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Last week’s post (Is It Good to Eat Sugar?, Jan 25, 2012) addressed what I see as the most problematic part of the thought of the health writer Ray Peat – his support for sugar consumption. Apart from this difference, “an extreme amount of overlap is evident,” Danny Roddy notes, in our views and Peat’s. If there is another difference between our ideas and Peat’s, it’s that “Peat-atarians” often eat more carbs.
As someone following the PHD with a good dash of Peat, I really enjoy this post and the comments. Paul says that “I’m not persuaded that it’s a desirable thing to keep liver glycogen filled at all times, but for some health conditions it may be good to tend that way, like hypothyroidism.” Well, according to Chris Kresser, 13 of the top 50 selling US drugs are either directly or indirectly related to hypothyroidism.
Many with low T3 have a conversion problem from T4 in the liver (80% of T3 is converted from T4 in the liver and kidneys – only a small portion is coming from the thyroid gland). The body can reduce T3 levels by converting T4 into an inactive form called reverse T3 (rT3) rather than active T3. This means that eating more carbs raises T3 levels, and eating fewer carbs lowers T3 levels.
For a hypothyroid person, then, eating more carbs is an alternative tactic for increasing thyroid hormone activity. Paul, this discussion gets to the crux of what I do not understand about the Perfect Health Diet. Jim has experimented to find the amount of carbs that optimize his mood, and found it to be 260 g (1040 calories). If Peat typically recommends 180 to 250 g carbs, as Danny says, then on a 2000 calorie reference diet that would be 36% to 50% carbs.
Those numbers are strikingly similar to another statistic: The amount of carbs people actually eat in every country of the world.
At low incomes people eat mainly carbs, because the agricultural staples like wheat, rice, corn, and sorghum provide the cheapest calories. As incomes rise, carb consumption falls, but it seems to approach an asymptote slightly below 50% carbs. We can guess that if money were no object, and people could eat whatever they liked, most people would select a carb intake between 40% and 50%. I won’t enumerate studies here, but animal studies indicate that higher carb and protein intakes promote fertility and athleticism, while restriction of carbohydrate and protein promotes longevity.
In our book, we calculate the daily glucose requirements of the human body at around 600 to 800 calories, or 30% to 40% of energy on a 2000-calorie diet. It’s useful to compare European countries, since they are genetically and culturally similar. We know that the brain has an innate food reward system which tries to get people to eat a certain diet. Peat favors sucrose as a carb source, which is why Danny Roddy recommended orange juice and Travis Culp soda. Eating a higher-carb diet fills up liver glycogen, removing the most rapid fructose disposal pathway.
We can see the stressfulness of sucrose by its effects on the “fight-or-flight” stress hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These hormones trigger the release of glucose from liver glycogen, thus freeing up room for fructose disposal.
I consider the ability to refill glycogen (minimizing adrenaline & cortisol release) to be an important factor in health. The reason I bring this up is not to renew the starch vs sugar discussion; but rather to ask if this “fight-or-flight” response to sugar consumption may not be partially responsible for the perceived mood and energy improvements on a Peat-style diet. Indeed, one of the peculiar aspects of Ray Peat’s health advice is his recommendation to increase pulse rates well above normal levels.
I would have thought 60 beats per minute was normal, and when I was more athletic my pulse was typically 48 beats per minute. If, indeed, this is a source of improved sense of well-being on Peat-style diets, it may be a double-edged sword. It is possible that higher carb intake may increase thyroid hormone levels, fertility, and athleticism, and enhance mood in some people. If the benefits of higher carb intake are sought, it is best to achieve them by eating starches primarily, not sugar. For most people, I believe a slightly carb-restricted intake of 20-30% of calories is optimal. But the spirit of our book is to educate, and let everyone design the diet that is best for them. A few “Peat-atarians” – followers of the iconoclastic health writer Ray Peat – have accused us of being too skeptical of fructose. I think fructose is only conditionally problematic and that the consumption of it alongside glucose at a time of low liver glycogen is highly advantageous. It’s true that the ability to refill glycogen is essential for health; some genetic glycogen storage disorders are fatal in early childhood.
So the question is which combination of dietary sugars (a) is best at refilling glycogen and (b) makes the healthiest diet, all things considered? Also, PHD is not a zero-dairy diet, so for many practitioners it will include some milk sugars which are half galactose and half glucose. In my diet personally, probably about 55% of carb calories come from starches, 30% from fruits, berries, and sugary vegetables, and 15% from dairy products such as yogurt.
Not every Perfect Health Dieter will have the same sugar proportions; there is no obligation to consume dairy, and the relative proportions of starchy and sugary plants will vary according to taste. In a Peat-style diet, in contrast, the breakdown of sugars is near 50% glucose and 50% fructose.
So we aren’t comparing fructose against glucose, but a 77% glucose 15% fructose diet against a 50% glucose 50% fructose diet. Given fructose’s rapid disposal, any benefits from fructose have to be attributable to the glycogen or other products it is turned into. That a diet with Peat-like sugar proportions – roughly 50% fructose, 50% glucose –is better than a diet with PHD-like sugar proportions – 15% fructose, 8% galactose, 77% glucose – at refilling liver glycogen. The first study, “Fructose and galactose enhance postexercise human liver glycogen synthesis” [1], looks at athletes depleted of liver glycogen by intense cycling, and assessed the effectiveness of three sugar drinks at replenishing liver glycogen. A factor of potentially larger magnitude in enhancing liver glycogen synthesis is the differential postabsorptive fates of fructose and glucose.
