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Results from a 104-week phase 3 study may have implications for the way patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) tackle weight loss. Lead author Shana Traina, PhD, and colleagues examined the complex relationship between patients, medications (canagliflozin and glimepiride, two medications commonly used to treat T2DM that typically have conflicting effects on weight loss), and factors affecting patients’ decisions to engage in healthier behavior. The transtheoretical model (TTM) was used to separate the 1,182 patients with type 2 diabetes into groups based on their readiness to change (RTC) for a healthier lifestyle – including diet, exercise, and weight loss. The results showed that, on average, for each 3 kg (about 6.6 pounds) a patient lost their happiness improved by 30%.
Many popular weight-loss products claiming to boost metabolism or burn fat via the awesome power of natural medicine are actually chock-full of banned pharmaceuticals and other harmful substances, the New York Times reported yesterday. Dietary supplements are supposed to be just that—supplementary vitamins, minerals and other natural ingredients that our modern diets might be lacking. But marketing drugs as supplements has become big business here, especially when it comes to substances targeting great American pastimes like weight-loss and erections, according to the NYT piece. Auf Basis der in den 1950er Jahren propagierten Ernahrungsphilosophie der USA ubernahm die DGE das Model der Amerikaner nach 1992 (ein 2-dimensionales Modell). Die Schweizer Geschellschaft fur Ernahrung (SGE) veroffentlichte indes im Jahr 2005 eine Ernahrungspyramide, in der nach den Getranken, Obst und Gemuse funf mal pro Tag in verschiedenen Farben gegessen werden sollten.
Im Jahre 2006 gab es bereits Veroffentlichungen der Harvard Universitat uber die bislang weltweit gro?te Ernahrungsstudie, an der weit uber 100 Tausend gesunde Manner und Frauen 14 Jahre lang teilnahmen. Aufgrund unseres zunehmenden Bewegungsmangels, sowohl am Arbeitsplatz als auch in der Freizeit, hat die Mast mit Kohlenhydraten nicht funktioniert. Nach den Getranken, bestehend aus Wasser, Tee und frischen ungesu?ten Saften, stehen Salate, Rohkost und Gemuse und nicht-su?e Obstsorten.
Ausfuhrliche Informationen dazu (wenn auch nur in Englisch) findet man auf der Harvard Webseite.
Auch wenn die DGE mit dem 3-dimensionalen Modell nachgebessert hat, so ist dieses immer noch nicht auf dem neuesten Stand. Es scheint, die Ernahrungsempfehlungen der DGE werden bei Ernahrungsexperten noch als stark verbesserungswurdig angesehen.
Nach Harvard gibt es mittlerweile die eine oder andere Ernahrungsbewegung, die es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht hat, die verworrene Landschaft der Ernahrungstipps zu entflechten und endlich Klarheit zu schaffen. Es scheint gro?e Einigkeit daruber zu geben, dass das amerikanissche Ernahrungsmodell alles andere als die gewunschten Ergebnisse gebracht hat.
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Did you hear about the gourmet who avoids unfashionable restaurants because he doesn't want to gain weight in the wrong places?
Government has Issued New Guidelines for a Healthy DietThey advise you to: List your ten favourite foods.
Needing to shed a few pounds, Robert, and his wife Jennifer, went on a diet that had specific recipes for each meal of the day.
Laboratory values provide healthcare professionals with essential clues about the patient’s condition and the medical interventions needed for his full recovery. Complete blood count is one of the most basic laboratory examinations to determine the status of the patient’s health. On the other hand, if the total RBC count is above normal, polycythemia vera may be present.
High Level:    Dehydration, cigarette smoking, congenital heart disease, pulmonary fibrosis, renal cell carcinoma, polycythemia vera.
Low Level:     Bleeding, anemia, malnutrition, overhydration, hemolysis, erythropoietin deficiency, leukemia, multiple myeloma, porphyria, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia. Drugs that may decrease RBC count: Quinidine, hydantoins, chloramphenicol, chemotherapeutic drugs. High hemoglobin levels are usually present among people living in high altitude levels and among smokers.
High Level:    Dehydration, cigarette smoking, polycythemia vera, tumors, erythropoietin abuse, lung diseases, blood doping. Low Level:     Nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, renal problems, sickle cell anemia, bone marrow suppression, leukemia, lead poisoning, Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Drugs that may decrease hemoglobin: Aspirin, antibiotics, sulfonamides, trimethadione, anti-neoplastic drugs, indomethacin, doxapram, rifampin and primaquine. High Level:    Dehydration, hypoxia, cigarette smoking, polycythemia vera, tumors, erythropoietin abuse, lung diseases, blood doping, erythrocytosis, cor pulmonale.
