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The Greek peninsula was originally settled by the Minoan people who originated in Egypt and came to the mainland via the island of Crete on the south, by the Achaeans who settled in the Peloponnese, and by the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians who entered over the mountains from Europe in the north. The name comes from the ruins at Mycenae where a large palace and many graves were discovered. The values that emerged from Homera€™s epic tales became the basic values of Greek culture and formed the basis for Greek education.
Excellence (arete) -- doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. Glory (kleos) -- glory one achieves for parents, family, and polis through great deeds of excellence, honor, bravery. Impermanence of human life -- everything in life is impermanent, but glory (kleos) never fades. After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil wars and their defenses became weakened. This period extended from the beginning of the wars with Persia up to the death of Alexander the Great in 336 B.C. The ideal Greek man was considered to be a brave warrior during war time and an excellent athlete in peace time. The olympic site at Olympia still contains the actual fields, large dirt berms where spectators sat, the tunnel through which the contestants ran onto the fields, and remnants of many statues to the gods. Persia, a major power that developed to the northeast of the Fertile Crescent, expanded through military power into present-day Turkey (Anatolia) and into the western areas of the Black Sea, just to the north of Greece. The Greeks had established colonies in Troy, Ephesus, and other locations along the eastern edge of the Aegean in present day Turkey.
Every modern marathon is exactly the same distance, whether it is run in London, Tokyo, or Boston. Xerxes is also well known to Christians and Jews because he was the husband of Queen Esther, a Jewish young woman who lived during the Babylonian Captivity of Judah. Xerxes took his time -- four years -- to assemble a huge army of 2 million men and 1200 ships to attack Greece.
The Persians marched to a point to the north of Athens, burning and pillaging Greek villages along their path.The goal was to conquer Athens and burn it to the ground in retaliation for Dariusa€™ previous defeat at Marathon. The Persians were like a herd of elephants attempting to crawl inside the neck of a Coke bottle.
The Athenians meanwhile began evacuating all the citizens of Athens to Salamis, an island south of Athens, which was separated from the mainland by the Bay of Salamis. Why was the Athenian army not present at Thermopylae if the goal of Xerxes was to destroy Athens? Why did Leonidas not dismiss the Thespians from the battle, as he did the other Greek troops? What can be learned from the example of how Leonidas chose Thermopylae to fight the superior forces of the Persians? By the time the Persians entered Athens, the entire city had been evacuated except for some priests and priestesses who were supposedly given the job of defending the sacred temples on the Acropolis. Why did Xerxes not head immediately into the Peloponnese to deal with Sparta, the hometown of Leonidas, who had angered him at Thermopylae?
When the Persian ships entered the Bay of Salamis they were quickly surrounded by the more maneuverable Greek ships. The Athenians went on to build the worlda€™s largest navy and a merchant fleet that trading throughout the Mediterranean, while the Spartans developed the worlda€™s most powerful army.
After the Persian wars Athens and Sparta continued to develop two radically different cultures. The Peloponnesian League attacked Athens, but the outmanned Athenians under Pericles gained allies in the Peloponnese, thus damaging Spartaa€™s supply lines, and encouraged the Spartan helots (slaves) to flee to the Athenian allied city-states for safety and freedom. Athens had built large stone walls from the city down the rocky slopes about 8 miles to Piraeus, its port on the Aegean. Eventually in following years Athens proved to be the city with the most resiliency, vitality, and potential.
What two confederations were set up in Greece in view of disputes and bad attitudes between the various city-states?
Pericles was the leader of Athens following the Persian Wars and led Athens in its war against Sparta. Socrates lived during the Peloponnesian Wars that racked Greece and brought Athens and Sparta to exhaustion.
Socrates sought through his philosophy to teach a better way, and to do so through the education of the youth of Athens. Socrates was upset by an earlier group of Athenian thinkers, the Sophists, who maintained that there were no universals or absolutes in life. The elders of Athens were very disturbed by Socrates questioning tradition and teaching his students to do the same.
Socrates was held in deep respect by his students, but resented by the leaders of the polis. In the Apology of Plato (Dialogues 32, 41) when asked how he felt about his soon death, Socrates is reported by Plato to have replied that he had no feelings or emotions about death. What does Socrates believe about the soul that leads him to conclude that everything a person needs to know already exists in his mind, and merely needs to be allowed to come out? Since Socrates never wrote any of his teachings down, what is one source of his teachings that we can consult to discover what Socrates believed and taught? Early in life Plato wandered around the Mediterranean and was at one point captured by pirates. In The Cave, Plato describes several people chained inside a cave who have never viewed what lies on the outside of the cave. But if there are real Forms of chairs and trees and red apples, then there are real Forms of humans, also.