The second paper, “Superior endurance performance with ingestion of multiple transportable carbohydrates” [2], did not measure liver glycogen replenishment; instead, it gave its cyclists sugary drinks every 15 minutes throughout an intense 2-hr cycling test, and compared performance. The third paper, “Effect of different post-exercise sugar diets on the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis” [3], isn’t available to me electronically, so we’ll have to work from the abstract. Of course, endurance athletes know that it’s beneficial to replenish glycogen during endurance events like marathons and triathlons.
Some authorities, including Tim Noakes, an exercise physiologist who has run over 70 marathons, believe that liver glycogen rather than muscle glycogen is the gating factor in marathon performance. Remember also that muscle glycogen is committed to be used by muscle and cannot assist in maintaining blood sugar levels.
So marathoners and other endurance athletes will want to replenish liver glycogen as rapidly as possible during a race.
The popular product is carbohydrate gels that can be swallowed at the same time water is taken. Presumably, athletes have done a great deal of personal experimentation and know that these ratios do, indeed, optimize the speed of glycogen replenishment. When athletes have no need for speed, as when they are carb loading before a marathon, then they eat starches like pasta and bread, not sugar.
The fourth paper, “Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in normal adults” [4], is about how a bit of fructose affects the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test. It showed that a 9% fructose 91% glucose test (7.5 g fructose, 75 g glucose) produced a lower glucose area under the curve and higher insulin response than a 100% glucose test. In general higher insulin and lower glucose is healthier than the reverse, so this is considered an improvement.
Glycogen replenishment proceeds the fastest with a mix of sugars consisting of about 70% glucose and 30% fructose or galactose.
Although this wasn’t tested, we can guess that a mix of fructose and galactose would be more effective than fructose alone, since it seems that utilizing multiple carbohydrate pathways is what drives the speedier glycogen replenishment. Muscle glycogen replenishment is maximized with a carbohydrate intake of 100 calories per hour.
Athletes agree with the research, using carb gel packs that contain typically 30-40 g carbs with a composition of 67% to 100% glucose, 0% to 33% fructose. Glycemic response to a large dose of carbohydrate may be improved by eating a 9% fructose 91% glucose mix. From these data, I infer that for glycogen replenishment in liver or muscle, a PHD-style carb mix of 77% glucose, 15% fructose, 8% galactose is probably equal or superior to a Peat-style carb mix of 50% glucose, 50% fructose.
For athletes in the midst of a race, or in need of rapid recovery for a second race on the same day, speedy glycogen replenishment may be the endpoint to optimize. This is closer to PHD diet ratios than to Danny Roddy’s recommendation of orange juice or Travis Culp’s recommendation of soda!
But for others, speed of glycogen replenishment is hardly likely to be the parameter to optimize. Given the known risks of fructose consumption, especially with chronic intake at high doses or in conjunction with polyunsaturated fats, it seems prudent to err on the low side.
Jimmy Moore is graciously continuing the conversation about safe starches with a post from Dr Ron Rosedale.
Dr Rosedale argues that glucose is toxic, so we should want to have less of it in our bodies; and that low-carb diets deliver less of it. Dr Rosedale seemed to feel that this was the weakest point in my argument, and directed his fire here.
I will spend a fair amount of time and show a fair number of studies to show that there is no threshold. This view makes sense as a matter of molecular chemistry: the number of glycation reactions may be proportional to the concentration of glucose, and if glycation products are health damaging toxins then toxicity may be proportional to glucose levels. The trouble with this is that it doesn’t really get at what we want to know: what blood glucose level optimizes human health? Look at the black dots, which are the actual data, not the fitted curves which are model-dependent; and at panels A and C, which treat all-cause mortality, not B and D, which are specific for coronary heart disease. My interpretation: I would say that this study demonstrates that mortality is a U-shaped function of blood glucose levels, but it doesn’t tell us the shape of the bottom of the U. This study used glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, which can serve as a measure of average blood glucose over the preceding ~3 weeks.
This supports the “blood sugar should be as low as possible” thesis, since lower HbA1c levels were associated with lower mortality. This study is an an analysis of NHANES III; it excludes diabetics and has 3 cohorts, not 1, with HbA1c below 5%. This study looked at blood glucose levels 2 hours after swallowing 50 grams of glucose, and then followed the men for 38 years to observe mortality rates.
The study was designed to look at high blood glucose levels: there were 4 cohorts in the top 10% of blood glucose levels, but the bottom cohort in blood glucose had fully 31% of the sample. Safe starch proponents say that raising blood glucose and raising insulin is a very natural phenomenon and needn’t be avoided. He’s saying that higher blood glucose favors “reproductive success,” while lower blood glucose favors “post-reproductive lifespan.” I guess one has to choose one’s priorities.
