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I have tried several techniques to prevent landscape orientation for mobile web applications in iPhone.
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The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. We will begin this chapter by defining some of the concepts that comprise the Core Data model before providing an overview of the steps involved in working with this framework. Core Data consists of a number of framework objects that integrate to provide the data storage functionality. As we can see from the above figure, the iPhone application sits on top of the stack and interacts with the managed data objects handled by the managed object context. Before moving on to the more practical areas of working with Core Data it is important to spend some time explaining the elements that comprise the Core Data stack in a little more detail. So far we have focused on the management of data objects but have not yet looked at how the data models are defined. Much as a class description defines a blueprint for an object instance, entities define the data model for managed objects.
Relationships – In the context of Core Data, relationships are the same as those in other relational database systems in that they refer to how one data object relates to another.
Fetch request – A predefined query that can be referenced to retrieve data objects based on defined predicates. The persistent store coordinator is responsible for coordinating access to multiple persistent object stores.
The term persistent object store refers to the underlying storage environment in which data are stored when using Core Data. Create a new entity by clicking on the + button located at the button left of the Entity panel (located in the top left hand corner of the window). To add attributes to the entity, click on the + button located in the bottom left hand corner of the Property panel (located in the top center of the window) and select Add Attribute from the resulting menu. As demonstrated, Xcode makes the process of entity description creation fairly straightforward.
Since many of the Core Data methods require the managed object context as an argument, the next step after defining entity descriptions often involves obtaining a reference to the context. Before managed objects can be created and manipulated in code, the corresponding entity description must first be loaded. As previously discussed, entities and the managed objects from which they are instantiated contain data in the form of attributes.
The above line of code extracts the current value for the name attribute of the newcontact managed object and assigns it to a string object. Once managed objects are saved into the persistent object store it is highly likely that those objects and the data they contain will need to be retrieved.
Upon execution, the matching_objects array will contain all the managed objects retrieved by the request. The preceding example retrieved all of the managed objects from the persistent object store for a specified entity. The Core Data framework stack provides a flexible alternative to directly managing data using SQLite or other data storage mechanisms.
Begin by creating a new iOS iPhone project named picker using the View-based Application template.
Before starting on the project it is worth taking some time to talk about the delegate and datasource of the UIPickerView class. In addition to a data source, the PickerView also needs a mechanism for notifying the application code when a selection has been made by the user. In order to fully implement a PickerView, therefore, it is necessary for the object to be assigned a data source and delegate.


Our application needs outlets to the PickerView, text field and label objects that will be placed into the user interface.
Within the main Xcode project window, double click on the pickerViewController.xib file to launch Interface Builder. Select the text field and change the Placeholder setting in the Attribute Inspector to US Dollars (USD). Ctrl-click on the File’s Owner entry in the documents window and drag the resulting line to the text field in the view. Next, select the PickerView component in the View window and display the Connections Inspector (Command+2). Finally, select the text field object and click and drag from the circle to the right of the Did End On Exit event in the Connections Inspector to the File’s Owner. The data that will be used in our application is stored in two arrays, one for the country name and the other for the corresponding exchange rate.
This method takes the selected row number argument and uses it as a reference to obtain the exchange rate from the exchangeRates array. Next a string is constructed from the dollar amount, the converted amount and the country name. Since the keyboard will obscure the picker when displayed, the last task before testing the application is to make sure the keyboard is hidden when the user touches the Return key.
Once the code changes have been made and the corresponding files saved, click on the Build and Run button located in the Xcode project window toolbar.
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In these chapters the assumption was made that the iPhone application code would directly manipulate the database using SQLite C API calls to construct and execute SQL statements. Once these topics have been covered, the next chapter will work through An iPhone OS Core Data Tutorial. Of particular significance in this diagram is the fact that although the lower levels in the stack perform a considerable amount of the work involved in providing Core Data functionality, the application code does not interact with them directly. Instead, the application code interacts with the managed objects contained in the managed object context layer of the Core Data stack. This is the task of the Managed Object Model which defines a concept referred to as entities.
In essence, an entity is analogous to the schema that defines a table in a relational database. Fetched properties allow properties of one data object to be accessed from another data object as though a relationship had been defined between those entities. For example, a fetch request can be configuring into an entity to retrieve all contact objects where the name field matches “John Smith”. As an iPhone developer you will never directly interact with the persistence store coordinator and, in fact, will very rarely need to develop an application that requires more than one persistent object store.
The new entity will appear in the list and the detail panel will display the settings for the new entity. Whilst a detailed overview of the process is beyond the scope of this book there are many other resources available that are dedicated to the subject.
These attributes are stored in the objects using a value-key coding system, whereby the key is referenced in order to get or set the corresponding attribute.
Objects are retrieved by executing a fetch request and are returned in the form of an NSArray object. More often than not only managed objects that match specified criteria are required during a retrieval operation. By providing an object oriented abstraction layer on top of the data the task of managing data storage is made significantly easier for the iPhone application developer.
The user will enter a US Dollar amount into a text field and then make a currency selection from a PickerView component at which point the equivalent amount in the chosen currency will be displayed on a label. In order to obtain the options to be displayed to the user, the PickerView needs a data source.