It was Platoa€™s emphasis on the upper story that appealed to people in Northern Europe during the Renaissance and during the Protestant Reformation, as opposed to the man-centered humanism of Aristotle which was favored in the Italian Renaissance.
How is this expressed in the statement by Plato to his teacher: a€?a€?And what, Socrates, is the food of the soul? Aristotle was the son of a physician who had served the grandfather of Alexander the Great. An educated mind is able to listen to and entertain a thought without blindly accepting it. Aristotle departed from his teacher, Plato, by maintaining, as did Confucius and Buddha, that there is not enough time in this life to worry about a life to come. Aristotle was a pioneer biologist in observing and classifying the plants, trees, and animals of Greece. Aristotle, in similar fashion to Plato his teacher, saw two energies or components of the soul -- desire and reason. At the close of the middle ages, many Italians began to discard the traditions of the Roman Church.
All three of these philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, emphasized human reason as the major force of life. In Christianity there is the important matter of the necessity of being born again, having our minds made new, of submitting our minds and wills to God, in trusting Him for wisdom and understanding. Some speculate that the gods and goddesses in Greek mythology were heroes from the earliest Mycenaean periods of Greeks history, preceding even Troy and Homer. This speculation comes from a careful study of Greek pottery, art, and sculpture, which gives, in the opinion of some historians, evidence that the gods and goddesses may have been the glorification by the early Greeks of major characters from the line of Cain who lived prior to the flood.
For instance, Zeus could possibly be Nimrod, the first of the great warriors and the founder of the first city according to Genesis. Thus Greek mythology, maintains Johnson, is a corrupted version of biblical history, a twisted memory. To understand the whole story that underlies the stories contained in Greek mythology, one must be aware of the clash between the older Titans and the younger Olympians. In other pieces of Greek art there is a continuous emphasis on capturing and grasping the tree that contains the fruit of knowledge and mysteries.
If Johnson is correct in his interpretations of the many scenes depicted in Greek pottery, Greek mythology deifies the pre-flood line of Cain and depicts Zeus as triumphant over Noah and his God for rule on the earth.
Athena is consistently represented in Greek art as not only the patron of Athens but the goddess who possesses knowledge, wisdom, and access to the mysteries. At the wedding feast celebrating Philipa€™s marriage to Cleopatra, her father made a toast, asking the gods for the birth of a son to become heir to the throne, obviously discounting Alexandera€™s legitimacy. In the melee that followed, one of his bodyguards, a friend of Alexander, stabbed Philip to death. It is interesting to note that about 700 years later when a Roman general demanded that all of his troops sacrifice to the Emperor to confirm their loyalty, the same Thebian elite unit, now comprising a legion of 6,000 men, refused to sacrifice and the entire legion was put to death. Alexander invaded Anatolia, conquered Syria and Palestine, became the only one in the history of Afghanistan to conquer it, and conquered mighty Egypt. His goal was to unite the entire known world under one leader, speaking one language, and possessing one culture.
Before you read the following account, please read the story of Paula€™s visit to Athens as described by Luke, Paula€™s companion, in Acts 17:16-34. The Athenians developed a complex mythology in an attempt to make sense out of human existence.
By the time of Christ there were literally several thousand gods and goddesses in the religious system of Athens. Monuments and altars to the many gods and goddesses lined the highway from Piraeus, the port, to the center of the city of Athens. Paul stopped in Athens on his way to Corinth, waiting for companions to arrive from Thessaloniki.
In describing Paula€™s reaction to the Athenian idolatry, Luke, the companion of Paul, uses the Greek word paroxysm from which we get paroxsymal. Epicureans taught that the basis of human life was to a€?eat, drink, and have a good time, because tomorrow we will die.a€? There are no moral absolutes. Sophists were an itinerant group of philosophers who emphasized the intellect as the basis of human success. Paul was invited to climb up to Mars Hill, a large hill inside Athens about 300 yards from the Acropolis.
Some have suggested that Paul made a mistake by resorting to philosophy and logic in an attempt to be accepted by the Areopagus. They asked the oracle at Delphi, what had they done to cause this plague, and most importantly, what could they do to end it? Further, the Oracle said, the Athenians must travel to the Island of Crete, to Knossos, a traditional enemy of Athens, to seek out the legendary prophet, Epimenides.
Upon arriving at Athens, Epimenides noticed the hundreds of altars and monuments dedicated to the scores of Athenian deities.
According to Plato, he states in his Laws, since the deity sacrificed to was unknown to the Athenians and unknown to Epimenides, the sites were named in honor of Agnosto Theo, the unknown god who had been appeased and who had lifted the plague.
Plato further noted that Epimenides prophesied that in ten years Persia would again attempt to invade Athens but would be frustrated and turned back.
Within ten years, Persia, under Darius, attempted to invade Athens, just as Epimenides predicted, but was defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon. Lest we become too enamored by Epimenides, however, he also claimed that Zeus was immortal.