But suppose Dr Rosedale is right, and that low blood glucose levels are most desirable for at least some persons. If the key to health is achieving below-normal blood glucose levels, then low-carb diets are in trouble. In general, very low-carb diets tend to raise fasting blood glucose and 2-hr glucose levels in response to an oral glucose tolerance test.
The general opinion in LC circles is that you need 150g of carbohydrate per day for three days before an oral glucose tolerance test. This is at the high end of the 20% to 30% of energy (400 to 600 calories on a 2000 calorie diet) that is the Perfect Health Diet recommendation for carbs. Studies confirm that high-carb diets tend to lower fasting glucose and to lower the blood glucose response to a glucose challenge.
This last study did not report fasting glucose, but did track blood glucose for 4 hours after the glucose challenge. The 20% carb diet lines up pretty well with the mortality minimum, and both high-carb and very low-carb diets wind up at bins with slightly elevated mortality.
Now, I don’t believe we can infer from data on high-carb dieters what the relationship between blood glucose levels and mortality will be in low-carb dieters. Well, if we all have diabetes, more or less, then I guess I have to consider whether our regular diet – which recommends about 20% of energy (400 calories) as carbs – is healthy for diabetics. Now, before I begin this discussion, let me say that I don’t claim that this is optimal for diabetics.
The low-carb diet was a little higher in protein and lower in fat than we would recommend, but very close overall to our recommendations and spot-on in carbs. So the big benefit, in terms of glycemic control for diabetics, comes from reducing carbs from 55% to 20%. I am a type II diabetic and a Perfect Health Diet follower, so I want to chime in with my experience…. For dinner tonight, I had a fatty pork rib, green beans, and a small baked potato with butter and sour cream. So not only am I losing weight on the Perfect Health Diet, my blood glucose levels have actually improved, thanks to the increased carbs counteracting the dawn phenomenon, just as Dr.
To repeat: I’m not claiming that our regular diet, providing 20% of energy from “safe starches,” is optimal for diabetics. Why does this magic number, which happens to be the Perfect Health Diet recommendation for carb intake, do so well? Where the blue and maroon lines cross, dietary glucose in matches the body’s glucose utilization. Eating too few carbs creates a risk of health impairment due to insufficient glucose or protein. Eating too many carbs results in unnecessary exercise of glucose disposal pathways, and possible unhealthy fluctuations in blood glucose levels if those disposal pathways fail.
Hitting just below the intersection is a safe, low-stress point which will work well for most people. The upshot: A 20% carb diet meets the body’s glucose needs without much risk of hyperglycemic toxicity even in diabetics. Our book, Perfect Health Diet, relied strongly on evidence from evolutionary selection to guide us toward the optimal diet.
We actually share much of Dr Rosedale’s perspective on what influences longevity; it is for longevity that we recommend slightly under-eating carb and protein compared to what evolution selects for. We have written of the suppression of T3 thyroid hormone levels which is part of the body’s strategy for conserving glucose in times of scarcity, and how this is a risk factor for “euthyroid sick syndrome.” See Carbohydrates and the Thyroid, Aug 24, 2011. I believe that Jaminet and most others misunderstand the physiologic response to low glucose, and the true meaning of low thyroid. The reduction in free T3 is of great benefit, reducing temperature, metabolic damage and decreasing catabolism….
There is a plausible case to be made for the Rosedale diet as a diet that sacrifices certain aspects of current health in the hope of extending lifespan. What foods you should eat depends on a few things, including how healthy you are, how much you exercise and how much weight you have to lose. Without realizing it, as you gradually add back foods, you may be consuming far more carbs than you think you are. Usually cravings vanish by the end of the first week on Induction when you convert to burning primarily fat for energy.
As discussed in regard to plateaus, your body has its own schedule and won’t share it with anyone. The reason we recommend that you not weigh yourself daily is that your weight can vary by as much as 5 pounds even within a day.
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UPROXXLondon Is Getting Its First Naked Restaurant And There Are Already 8000 People On The Waiting ListUPROXXA paleo paradise? Table 2: Summary of the reaction time averages and standard deviation of the two experimental conditions.
Our findings revealed that participants acting on congruent trials did experience an improved reaction time when compared to incongruent trials.


In addition to not examining past research entirely, our experimental design possesses other limitations.
Despite some of the downfalls of our design, our findings may suggest, that studying related experiments of similar complexity may be administered via the internet without a researcher present. It would be interesting to see how RT is influenced when the amount of noise pollution is increased, as this would mimic a more real life environment. We do use cookies to store information, such as your personal preferences when you visit our site.
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Use of this service is at your own risk and that the service and any information contained on or provided through this service is provided on an "as is" basis. SCHWARZENEGGER: When I was 18 and still in the army, I entered the European body-building championship and won. SCHWARZENEGGER: I look forward to it, and when it starts, I tell myself that I have to go through this because damn few people can. SCHWARZENEGGER: I've torn pectoral muscles, fibers in my knee, in my thighs, and once I had to have an operation to repair torn cartilage. SCHWARZENEGGER: Really, though in my case, women have told me they're curious about its size—you know, outgoing chicks who're just trying to be outrageous or horny. SCHWARZENEGGER: Are you asking if my basic motivation in building my body was to pick up girls? SCHWARZENEGGER: I don't have any sexual hang-ups, but I'm sure there are bodybuilders who have trouble with sex, and obviously the body building hasn't helped. SCHWARZENEGGER: In the past five or six years, I haven't had to do that, but I used to do all kinds of numbers in the gym just to make it clear that I was the best. SCHWARZENEGGER: The general definition of being muscle-bound is that you have so many muscles that you can't move freely. SCHWARZENEGGER: No, I felt great because I was the first athlete to be in a museum displaying his work of art, which just happened to be my physique.
