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1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. In the aftermath of a BrokerCheck study that concluded 1 in 13 advisors have tainted histories, Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) is asking the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority to disclose plans for curtailing broker misconduct. In the most recent Eaton Vance Advisor Top-Of-Mind Index study, more than half of advisors surveyed said their concerns over market volatility have increased in the past 12 months. Brilliance isn’t essential for successful financial professionals and, if anything, can be a characteristic that makes employees hard to manage, says David Rubenstein, founder of private equity advisor The Carlyle Group. Advisory firms often focus on training their sales reps and ensuring that advertising and web campaigns target appropriate customers. Changes to forms 1099-R and 5498 that require IRA custodians to disclose hard-to-value assets in IRAs could lead to the Internal Revenue Service increasing its enforcement of required minimum distributions. Present bias, or spending money now rather than saving, and failing to appreciate the power of compounded earnings has cost retirement savers $1.7 trillion.
A lawsuit alleging that Edison International improperly favored high-fee funds for its 401(k) plan has been rejected by 9th U.S. The Security and Exchange Commission’s Investor Advisory Committee wants the regulator to mandate that standard fees be disclosed--in actual dollar amounts--on customer account statements. Morgan Stanley is building a help desk with more than 10 staffers who will answers questions from financial advisors about complying with the new retirement fiduciary rule. Even though markets have been calm recently, the large equity selloff in the second half of 2015 and in the early portion of 2016 illustrates how quickly investor sentiment can sour.
Robo-advisor Betterment has raised another $100 million in venture capital and plans to use the funding to build out additional advice products. The registered investment advisor community is quickly growing as clients increasingly prefer working with advisors who comply with the fiduciary standard, says Bill Van Law, president of Raymond James’s Investment Advisors Division.
Advisors with the Certified Financial Planner distinction tend to have higher levels of trust among clients and earn, on average, 20% more than other advisors, according to a study funded by the CFP Board of Standards and conducted by the Aite Group. The Securities and Exchange Commission has created the office of Risk and Strategy to focus on examining investment advisors and mutual funds.
Many Americans nearing retirement age are pursuing careers with a charitable or civic service nature, which is creating opportunities for financial planners.
The Securities and Exchange Commission’s decision to shift resources from broker exams to advisor exams has been driven by necessity, says Marc Wyatt, director of the examinations office.
Among black working-age households, 62% have no savings in retirement accounts, while only 37% of working-age white households lack such savings, according to a National Institute on Retirement study.
Individuals who are old enough to sneak past the recent termination deadline for using the file and suspend strategy that helps boost Social Security benefits are reportedly being told they are not allowed to use the strategy. A study of retirement assets during the 2000s has concluded that retirees in the top quintile of wealth have been spending substantially less than their savings allows for. Funding for the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Futures Trading Commission would be doubled by 2021 under the budget recently proposed by President Obama. President Obama’s proposed budget includes provisions that would increase the number of Americans covered by employer-sponsored retirement plans by expanding the use of multiple employer plans. Bill McNabb, who is the chief of ETF giant The Vanguard Group is warning the industry that the large number of ETFs being launched could create problems for investors. The Department of Labor’s proposed fiduciary standard could create a big increase in orphan accounts, which are accounts that end up being managed by home offices rather than by broker-dealers registered reps, says Paul Sankovich, chief compliance officer at Wells Fargo Advisors Financial Network. The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) is investigating how robo advisors manage risk, says Dawn Calonge, surveillance director at the organization.
Deena Friedman, who skippered the Fidelity Select Retail Fund to an 18.59% return in 2015, has been selected by Bloomberg as the stock picker of the year.
Only one out of every five advisor recruits stays in the industry, but firms can take various steps to improve retention. The Securities and Exchange Commission has fined Everhart Financial Group nearly $240,000 and ordered the advisory firm to appoint a chief compliance officer after the regulator determined that the company was inappropriately recommending funds with 12b-1 fees for retirement plans. With weakening economic growth in China and other concerns driving market volatility, billionaire investor George Soros says capital markets currently remind him of conditions that existed during the economic crisis of 2008. For financial advisory firms, implementing customer relationship management technology can be a high stakes and dicey undertaking.
Galen Marsh, who as a Morgan Stanley advisor downloaded client data to his home computer without permission, has been sentenced to three years of probation and ordered to pay $600,000 in restitution.