The refusal of the people of Crete to adore Zeus as the Immortal One caused Epimenides to make that classic statement, a€?All Cretans, liars!a€? This quote is cited by Paul in Titus 1:12.
In the book, Peace Child, Don Richardson describes how the Gospel seemed to be a concept beyond the ability of the Asmat tribe in New Guinea to understand. Likewise, in the Ekari tribe of New Guinea the loss was lamented of the knowledge of Ajii, a place where the dead could go after death, where there was the absence of war, illness, sadness.
In this same way, Paul used the bridge of the agnosto theo to enable the Athenians to understand the Gospel. Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were later revered by the rest of the world, they were not well received during their lifetimes in Athens.
What truths did Epimenides declare about the true God when he made his four suggestions about the agnosto theo? What can we learn from this story to help us in talking with other people about the Good News of Jesus?
Although Rome conquered Greece, Greece in its religion, philosophy, and language conquered Rome. The Christian faith grew rapidly in Greece, including such famous Christian communities as those in Corinth, Athens, Philippi, and Thessaloniki. After the fall of Constantinople to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453, most of Greece in 1460 fell to the Ottomans.The Ottoman Turks were mountain people from the north of Persia who invaded and conquered present-day Turkey by the 12th century. Facing Russian troops sent by the Christian tsar of Russia at the walls of Constantinople in 1829, the Sultan of the Ottomans finally recognized Greek independence. In the 20th Century Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II, and a communist government was elected shortly after the war. Greece is important and of interest to Western Christians because it was the birthplace of the Christian Church in Europe.
Greece is also the civilization that served as a bottleneck, preventing the domination of Islam in Europe. What is not laudable, is the religious darkness that existed in Greece prior to the arrival of the Gospel. What are the differences between the limited democracy of Athens and democracy as practiced in the United States? What evidences are there for humane treatment of girls and women in the ancient Greek civilization? It is said that the Romans capture the Greeks, but in reality the Greeks captured the Romans.
The classical civilizations of Greece established institutions and defined values and styles that endured for many centuries and that continue to influence our lives today.
Alongside of these religions developed two divinely revealed religions: Judaism and Christianity. The first Greek civilization was the Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, with Knossos as its main community. The migration into the Greek mainland from the north by the Mycenaean people, and their subsequent invasion of Crete, resulted in a common language. Troy was a city-state strategically located at the Hellespont, where it controlled traffic to and from Europe and Asia Minor. Athens served as one of the models for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but as a direct democracy functioned very differently than the representative democracy established in the United States.
While Athens was experimenting with a direct democracy, Israel had received from Jehovah through Moses a form of democratic, representative government. Israel, even though embracing a limited monarchy, considered itself a theocracy, with Jehovah at its center and the temple and sacrificial system centered in Jerusalem. The story of the plague at Athens and the wisdom of Epimenides led to the worship of the a€?Unknown Goda€? and to the eventual entrance of the Gospel to Athens and Greece. Persia became the feared enemy of the Greek city-states, resulting in three major battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis. Ironically, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia, was Esther, a Jewish woman whose family had been takenA  to Babylon in the Babylonian Captivity of 566 BC. The refusal of Athens to share its democratic dream with the other city-states, as well as jealousy and rebellion on the part of the other city-states, resulted in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Macedonia under Philip the Great conquered all of Greece and established the Macedonian empire. The values contained in The Iliad and The Odyssey that permeated Greek culture and Western Civilization.
The difference between a direct democracy, like that of Athens, and a representative republic, like that of the United States of America.
The battles in the Persian-Greek wars at Thermopylae, Marathon, and Salamis, included the reasons why the numerically smaller Greek forces were able to ultimately defeat the vast forces of Persia. 1.Excellence (arete) --A  doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. 2.Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. 3.Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. 4.Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. The team found that sustained treatment with the protein doesn’t merely keep blood sugar under control but also reverses Feline Diabetes Food Chart Effects Gestational Postpartum Of California San Mateo insulin insensitivity the underlying physiological cause of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, develops when blood sugar, or glucose, levels are no longer regulated adequately by the hormone insulin. There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in. The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy. Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view. Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later.
Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher. He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo. The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist. Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles.
By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles. What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past.
Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past! Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image. His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627). Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian. Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week. He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687. Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy.
To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom.
Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes.
Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture. Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian.
List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution.
Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin.
Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning. The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual. Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought. The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live. The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality? The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed.
The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth. If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives. There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws! The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes.
The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists. However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town.
In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays. Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government.
He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king.
Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear.
Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman. Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society.
He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best. Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope. One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI.
After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule. Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy. He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare.
Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler.
Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters. Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants. A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history.
As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland.


Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being. His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great.
Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle.
Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop. He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly.
The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices. Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs. Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture.