SCHWARZENEGGER: Yes, I've been going to acting school and I know that this is what I really want to do. Several variations on the biceps curl transfer some of the load from the biceps to other flexors of the elbow. Variations on this theme include the preacher curl where the elbows rest upon a sloped bench, which helps to keep the upper arm motionless.
After children realized she would have to help herself recover from two c-sections and stretch marks from her pregnancy, something many women deal with.
She is a monthly contributed for magazines having her own column and is a public speaker for informational and motivational events.
Through her journey, Ashley has learned to not only embrace her body but transformed it into what you see today while creating and branding her presence in the fitness industry.
She is now helping others learn how to take their fitness and health to the next level through her Becoming Extraordinary E-book trainers. Both perspectives oppose omega-6 fats, support saturated fats, favor eating sufficient carbs to normalize metabolism, support eating nourishing foods like bone broth, and oppose eating toxic foods like wheat. For those who have lived with the consequences of low T3 (adrenaline rush, waking up in the middle of the night, fatigue, tendency to orange-yellowish color i the face etc.), and had improvements on a more Peat like diet, I do not think so.
T3 stimulates glucose transport into cells, and transport is the limiting factor in glucose utilization in many cell types. High rT3 levels with low T3 levels lead to reduced glucose transport into cells and reduced glucose utilization throughout the body. It may provide symptomatic relief similar to that achieved by supplementing thyroid hormone directly. Taking thyroid hormone pills will increase glucose utilization, creating a need to eat more carbs. You are speaking as if refilling liver glycogen is a good thing, and it undoubtedly is, because mood is so much better when there is sufficient liver glycogen because then the brain is confident of its power supply. The lowest carb consumption was France at 45%, followed by Spain, Australia, Samoa, Switzerland, Iceland, Italy, Austria, Belgium, and Netherlands. The paper “Macronutrient balance and lifespan,” by Simpson and Raubenheimer, cited some time ago by Dennis Mangan, summarizes evidence from animals for the influence of macronutrients on lifespan.
This demonstrates that the flies could not maximize both lifespan and egg production rate on a single diet, and raises the interesting question of what the flies themselves prioritized – extending lifespan or maximizing lifetime egg production. When unlimited food is available, animals tend to overfeed slightly on carb and protein, sacrificing lifespan for increased fertility and athleticism. I argued in last week’s post that it would be better to eat a starchier diet so that the carb breakdown would be at least 70% glucose, less than 30% fructose and galactose.
This makes a high-carb sucrose-based diet rather stressful for the body; it has to dispose of fructose rapidly to avoid toxicity, but has limited ability to do so. Here is a study that fed high-fat, high-starch, and high-sucrose diets for 14 days to healthy non-obese subjects, and measured the hormonal response [1; full text]. If Peat really does eat 400 g of carbs per day, predominantly from sucrose, then he may be achieving his high pulse rate from an “adrenaline rush” that helps dispose of an excess of fructose.
Chronic stimulation of the “fight-or-flight” hormones to aid in fructose disposal may have long-run negative consequences. If we were re-writing the book now, we would probably be a bit less specific about what carb intake is best.
Most people are not currently seeking to have children or engaging in athletic competition. Replacement of dietary fat by sucrose or starch: effects on 14 d ad libitum energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight in formerly obese and never-obese subjects. In fact, I would go so far as to say that (somewhat slowly) drinking a can of soda upon waking (as disgusting as that is) would not result in any real glycation, insulin resistance, elevated TGs etc…. But everyone who lacks a glycogen storage disorder has the ability to refill glycogen from multiple sources. They are really arguing that a Peat-style sugary diet is healthier than a PHD-style moderate-starch diet.
As an examination of the PHD Food Plate shows, PHD includes many fructose-containing plant foods – fruits, berries, and vegetables such as beets, onions, carrots, and squashes – plus “pleasure foods” like chocolate.
In terms of simple sugars, this translates to about 77% glucose, 15% fructose, and 8% galactose.
Dietary fructose is shunted to the liver for disposal by conversion to glycogen, fat, lactate, or pyruvate. If fat, lactate, or pyruvate (a glucose product) provided benefits, dietary fats or starches would do the same, without the risk of fructose toxicity or fats getting stuck in the liver due to choline and methionine deficiency.
Three different drinks were used: a 67% glucose 33% fructose drink, a 100% glucose drink, and a water-only control group.
Therefore should no additional carbohydrate be ingested during prolonged exercise, the task of maintaining blood glucose levels rests firmly on the liver’s glycogen stores and gluconeogenesis (the manufacturing of glucose from plasma amino acids).
