy and manage a DNS server in Windows 2000.Have you worked with Windows 2000 DNS yet?
We look forward to getting your input and hearing about your experiences regarding this topic. This process works as the complement of forward Lookup zones where names are resolved to their respective IP addresses. If you are running a single server SharePoint installation and register your SPN to the servers NETBIOS name you are fine.
For a better understanding of how the Service Principal Names are stored and how the KDC look up the account based on the SPN I made the diagram in figure 16. Checking for duplicate SPNs is highly recommended in any environment and this can be done in several ways. The setspn.exe finds this duplicate is shown in Figure 19 and even tells you which Active Directory object this conflicts with. All hostnames must be created in the forward and reverse lookup zones and no duplicates on either the hostname or IP address is permitted. Christensen, MCSE, MCTS, CCNA and CCA, has over ten years experience of planning, implementation and support for medium sized companies in multiple countries. He enjoys using his knowledge in many areas of Information Technology to give the best solutions and service to customers.
The implications of corporate data getting into the wrong hands could potentially be catastrophic. He has worked for IBM for the past 18 years, focusing on security technology including DCE, IBM Network Authentication Services (IBM Kerberos) and SPNEGO TAI. For example, if a user authenticates to the KDC, that identity and authentication status is then used to request services that are in that trusted realm.
You will create a _kerberos and _kpasswd service for both TCP and UDP, which will result in four unique entries. Make sure there is a _kerberos Text entry that lists the System z server's realm name, and a host entry that lists the System z server's host name and IP address. In the Local intranet window, ensure that the check box to Include all local (intranet) not listed in other zones is selected, and then click Advanced.In the Local intranet window, fill in the Add this Web site to the zone field with the host name's Web address so that single sign-on (SSO) can be enabled to the list of Web sites shown in the Web sites field (Figure 38). This is a sufficient control to prevent this behavior, but if your Kerberos environment only interacts with a Windows KDC, it might also be beneficial to prohibit this behavior when defining each user's Kerberos ID. Also, PTR records are created when reverse lookup zones are configured and are helpful in many network scenarios. But, in a web farm you need to either disable the Kernel-mode authentication or configure the web application to use the credentials from the application pool. Then check the Advanced Settings for this – in figure 14 this shows that the account is configured correctly.
In the forward lookup zone the records should be created as A-records – also on host headers that point to servers.
I will also cover the Shared Service Provider (SSP) and share my notes from miscellaneous troubleshooting assignments. His main areas of expertise are network infrastructure based on the Microsoft platform which he combines with wide and deep knowledge of network architecture, application development and server based computing.
In this type of scenario, users authenticate once to the KDC, and then their authentications are valid for a predetermined time period.

The reason this is necessary is due to the manner in which the RACF RDEFINE command converts all characters to UPPERCASE before submitting to RACF.
This preference lists the sites for which the browser may delegate user authorization to the server. To generate this key, a password must be associated with this ID; however, this ID should not be able to log onto the system.
If CNAME is used sometimes Kerberos will construct tickets using the wrong hostname – so basically a rule against the best practices in DNS configuration to make it work.
Users can then access services on other machines that participate in this trusted network without again being prompted for a user ID and password.
Ensure that the Enable Integrated Windows Authentication (requires restart) box is selected.Click OK. You should see a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that matches the real FQDN of the System z host.
Levels are numeric values 0 through 9, where 0 turns debug off for that component and 9 generates the most information, including memory dumps. When this command is typed you get the reply from the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of that IP address.
This means that not all UNIX Kerberos commands are available; for instance, the kadmin command does not function. The SPNEGO TAI uses the JRas facility to enable an administrator to trace only specific classes. Instead, the administrator must know how to translate these commands into RACF commands.RACF definitionsSince this solution assumes that user IDs will be identical between Windows and RACF, you must ensure that you have similar IDs for your testing. This reduces the requirement for manual administration of zone records, especially for clients that frequently move and use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to obtain an IP address. AD Integrated stores the database information in AD and allows for secure updates to the database file. If it is configured and you select this option, AD will store and replicate your zone files.A Standard Primary zone stores the database in a text file. This means that instead of requiring an application running in WebSphere Application Server to know about Kerberos, the SPNEGO TAI can be configured to authenticate users coming into WebSphere Application Server that present a SPNEGO token. This text file can be shared with other DNS servers that store their information in a text file.
Click DNS, right-click the zone for which you want dynamic updates enabled, and select Properties. Finally, a Standard Secondary zone simply creates a copy of the existing database from another DNS server. This means that you are able to set trimUserName to True when you configure the SPNEGO properties and do not have to map the Kerberos principal name to a RACF ID.
If your Kerberos principal names and RACF user ID registries identify users differently, you must write a custom JAAS LoginModule to map Kerberos principal names from Active Directory to RACF IDs, and possibly from RACF IDs to Kerberos principal names. Secure Only – Only for the zone that is integrated in Active Directory which allows use of secured dynamic updates of DNS records only to authenticated users and computers. See the WebSphere Application Server Information Center for information on how to write a custom JAAS LoginModule.Figure 1. In reality, few organizations have an organization-wide naming convention that mandates their AD users have the same ID as their RACF users.
A sample JAAS login module that performs this type of mapping can be found in the WebSphere Application Server Information Center. You can change the primary server that holds the SOA record, and you can change the person responsible for managing the SOA.
Finally, one of the most important features of Windows 2000 is that you can change your DNS server configuration without deleting your zones and having to re-create the wheel (Figure F).Figure FThe Start Of Authority (SOA) tabName ServersName Servers specify all name servers for a particular domain. Host records improve query performance in multiple-zone environments, and you can also create a Pointer (PTR) record at the same time. Pointer (PTR) recordsA Pointer (PTR) record creates the appropriate entry in the reverse lookup zone for reverse queries.
As you saw in Figure H, you have the option of creating a PTR record when creating a Host record.
Set the Host Name and Host IP Number for the PTR record.Canonical Name (CNAME) or Alias recordsA Canonical Name (CNAME) or Alias record allows a DNS server to have multiple names for a single host.
For example, an Alias record can have several records that point to a single sever in your environment. With this feature, you can prioritize which mail servers will receive the highest priority.

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