In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society. He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years.
A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other.
By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress. A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress.
Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity. The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe.
Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny.
Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government. He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free. However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed.
Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people. Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke).
Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church.
He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life. And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract.
The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry.
Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy.
Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers. Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits.
Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit. Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science. Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe.
Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America.
Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself. The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on. While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church. To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination. Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own.
If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason.
The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history. The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!! The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason? There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France. The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain. The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France. Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life. Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes. Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above).
The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches. Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ. His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority. Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community.
Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches. When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches.
Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart.
Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians.
Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c. As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality. The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England.
The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later.
At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces. One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette. On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry. Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV!
Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia.
His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes. Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans. It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England.
It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions.
List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason. Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason.
Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes. In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government.
Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason.
Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. Ita€™s most famous ruler was the legendary king Minos who established the capitol city of Knossos.
It was a warrior culture mentioned by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, describing the events that took place during the Trojan Wars between the Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece and Troy on the western shoreline of Anatolia (present-day Turkey). They were carried into Roman culture by Virgil, were embraced by the Byzantines, and were carried into Italy during the Renaissance. Art, pottery, sculpturing, and architecture developed, establishing the foundation for much of the Classical period.
Athenian democracy developed under Pericles and the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis in Athens in worship of Athena. It derived its name from the goddess Athena who in Greek myth competed with Poseidon to be the patron of the city.
The Isthmus games were held every two years at the narrow isthmus of Greece, located near Corinth.
He was most angered by Athens and Sparta, because when his father Darius sent messengers to those two cities to offer them the opportunity to surrender prior to the Battle of Marathon, they killed Dariusa€™ emissaries by throwing them down into deep wells. The Persians arrived at a narrow, rocky pass, Thermopylae, which overlooked the rocky shoreline below -- a 50-foot wide narrow pass which only permitted a limited numbers of troops to squeeze through the pass at a time. King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the pass with 300 Spartans and 400 soldiers from other city-states. A Greek traitor, however, revealed a hidden pass through the mountains that would by-pass Thermopylae and allow the Persian to attack Leonidas from the rear. He sent a messenger to Xerxes with the message that many of the Greeks were terrified, that they would not fight, and that if Xerxes sent his ships into the Bay of Salamis they could easily wipe out the Athenian navy. This would not bode well for the future of peace between the two city-states, however, and ultimately resulted in the Peloponnesian Wars.
During the Peloponnesian War Athens suffered from a plague, which took the life of Pericles. Pericles led a number of major building projects in Athens including the rebuilding of the Parthenon, constructing a large statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and rebuilt the acropolis.
Socrates maintained that the universe and life below here on earth pointed to a different reality.
In the dialogue, Meno, Socrates set forth the idea that when a person is born it is a reincarnation of the eternal soul which contains all knowledge. He argued that the soul is eternal, lives on after the death of the physical body, and existed before the physical body.
Although he disagreed with some of his teachings, Plato memorialized Socrates in his work, the Apology of Plato. In it he describes the ideal form of government and society comprised of three classes of people: producers (craftsmen, farmers, builders), warriors, and guardians (rulers). The goal is to follow the lead of the rational and spiritual portions of the soul and to make them masters over the appetite. They can only speculate and guess, based upon the shadows they see moving across the floor and walls of the cave. Plato seemed to these North European Christians to be saying that reality is above where God is.
After his education in Athens, Aristotle was hired by King Philip of Macedonia to be the personal tutor of this son, the future Alexander the Great in Macedonia.
Too many good things go unaccomplished because of either a bad beginning or not beginning at all. During the Reign of Terror in France all Christian symbols were removed from the cathedral in Paris and a statute of the Goddess of Human Reason was placed in the cathedral. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence, some speculate, that many of the Greek gods and goddesses were reminder remnants of Biblical history prior to the Flood of Noah. Eve may be the prototype of Athena, because invariably when depicted in Greek sculpture Athena is pictured with a snake at her one side and a sword at the other.
Access to its snowy peaks was very difficult, it was shrouded in mystery, and was supposed by the Greeks to be the home of the Twelve Olympians. He is the son of Gaea and then became her husband; together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans. Because Atlas led the Titans in the battle, he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and was condemned to hold up for eternity the world on his back.