So to maximize total glycogen status, regardless of speed of filling, a carb mix close to 100% glucose works just fine. So the fastest glycogen replenishment might occur with something like 70% glucose 15% fructose 15% galactose. If so, they should eat a sugar drink composed of roughly 70% glucose and 30% fructose and galactose. There are unlikely to be significant benefits for non-athletes from replenishing glycogen 6.5% faster, as was found in the muscle glycogen study [3]. It’s possible that low fructose doses, about 9% of carb calories (perhaps 2-3% of total calories), may improve glycemic control. It seems to me that the Peat-atarians have failed to provide any evidence at all in favor of a higher fructose intake than is provided by the fruits, berries, and sugary vegetables recommended by the Perfect Health Diet, save for athletes in the midst of a race or post-race recovery. Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in normal adults. I also wrote further on how to minimize hyperglycemic toxicity, and offered an appreciation of Dr Kurt Harris. He cites a lot of papers on the relationship between blood glucose levels and health, and uses blood glucose levels as a proxy for the level of glucose in the body.
My statement was a description of what the scientific literature shows, and the adjective “detectable” carries a lot of weight here. Very simply, the higher the blood sugar rise, the more damage is done in some linear upward slope.
So the impact of a toxin on health will not rise linearly, but non-linearly with a steeper slope as one moves to the right. As Ron himself says, having too little blood glucose is “incompatible with life.” So low blood glucose – depriving us of the benefits of normal levels of this nutrient – is a catastrophic negative for health. Theory doesn’t allow us to balance risks of hypoglycemia against toxicity on such a fine scale. Most studies relating blood glucose levels to health have been done on diabetics eating high-carb diets. Rosedale cites a good selection of studies in his response, and let’s review a representative subset. Diabetics have poor glycemic control, and episodes of hypoglycemia as well as hyperglycemia, so HbA1c levels (which represent average blood sugar levels) may be a poor proxy for the levels of glycemic toxicity.
Effectively there were only three cohorts, since the highest HbA1c cohort had only 2% of the sample; the other three cohorts contained 27%, 36%, and 36% of the study population respectively. CarbSane makes an important observation: this study used whole blood rather than plasma to assay blood glucose. However, if we evolved in a certain way and with certain physiologic responses to the way we eat, it was not for a long, healthy, post-reproductive lifespan. Mark, posting as iwilsmar, asked about his gradual yet progressively rising fasting blood glucose (FBG) level over a 10 year period of paleolithic LC eating. I think it is still an open question what the optimal diet for diabetics is, and different diabetics may experience a different optimum. Further reductions in carb intake do not reduce average 24 hour blood glucose levels, but may reduce postprandial glucose spikes. I have been eating rice, potatoes, bananas, and other safe starches ever since, as well as fermented dairy products, such as plain, whole milk yogurt. Note that since following the Perfect Health Diet, my fasting blood glucose reading has gone down. I don’t know what the optimal diabetes diet is, and it may be different for different diabetics.
Rosedale’s diet is its emphasis on longevity as the supreme measure of health, and its emphasis on calorie restriction (especially, carb and protein restriction) and metabolic suppression as the means to long life.
Glucose scarcity (deficiency may be a misnomer) elicits an evolutionary response to perceived low fuel availability.
For instance, low body temperature is immunosuppressive, leads to poor outcomes in infections, and is a significant independent predictor for death in medical patients.
As long as you’re following the program, you should see some weight loss every week or so, unless you’re on a plateau. These 10 Recipes Prove It Can Be Done!One Green PlanetYou've probably heard of the paleo diet at some point. Participants performed on average 29.8 ms faster on congruent trials when compared to incongruent trials (See Figure 1).
However, it was suggested visual cues can also measurably influence RT when varying the difficulty of the stimuli (Simon & Wolf, 1963). This is inline with the conclusion made by Craft and Simon (1970), thus supporting their discovery.
Firstly, it does not standardize the environment in which participants complete the experiment. This would greatly lower the manpower needed to administer experiments, lower cost dramatically and allow researchers to attend other important areas while the experiments run themselves at the personal leisure of the participants.
Furthermore, future studies may want to incorporate a task where auditory cues are shown simultaneously with visual cues to determine if there is an interaction between the senses in responding to congruent and incongruent cues.
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What drove me to become the world's greatest bodybuilder is no different from what drives other athletes to become great tennis players or boxers or jockeys.
It was just like having a vision—you know, like when you hear a person say, "I saw Jesus and he talked to me, and now I'm so happy with life because I know I'm going to be taken care of," and all of a sudden he's relaxed, he's not haunted anymore—well, it was like that. It was my first competition and, even though it was the junior division, I instantly felt like King Kong, as if I'd already won the Mr. It's like any other sport: You have to do what nobody else can do, and the only way is to push yourself past the limit. Maybe he's lifting five pounds, maybe only a single pound, but it can make all the difference. There's often a point where you say, "It's getting too intense here." Your partner might be a little scared of the next set because you've been pushing him too hard, so you'll crack a joke and go over to somebody else and bullshit a little. I don't say, "Arnold, how do you look?" but rather "Let's check out this body in the mirror and see what it looks like today." Professionally, I have to be detached in order to be critical of it. It's true that I was in perfect proportion, but I weighed 228 pounds and I wanted to be 240, overall just bigger. The cock isn't a muscle, so it doesn't grow in relation to the shoulders, say, or the pectorals. A girl can talk about my nose, my teeth or my accent—anything that gets a conversation going is fine with me.