Retirement plan fees are falling as 401(k) participants increasingly embrace low-cost products. The proposed Department of Labor fiduciary standard could cost the financial industry in excessive of $2.4 billion in lost transaction revenues, which is more than double most estimates, says Morningstar Analyst Stephen Ellis.
A small number of stocks including Amazon, General Electric, Alphabet, Microsoft, and Facebook drove market gains in 2015. Having $30,000 in student debt can cut as much as $325,000 from 401(k) balances by the time an individual reaches retirement.
Only 64% of advisors responding to a recent Russell Investments Financial Professionals Outlook survey have a positive outlook for capital markets over the next three years. Online market gurus have been forecasting rapid growth of web surfers connecting to cyberspace with smartphones and tablets and a decrease in the use of desktops and laptops. Smart Beta exchange traded funds captured $3 billion in assets in October and $53.7 billion during the first ten months of this year, according to London-based research firm ETFGI.
Despite occasional articles about advisors stealing from clients, only 2% of individual advisors have reported criminal charges such as felony convictions or investment related misdemeanors, according to an analysis of industry data by Big Crunch. Morgan Stanley advisors who land clients that need cash management services next year can receive bonuses up to $50,000. Susan Elizabeth Walker, 51, of Plymouth, Minnesota, has been sentenced to more than seven years in the slammer after being found guilty of stealing $1.1 million from at least 24 clients. The Securities and Exchange Commission has issued a warning regarding outsourced compliance programs based on deficiencies that it has uncovered during examinations. Providing low-cost tax return preparation to generate financial planning prospects is just one of a variety of successful strategies. During the past year, daily equity market declines and gains exceeding 1% have been common, with investor sentiment quickly changing based on the prevailing outlook for the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy. File and suspend, which allows one member of a couple to receive a spousal benefit from Social Security while both spouses’ benefits continue to accrue, would be terminated under the budget bill that was recently passed by the House of Representatives. Mounting levels of student debt and declining home ownership among younger people means that many recent college grads will have to work to age 75 before retiring. The Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards should be raising the requirements to become a certified financial planning. Periodically adjusting asset allocations based on expected returns of different asset classes can generate better returns than traditional target date funds, according to back testing completed by Grantham, May, van Otterloo. Boston-based startup firm Gradifi has launched the Student Loan Paydown Plan, which allows business to make payments toward their employees’ student debt. Impact investors, or those investors seeking to invest in a socially responsible manner, don’t have to sacrifice returns to stay true to their calling, according to a new Wharton School study.


In the next five years, private wealth is estimated to grow from approximately $14 trillion to $22 trillion. Traditional advisors can compete with robo-advisors by being prepared to answer tough questions about fees, understanding what services clients value, expanding their referral networks, and clearly articulating the range of services they provide.
Advisors should ensure that female clients can find financial planning documents, such as life insurance policies in the event that they outlive their husbands. Advisors need to address frequently overlooked aspects of their digital branding to ensure that their reputation and marketing are assets rather than liabilities. The Department of Labor is moving forward with a rule change intended to help states start retirement plans without running afoul of regulations included in the Employee Retirement Income and Security Act. Financial services firms are awaiting a list of products that the Department of Labor may restrict from being used in IRAs as part of its fiduciary standard rule. Investors younger than 40 ramped up stock purchases on August 24 when the market tanked 1,000 points at the open, according to Robinhood, which is a stock trading app that is frequently used by Millennials.
The Social Security Administration says it will provide retroactive spousal benefits to same-sex couples that were married in states that previously didn’t recognize such matrimonial unions, according to attorneys for plaintiffs. Many advisors may cringe when conversations suffer from akward silence, but such moments can lead to more productive conversations.
Labor Secretary Thomas Perez says he will continue to push for a fiduciary standard for retirement plan advisors even though Republicans and moderate Democrats are concerned that the rule could harm low-income individuals. Advisors need to understand the complex emotions that can accompany sudden wealth in order to best serve their clients.
While blissful couples pledge to stay married until death, the reality is that approximately 50% of marriages inthe U.S.
Collecting Social Security early can help retirees assess how much they can spend because the payments are consistent.