Earth (Gaia) presents the new-born child to Athena, who represents the reborn serpent-friendly Eve after the Flood. In Section One of the Cycle of Rebirths in Buddhism, the gods and demigods are continually engaged, as here with the Greek deities, in a struggle over who will obtain the magic fruit of the tree that dispenses wisdom and eternity. To depict this, Athena is usually accompanied by one or several snakes -- the symbol to the Greeks of hidden wisdom. As the story goes, Olympia, a mystical follower of the god Dionysus, often slept with a giant snake in her bed as both a pet and a spiritual symbol of Zeus. Olympia immediately feared that Cleopatra would produce a son who would become the legitimate heir to Philipa€™s throne. When he ran from the banquet, two of Alexandera€™s other friends caught him and killed him. When a boy baby was later born to Cleopatra, Alexandera€™s mother Olympia arranged to have Cleopatra and the child killed to prevent a challenger to Alexandera€™s throne. In Egypt he left behind a Greek, General Ptolemy, who became the first of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Wherever he went he left behind Greek soldiers to intermarry with the population and in this way to capture the local culture. In other words, Paul was a€?deeply shaken.a€? he had a a€?sudden attacka€? or a€?deep disturbance,a€? and felt impelled to make a statement.
He informs them about the unknown God, the Creator, who is near to each one of us, the one whom they worship but whose identity is a mystery to them. The Greeks, whether from Sparta, Athens, or Thebes, would never think of going to war, embarking on a new project, or taking a long trip, without consulting with the Oracle.
The Oracle's advice disturbed them -- an Unknown God was the cause of the plague, she said, who intended to punish the Athenians for having violated many years before an ancient Greek code of conduct against another city-state. The grateful citizens wanted to reward Epimenides, but he declined any payment, asking merely for a treaty of peace between Athens and his home city, Knossos. He spent the majority of his time in front of them filling that empty concept of the unknown god with truth about the God they worshipped as the agnosto theo. That is, until he discovered the exchange of little children made between warring clans for the purpose of making peace. The Roman gods, for example, were for the most part simply re named Greek gods from Greek mythology. It impacted the entire culture of Greece and the population were almost entirely Christianized by the middle of the second century. They destroyed most of the ancient Christian communities in Turkey, like Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamum, and other churches listed in the New Testament.
The long struggle of Greece to resist Islam and to serve as a guard for the rest of Christian Europe against the Islamic Ottomans was at last over. It is interesting to travel through Greece to see white crosses placed virtually every hilltop to celebrate their independence from Ottoman rule. Churches at Corinth, Ephesus, Thessaloniki, and Philippi all had New Testament letters addressed to them. Many school children in America study Greek mythology in school, thinking of it as some sort of fairy tale, cartoonish system, not realizing its demonic roots and total domination of the Greek culture. Thomas Jefferson seemed to have favored implementing a certain form of limited democracy in the United States.
How might they have been modified and re directed after the Greeks embraced the Christian faith?
They drove many of the Mycenaean people to the Ionian coast, and intermarried with the remaining Mycenaeans to form the Greek people. 700 B.C), authored two important epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the oldest known European literature.
There is some indication that this mythology was the deification of a€?heroica€? men and women of old, who, before the Flood, composed the line of unrighteous persons. This was in stark contrast to the polytheism and idolatry practiced by its neighbors, including Greece and Rome. The younger child may not quite understand all the life changes that may occur because of the diagnosis such as glucose monitoring and insulin injections. Accurate estimates of the population prevalence of diabetes allow us to dscribe the patterns of diabetes in the population estimate the number of prevalence estimates for Type 2 diabetes (adults only) and Type 1 diabetes (children and adults) disaggregated by age sex ethnicity and area.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relaive insulin deficiency.
Rub lotion into damp skin after every bath or shower to seal in moisture and ensure great looking skin all year long. Blood in Urine Causes Infection: Blood in the urine can be a sign of urinary tract infection (UTI).
No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them. The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism.
It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many.
He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth.
He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own. The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error! There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong. He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body. At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly? Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return. He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity.
He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light.
This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more.
The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds. He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end. He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God.
Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war. The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church.
A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes. Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free. Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner. The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne. Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780.
Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs. If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office. There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech. There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven.
He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule. What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty.
The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church. Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe.
As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract.


His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic.
They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities.
Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it. This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695). Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy. If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress. The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy.
Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development.
When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them. While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848. So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England.
Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith. It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music.
He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God.
Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener.
He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family. Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America. He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans. Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students.
There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church. And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet!
He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ. Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia.
They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes. He probably did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey because handwriting was not discovered in Greece until about 400 years after the time Homer was said to have lived.There were Greek colonies all along the Ionian coastline.
The philosophic schools of Socrates and Plato developed.The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was fought between Athens and Sparta and their allied city-states. Darius and the Persians invaded Greece with over 100,000 troops but were defeated by 20,000 Greek hoplites in the famous battle at Marathon just north of Athens.
Her story is recorded in the Book of Esther and through her efforts a major slaughter of the Jews was averted. When a spy told them that the Persians were so numerous that when they shot their arrows they blocked the sun, Leonidasa€™ response was, a€?Good! Xerxes sent about 400 Persian triremes into the bay where the larger Persian ships, loaded with soldiers who could not swim, were faced by 300 smaller, sleeker Greek ships built to sail from island to island and were much more maneuverable. These wars involved virtually all of the Greek city-states who allied themselves with either Athens or Sparta.