I've been approached by waitresses, stewardesses, teachers—come to think of it, there have been a great many teachers, women who are smart. If a girl comes on strong and says, "I really dig your body and I want to fuck the shit out of you," I just decide whether or not I like her. I can't sleep before competition and I'm up all night, anyway, so instead of staring at the ceiling I figure I might as well find somebody and fuck. There are bodybuilders who are afraid of indulging in sex or even of playing other sports for fear of harming their bodies. It's like Ali doing something dirty in the ring—not many people are going to take it too seriously.
I don't know of any bodybuilder in that category; in fact, many of them are quite active in other sports. For example, many women seem to have hang-ups about going out with me because they feel they have to be in the same shape that I am. When I was playing soccer at the age of 14, the first thing we'd do before going out onto the field would be to climb up on one another's thighs and massage the legs; it was a regular thing. I've been in America for only eight years, but there's been a change and it's getting better. One group of variations involves postures that hold the elbows in front of the trunk, shortening the biceps and forcing the brachialis to do more work.
Ashley has a back ground of elite level of soccer playing for the Olympic Development team and practiced with the Guam National Women's soccer team. She has accomplished all of this while being a single mother to two young boys, she has recently married. She is the co-owner of Foreverfitmoms and travels around the country doing Foreverfitcamps and charity events having up to 300 participants at one times.
In some diseases it’s better to lower carb consumption, but in others it’s better to increase carb consumption. In hyperthyroidism, a condition of too much T3, there are very high levels of glucose utilization. Also, you acknowledge that safe starch would eventually replenish liver glycogen after muscle glycogen is topped off. A good example is the fruit fly; protein has the dominant effect on lifespan, with low protein favoring longevity and high protein favoring fertility.


Rather, we would say that a carb intake around 30-40% is neutral and fully meets the body’s actual glucose needs; and discuss the pros and cons of deviating from this neutral carb intake in either direction. There is good reason to believe that mild carb restriction maximizes lifespan, and most people desire long life. In addition to fructose, glucose sugars and starches refill glycogen, as does milk sugar (a compound of glucose and galactose). Fructose does no good to the liver while it’s there, in fact fructose combined with polyunsaturated fats very effectively creates liver disease. Much of it is released from the liver into the systemic circulation to be stored as muscle glycogen (3,7). Performance was best with the 67% glucose 33% fructose drink, intermediate with the glucose drink, and worst with the water drink. For an 80 kg man, that works out to 56 g or 224 calories of glucose per two-hour period, or 112 calories per hour. If the ratio is 2 g fructose in 25 g gel, then the composition will be 8% fructose 92% glucose. This is a lower fructose fraction than is found in PHD, and far below the fructose fraction recommended by Danny and Travis. But the precise numbers don’t matter much; the point is that there is a U-shape, and somewhere in that U is a bottom where health is optimized. There are few studies on healthy people, very few testing low-carb diets, and most are insufficiently powered to determine the precise shape of the bottom of the U. I was familiar with most of the studies; indeed some were cited in our book’s discussion of the dangers of hyperglycemia.
Also, diabetics are usually on blood-glucose lowering medication, which may distort the blood sugar – mortality relationship. Whole blood has more volume (due to inclusion of cells) but the same glucose, and so less glucose per deciliter. That brings us to the second issue: which diet will produce these low blood glucose levels? I have often said that diabetics may benefit from going lower carb (and possibly higher protein) than our regular dietary recommendations. This blood glucose level would have been maintained throughout most of the day, with the postprandial peaks and troughs flattening.
But I think there is plentiful evidence that even for diabetics, our “regular” diet is not a bad diet. Glucose utilization does not vary as strongly as glucose intake; at low intakes a deficit is made up by gluconeogenesis (manufacture of glucose from protein) and at high intakes an excess of glucose is destroyed by thermogenesis or conversion of glucose to fat.
Eating up to 20% of calories from carbs doesn’t require the use of disposal pathways – glucose can be stored as glycogen and then released as needed, so the effect of dietary glucose is primarily to reduce the amount of gluconeogenesis. This results in a shift in genetic expression to allow that organism to better survive the perceived famine…. We have found that when someone starts our diet, their basal temperature will go down about 1-2 degrees Fahrenheit which is a great improvement”. Fever is curative for most infections, low body temperature is a risk factor for infections.
If you stayed on track but gained a pound or two since the previous week, you’re probably retaining water or are constipated. Its appeal stems from its focus on a healthy diet primarily driven by whole foods-based meals that include fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.
From this, Craft and Simon (1970) conducted a study where they found that participants showed a faster reaction time when visual stimuli were congruent to the response button location. Without a sense of the general noise pollution and lighting conditions under which participants completed the study, it would be very difficult to generalize our findings to other settings. Some of these advertisers may use technology such as cookies and web beacons when they advertise on our site, which will also send these advertisers information including your IP address, your ISP , the browser you used to visit our site, and in some cases, whether you have Flash installed.
