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admin | Category: Telephone Number Search | 20.06.2014
This paper will specify a procedure and considerations to be used by network operators to enable the support of 4-Octet Autonomous System Numbers for BGP routers.
At the time of BGP development and standardization, it was assumed that availability of a 16 bit binary number to identify the Autonomous System (AS) within BGP would have been more than sufficient. The consumption rate of the publicly available ASNs is well known and can be measured by monitoring the remaining unallocated ASNs in the IANA pool.
An important aspect is the consideration regarding backward compatibility and interoperability between the `old' 2-byte AS numbers and the `new' 4-byte AS numbers.
These new attributes, extended BGP communities and BGP capability advertisement need to be understood when deploying routers and devices which are 4-Byte AS capable. This paper will go from the assumption that the operator has an existing network implementing support for traditional 2-Byte Autonomous System Numbers (ASN).
To upgrade a network to enjoy the full 4-Byte ASN BGP feature support, all BGP speakers within the network will have to understand 4-Byte Autonomous System Numbers. This migration guide provides guidelines for a successful migration, with direct feedback mechanisms to allow a secure fallback safety procedure if a router upgrade would result in undesired routing behavior. A reference network to illustrate the implementation of 4-Byte ASN support can be found below. The diagram shows a traditional network running BGP and has Autonomous System Number 200 (a traditional 2-Byte ASN). An assumption is that the devices will not use the 4-Byte ASN information as long as all BGP routers have gained 4-Byte ASN support.
There are two major ways to add in a structured approach 4-Byte ASN technology to the network components.
Another important aspect is that there is no configuration required to enable 4-Byte AS on the BGP router. Once the situation is found stable and the operational behavior is found satisfying, then the second Top Level Route-Reflector should be upgraded. The next step to migrate the network towards 4-Byte ASN support is to upgrade the next Level of BGP Route-Reflectors one-by-one, until all Route-Reflectors have been upgraded.

Then, the best approach is to upgrade the routers within the different layers of the network one-by-one, until the access layer has been reached. For those Edge Routers (ie: Edge Router 4) that have an eBGP peering with a true 4-Byte AS Number, there is a need for a configuration change.
Migrating from a BGO infrastructure supporting 2-Byte Autonomous System Numbers, to an infrastructure understanding 4-Byte Autonomous System Numbers can be achieved in a structured and operationally secure procedure, without major network redesign and operational enhancements. The 16 bit AS number, also known as the 2-byte AS number, provides a pool of 65536 unique Autonomous System numbers. The solution to this depletion is the expansion of the existing 2-byte AS number towards a 4-byte AS number. The IETF and the standardization of the revised 4-byte AS number has been developed in such a way that there is a high degree of backward compatibility between the 4-byte AS number and 2-byte AS number.
It will be required to upgrade the BGP Routers to prepare the network for the full BGP feature richness in a 4-Byte ASN situation.
Obviously upgrading the BGP speakers is not a task that can be done without careful planning and operational downtime studies.
It is recommended to upgrade the BGP speakers to support 4-Byte ASN one-by-one, especially for the first set of BGP routers. By default, a Cisco IOS router has 4-Byte ASN enabled if the version of software supports the technology. In many cases, the Route-Reflector setup is highly redundant and exists out of a set of two RR, which work in a high-available setup.
Special care has to be taken if an Edge Router has an eBGP peering with an Autonomous System with a true 4-Byte ASN (ie: Edge Router 4).
From this pool, 1023 numbers have been reserved for local or private usage, and 3 are reserved for special usage. Note that 4-Byte ASN is backward compatible with 2-Byte ASN, however, not all BGP features regarding BGP table visibility and AS-Path filtering will be available.
For illustrational purposes, it is assumed that `Edge router 1' peers with a traditional 2-Byte AS network, while `Edge Router 4' peers with a 4-Byte ASN system.

Either from Top Level RR towards the Edge Routers, or one can start from the Edge Routers and work the way up towards the Top Level RR. This will make the inclusion of 4-Byte AS logistics very simple, because a majority of the BGP routers will get 4-Byte AS support silently, due to a BGP router upgrade. During a first software upgrade, only a single Top Level RR should be upgraded, followed by a period to monitor the Route-Reflector behavior for stability and understanding potentially unexpected behavior. This Autonomous System is used by the neighborship between OLD (traditional 2-Byte BGP router) and NEW BGP (a BGP router supporting 4-Byte AS Numbers) speakers. The remaining pool of AS's (64510) are available to support the public Internet infrastructure. This paper explains the steps to upgrade the BGP speakers of a network in the most operational optimized procedure. This difference will have considerations when upgrading the IOS towards a version supporting 4-Byte ASN. Both will result in a network fully supporting 4-Byte ASN, and in both models, the 4 byte ASN implementation is quite operationally structured and secure. The IANA manages the available BGP Autonomous System Numbers (ASN) pool, with the assignments being carried out by the Regional Registries. In this example, a two level hierarchy is used, however, the procedure will work for a single layer of RR or for more layers of RR. When the Edge Routers are also used as a VPN concentrator, then the same considerations for upgrading the IOS version to support 4-Byte ASN must be taken as for the above Interconnectivity model.

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