He was so important to the life of Athens that his period of leadership is called the Age of Pericles (5th century).
He is also known for his contribution to the further development of democracy in Athens, which also provided salaries for magistrates and limited eligibility for public office to those who were born to two Athenian-born parents.
Confucius was the result of the Warring States period in Chinese history and he sought employment as a civil servant in order to sell his ideas to the rulers.
Therefore, each child, upon physical birth, is a reincarnation of that eternal soul and hence possesses that ancient knowledge. When he was ransomed by his friends they purchased a small property for him so that he could settle down. But we are trapped in our human bodies and cannot conceive of those Forms other than by observing their shadows down here in the lower story where we live.
We only see his reflections down here but one day we will be fully enlightened when we go to heaven to be where he is.
For example, it is okay to laugh at a joke during lunch time, but probably is a bad idea in the middle of your grandmothera€™s funeral. They knew nothing about a personal God who lies outside of us, who communicates with us, and who has set out for us ideas and principles that are absolutes by which we are to live. Hera represents the serpenta€™s Eve before the Flood, and Athena represents the rebirth of the serpenta€™s Eve after the Flood. The ruler of the Titans was Cronus (or Chronos, from which we get the words a€?chronologya€? and a€?chronometera€?). Gaea seems to have been an earth-mother who was worshipped before the Indo-European invasion into Greece that lead to the Hellenistic civilization. His rule ended when his son Cronus, encouraged by Uranusa€™ mother-wife,Gaea, castrated him.
190 BC), Nereus, the Greek Noah, standing in the rear to left, is the only one among the many other figures who is not actively engaged in the battle. The figure to the left of Gaia and the child is Hephaistos, the eldest son of Zeus and Hera, the deified Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve.
Is it possible that Athena, as with the other Greek deities, is a flashback to a pre-flood person -- possibly, Eve? Later she convinced the young Alexander that when she conceived him in her womb, she had become pregnant, not by Philip, but by Zeus, king of the gods.
When Philip, drunken from wine, stumbled over a table in his attempt to strike Alexander, Alexander taunted Philip in front of all the guests by exclaiming, a€?Look! The most famous of his descendants was Cleopatra, lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony. He also created several cities which he named Alexandria, the most famous becoming the capitol of Egypt under the Greek Ptolemaic pharaohs.
As each group of invaders swept into Greece, parts of their mythologies and deities of their religions were incorporated into the Greek religion. On the top of the Acropolis in Athens stood the Parthenon, the temple devoted to the worship of Athena. Luke tells us that Paul attracted the attention of the Epicureans and the Stoics, the two main schools of Athenian philosophy at the time. They even founded a debating forum called the Areopagus, a unique Athenian group, at one time the ruling institution of Athens. Paul was a master at meeting people where they were, moving them in the direction of truth, and then explaining to them the Gospel. Every year a woman from a local village was selected to spend the entire year sitting on a stool at Delphi, next to an open crevasse created by one of the many earthquakes in the region.
All of the known gods either dona€™t hear us or are incapable of helping you with this plague. It was in this condition that the Apostle Paul found the Athenians when he visited them in the first century A.
When one of the warring clans wanted peace, they would take one of their own baby boys and, traveling under a truce to the enemy village, would offer the little boy as a peace offering. Letters in the New Testament were written to Greek churches at Corinth, Thessaloniki, Philippi, and Ephesus. When Constantine built the new Roman capitol at Constantinople, Greece became the host-area for the Byzantine Empire.
Christian monasteries in mountainous Greece became the safe havens for the Christian scriptures and other Christian literature. Many buildings in the United States imitate great architecture with their large marble pillars, built during the a€?Greek revivala€? in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The challenge for parents of children with type 1 diabetes is to know how to detect the symptoms of hypoglycemia and effectively treat it. Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology for Nurses Video Series (PATHOPHYSIOLOGY FOR NURSES VIDEO lilly diabetes medications ebay meter glucose illinois peoria SERIES).pdf.
Type 1 Diabetes: The most typical symptoms of diabetes or high blood glucose include frequent urination frequent thirst and frequent hunger or eating. They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us. But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself. Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention. He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun.
His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun.
Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it. Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure.
His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries.
The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup.
The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth. Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims.
He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society. Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733). In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God.
However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced.
He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans! The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery.
As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others. The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed.
His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts. Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism. His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth.
The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield. They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians. The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed.