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I didn't get into body building until I was 15, and, at the time, my parents thought I was crazy to get deeply involved with something for which there was so little precedent in Austria. As time passed, I began to see it as a way out of Austria, an escape from the everyday life around me. He was publicized in the muscle magazines as a businessman and movie star, and the combination of the two so impressed me that all I could think of was winning the Mr. But in Austria, the mentality was the reverse; winning against the Americans was unthinkable. Discipline is what you use when you don't want to do something, when you have to force yourself.
The relationship between the two of you is very close—closer than most marriages, in fact—and he has to understand when you're trying to chicken out, as well as when you really have to put the weights down, when you absolutely can't go on. What it means is that somebody is helping, paying attention and really giving you his energy. Injuries happen when your mind is beyond your body, largely when you think you're King Kong and lift weights heavier than the body can handle. Their trip is such a mental one that they are often attracted to men who are big and muscular.
You're not supposed to talk while you're posing, for example, yet I used to do it all the time and it would blow the other guys' minds. Many in California are punks, beach bums just lying around in the sun and maybe collecting unemployment.
If they're overweight, they're insecure, because they don't understand that I don't look at women the same way I look at myself. None of us had a thought of being gay, absolutely not, and it's the same with most bodybuilders.
Jon Voight, Warren Beatty, Sylvester Stallone—I've gotten to know these people and they're a lot of fun. The example we gave is hepatitis; hepatitis B and C viruses can exploit the process of gluconeogenesis to promote their own replication, so high-carb diets which avoid gluconeogenesis tend to slow down disease progression. Neglecting little countries like Monaco, San Marino, and Andorra, that are not in my carb database, the countries with the longest life expectancy are also the ones with the lowest carb consumption: Italy first, France second, Spain third, Switzerland fourth, and Iceland sixth are all countries with carb intake below 50%. The results suggest that the 67% glucose 33% fructose drink was better for liver glycogen replenishment, and that liver glycogen replenishment aided the cyclists’ performance. Therefore it can be predicted that even with full glycogen stores, a less conditioned athlete’s liver will be depleted of its carbohydrate within an hour and three quarters of continuous moderate intensity exercise. However, Dr Rosedale is here saying that even a healthy non-diabetic should eat a diet that is appropriate for diabetics. Only my fasting BG reading was out of whack, usually between 120 and 130, first thing in the morning.
Suppressing gluconeogenesis requires some residual insulin secretion ability, so Type I diabetics cannot achieve this, but most Type IIs can.
We have no footsteps to follow as far as the best way to eat for long healthy post reproductive life. As part of this genetic expression, and as part and parcel of nature’s mechanism to allow the maintenance of health and actually reduce the rate of aging, certain events will take place as seen in caloric restricted animals.
Yes, reverse T3 is increased, as this is a normal, healthy, physiologic mechanism to reduce thyroid activity. Readers of our book know that we think infections are a major factor in aging and premature death. Going too long between meals or adding foods such as dairy products or peanuts may stimulate cravings.
We sought to verify their findings by replicating their experimental design, with the use of modern technology.
A possible mechanism for slower reaction time on incongruent trials may be explained by auditory research, which suggests that the conflict of irrelevant and relevant cues results in interference and affects performance to a significant degree on RT (Simon & Small, 1969). Also, generalizing our findings to different populations would be misleading, as age may influence RT in response to a visual cue (Simon & Wolf, 1963). For instance, our findings suggest that buttons that require operator interaction be placed on the corresponding side to that of presented cues that determine when button press is required. This is generally used for geotargeting purposes or showing certain ads based on specific sites visited. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browsers' respective websites. Nothing contained on or provided through the service is intended to be or is to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment.
I'd look out my parents' window and see people talking over a cup of coffee for two hours or more, and I knew it wasn't for me. When you lift weights, there's a certain point in the repetitions at which it really starts aching—where you can't go on any further, and the body starts shaking, and you know you have to press one more time.
The best example I can think of was one day when Franco Columbu walked into the gym, went down into a squat with 500 pounds on his shoulders and couldn't come back up.
Maybe 50 percent respond positively right away, while another 25 or 30 percent need a while to adjust to my size and to realize that ordinarily my muscles are soft, just like anyone's, only bigger. If I tell myself to train the thighs, then the calves, it's boom, boom, mind-thighs, mind-calves, mind-this, mind-that. What Moss and others are talking about is a totally mental thing: If you feel that something's going to affect your body, then it definitely will.
If we were going through the compulsory poses—a double-biceps pose, say—I'd just turn to the guy next to me and say, "What a shame, what a disadvantage for you," or I'd psych him in reverse by aying that the disadvantage was mine, that he was definitely going to be the one to win. I'd always wanted to tell people that when I work on my body I'm thinking about classical sculpture, so I jumped at the chance to show off body building as an art form. Stallone's into body building, and Jack Nicholson had a birthday party for me after we finished Stay Hungry. We can only use the best science pertaining to the biology of aging and apply it to proper nutrition.