The annual household savings rate climbed to 5.5% last year, up nearly a full percentage point from 2013. Advisors can engage their clients and strengthen relationships by using appropriate teaching styles for each investor’s preferred method of learning. May and June have been tough months for Bill Gross and his Janus Global Unconstrained Bond Fund with investors withdrawing $50 million from the portfolio during the period, according to Morningstar. The Securities and Exchange Commission recently awarded a whistleblower $3 million for information that helped the regulator crack a complex case of fraud.
Advocates of the fiduciary requirement for retirement investment advisors have delivered a petition with 230,000 signatures to the Department of Labor to urge the regulator to support the proposed standard.
Industry trade groups are proposing legislation that would require retirement planning advisors to serve in the best interest of clients rather than comply with the Department of Labor’s proposed fiduciary standard, says Steve Saxon, chairman of Groom Law Group. Connecticut researchers are applying scanning and 3D printing to help make product parts for rare, fragile, and very old musical instruments. As 3D printing gathers steam, more people, those familiar with the additive manufacturing (AM) industry and newcomers alike, will want to see the latest developments firsthand and talk with AM experts. A new study looking at how to curb the rapid growth of lionfish, an invasive species not native to the Atlantic Ocean, suggests that approximately 27 percent of mature lionfish will have to be removed monthly for one year to reduce its population growth rate to zero. But the good news is that the invasive fish happens to be delicious—and NOAA is encouraging chefs to find new ways to introduce it to U.S.
Lionfish are native to the western and central Pacific Ocean, but have established themselves from North Carolina to South America. Authorities are also encouraging a local market for the species, whose delicate white flesh tastes similar to a snapper or grouper.
While the study represents a significant step forward in understanding how to turn the tide of the invasion, the study’s authors warn that more work is needed to understand the ecological effects of lionfish, track the population, and develop control strategies. The study’s recommendation of a 27 percent monthly reduction represents a major fishing effort which may not be feasible in some areas, such as the expansive areas where lionfish have become established off the southeast U.S. The study, a collaboration between scientists from NOAA and North Carolina State University, can be found in the June 2010 issue of Biological Invasions. NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. The FARO Edge ScanArm HD delivers rapid point cloud collection with high-definition scan data and precise accuracy — all in a compact, easy-to-use, and affordable system.
It is the ideal tool for rapid prototyping as it enables the fast collection of highly accurate and detailed 3D scan data that can be designed and modified to easily produce a water tight, 3D printable mesh or wrap. Manufacturing and engineering professionals interested in maximizing efficiencies in their production and quality assurance processes. The FARO Edge ScanArm HD delivers high-definition data with superior speed and surface coverage at an affordable price, enabling our customers to reduce on-site measurement times, to scan very challenging materials, and to meaningfully improve their products and processes.
Our suite of open-source dental impression scanners provide a state-of-the-art solution for today's dental labs. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Those include services on its 401(k) platform and additional features for use by financial advisors. Now, recent data suggests the use of such portable devices has exploded, which underscores the need for advisors to ensure that their websites are well equipped to handle smartphone and tablet traffic.
Instead, it is making it easier to obtain the credentials, writes Rick Kahler, who is president of financial planning firm Kahler Financial Group. During that period, furthermore, women are expected to control two-thirds of private wealth. La Placa and a handful of other team members that collectively manage $3 billion in assets have left the San Francisco office of Deutsche Bank to start their own firm. They are a popular aquarium fish that were likely first released in Florida waters in the mid-1980s.
Caribbean nations such as the Turks and Caicos Islands are encouraging widespread fishing for lionfish by instituting year-long tournaments with cash prizes for the most lionfish caught.
NOAA scientists concur that developing a market for lionfish is one of the only ways to substantially reduce their numbers.
Additionally, the system is heavily utilized for many other product development, inspection and quality control applications, and offers capabilities such as point-cloud comparison with CAD, reverse engineering, and 3D modeling of free-form surfaces. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper.
Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. If you throw into the mix the occasional premature death of a spouse, then it becomes clear that a substantial portion of advisors’ married clients are likely to become single.
To this end, NOAA has developed an “Eat Lionfish” campaign that brings together fishing communities, wholesalers, and chefs in an effort to broaden U.S. I also installed the 4x4 badge on my tailgate and removed the stickers from the side of the bed.
Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.


A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light.
Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes.
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made.
A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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