The Iliad and the Odyssey were memorized by the Greeks and became essential components of Greek thought and culture. It is proposed by some that writing developed in Greece shortly after Homer in order to record his epics. It was in response to the aftermath of this war and the defeat of Athens by Sparta that Socrates (469-399 BC) grew to prominence in an attempt to bring order out of the chaos that developed. Pressure from Greecea€™s traditional enemy, Persia, prevented the idea of limited democracy from developing further and it was forgotten until much later under the leadership of Pericles (c. The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympia, in south-west Greece in the Peloponnese. Darius, king of Persia, was furious to learn that Athens had aided the Greek colonies in their rebellion.
A bad taste was left in the mouths of the Athenians because the promised military assistance from Sparta never materialized.
The troops were recruited (usually by force) from all of the Persian colonies throughout the Middle East. Hearing that the entire army and navy of Athens was on the nearby island of Salamis, Xerxes decided to postpone his march through the isthmus and to first annihilate the Athenians. Xerxes, who was overlooking the battle from a high cliff, watched in dismay as the Greeks used oars, spears, and heavy clubs to kill the Persians when their triremes were overturned.
The job of the teacher is simply to induce it to come out by asking wise, guiding questions. He named the property Academus -- Academy -- because he quickly turned it into the site for a school, following the pattern of his mentor, Socrates.
Each has its own area of specialization and should not intrude into the areas of the other two classes. It is okay to eat a doughnut, but probably not a good idea to eat a dozen doughnuts, especially just before you go to bed or just before running a race.
For instance, even though every village and town had its own favorite god or goddess and each had its own temple or sacred place, there was one goddess to whom it was permissible to make sacrifice, and none of the other gods and goddesses would be offended. To insure his safety and superior position, when each of his children were born, he ate them!
The sculptors have placed him as a mute witness to the Greek godsa€™ defeat of the Giants (Nereusa€™ Yahweh-believing sons) signifying the end of Greek faith in Noaha€™s God.
Heracles, the Nimrod of Genesis, demands to know something that only the Salt Sea Old Man can tell him.
Philip, King of Macedonia, assembled a powerful military and was intent on conquering Persia as payback for Persiaa€™s earlier invasions of Greece and, in his day, its current ongoing threat to the well-being of Greece. However, he died prior to completing the second step, his planned invasion of Anatolia and Persia. This divine parentage elevated Alexander to be a god in the flesh, on a par with the noblest heroes of Greek mythology. Did Olympia and Alexander assassinate Philip prior to any chance of Philip fathering a son with Cleopatra? Beyond the beauty of the sites visited, however, Paul was deeply disturbed by the rampant idolatry. While Paul seemed to them to be an ignorant babbler, still, it was new and interesting information he was babbling about! By the time of Paula€™s arrival it had become more like a breakfast club that gathered to hear all the latest ideas, fads, and philosophies.
His approach at Athens was not a new tactic and did not result in a rejection of the Gospel. Assemble also teams of stone masons and have ready a large supply of stones.a€? The next morning 100 goats arrived together with teams of masons and loads of stones. Second, if there is an unknown god, that god must have the ability and the inclination to hear us when we sacrifice to him or her. The Greeks resisted conversion by the Muslim Ottomans and maintained a strong Christian culture, even in the face of frequent persecutions. Prevention, Treatment, and Control of Hypoglycemia, Insulin Dependent Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, and Adult Onset See the following truthful study that proves fructose as found in abundance in fruit and fruit juice is one of the root causes for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart New EMF Dangers - - Type 3 Diabetes and Heart Disease.
Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena. The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™). He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing.
Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit. Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen. Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people. Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans. Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate. His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. There were two early forms, one a derivative of hieroglyphics in Egypt, and the other from the Phoenicians. Famed military heroes and kings of the polis from the Mycenaean Age were included as gods in the growing mythology of the Greek religion. A two-tiered class system developed based upon onea€™s personal wealth, with the greatest power going to those at the top of the ladder; the lowest classes, however, were free from taxation.
When they arrived at the Hellespont, Xerxes filled the channel with ships and built bridges over the decks of the ships so that the men and supplies could pass over into Greece. He did not dismiss the Thespians because not trusting their loyalty, he wanted to keep his eye on them. Furthermore, the Athenians, Corinthians, and other Greek ships were highly motivated because they were fighting for the survival of Greece. Not only could the Persians not swim but their long robes became water-soaked causing most to drown. Athens was viewed by many as the big, bad, prosperous wolf of Greece and potentially dangerous to the other city-states.
His three principle featuring filial piety, he believed, would bring harmony and order to political, economic, and family life. This meant that it was not to the gods or the elders that we should run when seeking answers but through contemplating about onea€™s life, about what produces good, harmony, and happiness in this life.
From Socratea€™s death comes the expression, a€?Pick your poison.a€? He chose to drink a beverage made of a lethal poison, hemlock. The rightful goal of every person is to faithfully live out the role assigned to him by nature and should not seek to do any other business or seek another other role. They probably would not believe him because what he saw and then reported to them would not necessarily conform to what they sightlessly imagined it to be. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished in defeat to Tartarus in the underworld.