Whether a diet so restricted in carbs that it significantly lowers body temperature is really optimal for longevity is, I think, open to question. In their study, location of the cue was irrelevant, while the cue itself provided relevant information to the response assessment. More fundamentally, the personal computers on which participants ran the experiment all differ from one another. Doing so may result in faster execution of desired actions and may serve a fundamental role in fields where split second decisions are common place such as the military and aviation industry. It does NOT track personal information about you, such as your name, email address, physical address, telephone number, social security numbers, bank account numbers or credit card numbers.
All data and information is provided here with no guarantee of accuracy or validity and should be independently verified. They couldn't see any future in the sport; but there I was, lifting weights two or three hours every day.
I had no idea, really, of what a stage even looked like, but I saw myself standing there, posing and winning. I was living in Munich at the time, hanging out with night people—entertainers, hookers and bar owners—and I had a girlfriend who was a stripper. Sometimes your body really gets bombed out: You try to go through this pain thing, but your body won't push the weight, and your partner will help you with his fingers just enough so that you can handle it.
I lived with a woman for five years, a very smart lady who teaches English at a college in California. Bodybuilders party a lot, and once, in Gold's—the gym in Venice, California, where all the top guys train—there was a black girl who came out naked. I've always found that sex gives me a kind of calm, and I'm much more in control because of it.
Ninety-five percent of the people training with weights are into this health thing, and it's a different mentality entirely.
After the show, a lot of people came backstage and said it was fantastic, that they'd never thought of body building as art before. All my bodybuilder friends were there, really a mixed crowd—actors, bodybuilders, weight lifters, karate guys and writers—and it was great. I realize there's only one Arnold in the world, that there's never been an Arnold before, and the one thing that won't work on the screen is my being an ass-kicker. Have some sugar, feel what replenished liver glycogen is like, then titrate safe starch gradually meal-by-meal to get the same effect. Professor Tim Noakes considers liver glycogen depletion and subsequent hypoglycemia to be the primary factors affecting fatigue and performance during extended duration races and especially in instances where muscle glycogen levels are low as well. Adding a bit more fat, in the form of olives, half an avocado, or some cream cheese in a celery stick, can help you feel more satisfied, minimizing cravings. These differences may include their performance which may affect the presentation of the stimuli and differing sizes of monitors which may impact the viewing of the stimuli. He'll stand behind you and lift with his fingers and make it possible—but just barely possible—for you to make the lift, and then on the next repetition, maybe he'll help a little bit more.
I reminded Franco that four people from New York were watching the great Franco Columbu, the world's strongest bodybuilder, crashing down under a mere 500 pounds. Olympia contest in 1972, we had girls backstage giving head, then all of us went out and I won.
He was enormous, really fantastic, and the audience was screaming for both of us, so you knew it was going to be close.
When the Russians were lifting weights in preparation for the Olympics—for the shot-put, the hammer throw and things like that—the Americans picked up on it immediately. If Robert De Niro kills in Taxi Driver, it's perfect, because he's a little guy and people are 100 percent behind him. When I do it, and I am not an athlete, I get 260 grams of non-fiber carb per day, which is considerably more than you usually recommend. In their experiment, they reasoned that a slower reaction time which was observed for the incongruent trials was due to the presentation of irrelevant location information.
At the same time, no researcher was present to clarify any questions participants may have had about the experiment, whereas all past studies have had the researchers present during testing. Universe had come from America and, as it later turned out, I was the first one to break that pattern.
The guys who are working their way up often say they have to sleep ten hours a day and they try not to get laid more than three times a week, but, sooner or later, most of them find out that all this means shit. After about 15 minutes of posing, I told him I thought I'd had enough and that we ought to quit, just walk off. I can look at a chick who's a little out of shape and if she turns me on, I won't hesitate to date her. Gay people are fighting the same kind of stereotyping that bodybuilders are: People have certain misconceptions about them just as they do about us.
For me, that isn't the right kind of role, because I'm big and therefore I have to play the opposite kind of guy. Our study did replicate the portion of their experiment that examined this idea, and thus we can only speculate about the mechanism for this discrepancy.
If you can't go through that pain period, that dead point, then competitively you won't make it.
There are a lot of people here watching and they think that the muscle magazines are all bullshitting." He looked around and started breathing heavily, so I pushed it further.
Whether you sleep two hours or ten, get laid a dozen times a week or not at all, eat three meals or five, at the end of the week you look absolutely the same; there's no difference.
Do you know what speed it takes to do a snatch, to lift a 700- or 800-pound bar bell so fast that you can raise it over your head?
Well, I have absolutely no hang-ups about the fag business; though it may bother some bodybuilders, it doesn't affect me at all. I bet him $20 in front of everybody that he couldn't do another repetition and then offered an additional $50 if he could go on and do eight reps. They think that the head is carried around by something very mysterious, and they're not aware that it's the body, something they should be in tune with. Alexiev can't run because he weighs 375 pounds, a weight he needs in order to handle the bar bell. When training for the Olympics, he lifted weights for two hours daily, squatting with almost 500 pounds.
He ripped the weight out and just started going up and down as if there were no end, as if he were going to do 50 repetitions.



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