Typically the view controller responsible for the PickerView is the best place to implement these two protocols.
Drag and drop a UIPickerView from the Library onto the View window and position it at the bottom of the view.
Click in the round circle to the right of the dataSource outlet in the inspector window and drag the line to the File’s Owner entry.
After releasing the mouse, select the textFieldReturn action method from the resulting label. In the real world, the application would likely obtain uptodate exchange rate information from an external source, but for the purposes of this example we will hard code the prevailing rates at the time of writing.
The second method returns the number of rows in the component by counting the number of elements in the country name array. Next the dollar amount entered by the user is converted from a string to a floating point number and multiplied by the US Dollar amount to arrive at a conversion value. Whilst this is a perfectly good approach for working with SQLite in many cases, it does require knowledge of SQL and can lead to some complexity in terms of writing code and maintaining the database structure.
The context maintains the status of the objects in relation to the underlying data store and manages the relationships between managed objects defined by the managed object model.
As such, each entity has a set of attributes associated with it that defines the data to be stored in managed objects derived from that entity. Fetched properties lack the flexibility of relationships and are referred to by Apple’s Core Data documentation as “weak, one way relationships” best suited to “loosely coupled relationships”. When multiple stores are required, the coordinator presents these stores to the upper layers of the Core Data stack as a single store. In order to establish a relationship between the two tables, right click on the Contacts box in the graph area and select Add Relationship from the menu.
This is performed by defining a predicate that dictates criteria that a managed object must meet in order to be eligible for retrieval.
This data source takes the form of a protocol that defines the methods that must be implemented in order to provide the Picker with data information.
Repeat these steps to connect to picker and result outlets to the picker and label objects respectively.
Finally, the titleForRow method returns the corresponding country name for the requested row by using the row number as a reference into the country names array.
This complexity is further compounded by the non-object-oriented nature of the SQLite C API functions. Similarly, retrieved data will be returned in the form of managed objects, one for each record matching the defined retrieval criteria.
All interactions with the underlying database are held temporarily in within the context until the context is instructed to save the changes, at which point the changes are passed down through the Core Data stack and written to the persistent store. In the detail panel name the relationship, specify the target as the Sales entity and any other options that are required for the relationship. Stretch the right and left hand edges of the label until the dotted blue margin line appears. Managed objects are actually instances of the NSManagedObject class, or a subclass thereof. Core Data is essentially a framework that places a wrapper around the SQLite database (and other storage environments) enabling the developer to work with data in terms of Objective-C objects without requiring any knowledge of the underlying database technology. Regardless of your choice of persistent store, your code will make the same calls to the same Core Data APIs to manage the data objects required by your application.



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