This worked fine until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of the newborn Zeus.
Herakles demands to know from Nereus, who is a living connection to the pre-Flood world, where he can find the enlightenment of the serpent.
He wondered how the Athenians, who had developed their special brand of democracy and produce philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, could fall for such pagan concepts of spirituality. As she sat there on her stool, breathing in those toxic and perhaps hallucinogenic fumes, it was believed that she could predict the future.
Rubbing his sleepy eyes, Epimenides said, a€?Now, turn the goats loose and allow them to graze wherever they choose.
Third, in order to help us this unknown god or goddess must have the ability and power to actually do something about the plague. In this way the two warring clans were related together in one confederacy by the presence of this one a€?peace child. After the Ottomans failed in their 1683 attempt to conquer Vienna, Austria, Christian troops from Venice and Austria invaded Greece, attacked the Ottomans in Athens, and greatly weakened Ottoman rule in Greece, By the late 1700s, however, Ottoman rule was re established until the Greeks won their independence, region by region from the Ottomans. Diabetic Neuropathy Symptoms – We provide honest and accurate reviews to help consumers give information about diabetic neuropathy treatment. Vornehmlich bei Typ I kommt es auch zu Fett- und Eiweistoffwechselstrungen: statt aus Glucose Energie zu gewinnen werden krpereigene Fette und Eiweie abgebaut. Intrathecal neostigmine, but not sympathectomy, relieves mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles.
Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church. Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. The Mycenaeans were adventurers, traveling to and trading with peoples in Anatolia, Europe, and throughout the Mediterranean. It was a a€?limiteda€? democracy because it only allowed adult males (not women!) (1) to vote and hold office, (2) but only if they were born in the city of Athens, (3) and if they owned land. The teachera€™s role is to encourage that knowledge to come out by use of proper questions. Therefore, ethics is personal and autonomous (determined by onea€™s own thoughtful insight and not something received from others). We see the shadow of the Real Chair, the Real Tree, the Real Red Apple by looking at their shadows down here on earth. During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets and their names remained attached to the planets when the Romans adopted much of Greek mythology. Zeus revolted against Cronus and the other Titans, defeated them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld.
While on his death bed, lying in a tent in Baghdad, his troops filed past in a huge procession to honor their great leader.
Since it is early morning, none of the goats will normally lie down, but will eat their full after a night with no food.
And fourth, this unknown god or goddess will understand that it is in ignorance that we do not know his or her name and will forgive us for our ignorance.a€? With those words, the sacrifices were offered up to the unknown god. Greek honor guards at the presidential palace today in Athens have 450 pleats in their native uniforms, signifying the 450 years that Greece was subjugated to the Ottoman Turks.
What do we mean by a diabetes cure (*See note at bottom of Feline Diabetes Food Chart Effects Gestational Postpartum Of California San Mateo page)? We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away!
Because of this the Athenians developed a€?overseasa€? colonies in order to grow wheat and other grains.
To the women and to those who moved to Athens from other areas, this was hardly a democracy. A soldier, Pheidippides, was sent running back to Athens, 26 miles to the south, to announce the good news of the victory. Zeus and his wife (first known as Dione and then Hera) are deifications of Adam and his wife Eve.a€? (Johnson, The Parthenon Code 2004, p.
The New Testament was not written in Aramaic (the language of Jesus and the apostles) or in Latin (the language of the Roman conquerors) but was written in Greek, the most widely spoken language. It is possible at most stages of diabetes type 2 (not diabetes type 1) to control your blood sugar without medication.
O Diabetes Mellitus uma doena crnica, sem cura mas controlada e atinge mais de 245 milhes de pessoas em todo o mundo, segundo a Organizao Mundial de Sade (OMS). They invaded south to Crete where a blending of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures took place. Some historians state that the United States acquired its concept of democracy from Athens.
Diabetes Mellitus Introduction Diabetes mellitus denotes a set of metabolic diseases that present problems of high blood sugar. Thomas Graves and WebMD team up to provide feline diabetes information and tips for treatment or prevention. The area with its moderate climate was ideal, however, for the development of olive groves, vineyards, almonds, and apples.
The Saducees were hellenized Jews, and thus denied the reality of the resurrection of the dead. In his honor and memory (his kleos) the Greeks established the marathon of 26 miles, exactly the distance of the modern marathon race. Kronos (Chronos), the father of time in Greek mythology, a€?could very well be,a€? says Johnson, a€?Greek religiona€™s equivalent of Yahweh, the Lord of Tome. They constructed gymnasiums and athletic stadiums in Palestine, to the horror of the traditional and legalistic Pharisees. But you can control a number of the risk factors and lower your chances of getting type 2 dia betes.



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