Low Level:     Overhydration, nutritional deficiencies, blood loss, bone marrow suppression, leukemia, lead poisoning, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chemotherapy treatment.
High Level:    Cancer, allergic reactions, polycythemia vera, recent spleen removal, chronic myelogenous leukemia, inflammation, secondary thombocytosis. Low Level:     Viral infection, aplastic anemia, leukemia, alcoholism, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, systemic lupus erythematosus, hemolytic uremic condition, HELLP syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, vasculitis, sepsis, splenic sequestration, cirrhosis. Drugs that may decrease platelet: Aspirin, hydroxyurea, anagrelide, chemotherapeutic drugs, statins, ranitidine, quinidine, tetracycline, vancomycin, valproic acid, sulfonamides, phenytoin, piperacillin, penicillin, pentoxifylline, omeprazole, nitroglycerin.
White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, defend the body against infections and other foreign bodies. High Level:    Infections, cigarette smoking, leukemia, inflammatory diseases, tissue damage, severe physical or mental stress. Low Level:     Autoimmune disorders, bone marrow deficiencies, viral diseases, liver problems, spleen problems, severe bacterial infections, radiation therapy.
Drugs that may increase white blood cells: Corticosteroids, heparin, beta adrenergic agonists, epinephrine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, lithium.
Drugs that may decrease white blood cells: Diuretics, chemotherapeutic drugs, histamine-2 blockers, captopril, anticonvulsants, antibiotics, antithyroid drugs, quinidine, chlorpromazine, terbinafine, clozapine, sulfonamides, ticlopidine. Pink to reddish – consumption of beets, rhubarb or blueberries, mercury poisoning, tumors, kidney diseases, prostate problems, UTI.
Blue or green – consumption of asparagus, genetic disorders, excess calcium, heartburn medications, multivitamins. Once the strip is dipped into the urine, there will be some changes in the color of the partitions. Albumin is usually the first type of protein compound excreted in the urine whenever there is a kidney problem. The presence of blood in the urine is called hematuria and this usually happens when there is an injury in the urinary tract. On the other hand, when there are many white blood cells present in the urine the leukocyte esterase level elevates and it could be detected in strips. Bilirubin is a part of bile which is the yellow fluid secreted into the intestines to aid in digestion.
When bacterial infection is present in the urinary tract, the bacterial flora can convert the urine’s nitrate compound to nitrite. In microscopic examination, the urine sample is centrifuged so sediments will settle at the bottom and the clear part can be discarded. RBCs are present in the urine sample of a person with severe urinary tract infection, renal disorders, urinary tract injuries and inflammation.
In a normal urine specimen, there are few epithelial cells that can be seen under microscopic examination. Casts are cylindrically shaped particles formed from coagulated protein secreted by renal cells. Crystals can be formed from the solutes of the urine especially if the urine is concentrated or when the pH is too high or too low. Low Level:     Anorexia nervosa, malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, poorly managed diabetes, hyperaldosteronism. Drugs that may increase potassium: ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, NSAIDs, potassium-sparing diuretics. Drugs that may decrease potassium: Amphotericin B, gentamicin, carbenicillin, corticosteroids, beta-adrenergic agonists, potassium-wasting diuretics.


Sodium reflects a part of renal function as kidneys are responsible for the elimination of sodium from the body.
High Level: Cushing syndrome, diabetes insipidus, excessive fluid loss, malnutrition, dehydration. Drugs that may increase sodium: NSAIDs, laxatives, birth control pills, corticosteroids and lithium. Together with sodium, potassium and carbon dioxide, chloride maintains the normal acid-base balance of the body through balancing body fluids.
High Level:    Diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, compensated respiratory alkalosis, renal tubular acidosis, bromide poisoning, kidney diseases, Cushing syndrome, hyperventilation. Low Level:     Malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, low blood level of albumin, kidney failure, magnesium deficiency, liver disease, osteomalacia, pancreatitis. Drugs that may increase calcium: Lithium, tamoxifen, thiazides, calcium supplements, vitamin D supplements. Magnesium is important in muscle and nerve functions, blood pressure regulation and immune system. Although half of magnesium in the body is stored in bones, magnesium can also be found in cells of organs and body tissues. High Level:    Oliguria, dehydration, Addison disease, chronic renal failure, diabetic acidosis. Low Level:     Chronic diarrhea, alcoholism, hemodialysis, ulcerative colitis, delirium tremens, hypoparathyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, toxemia of pregnancy.
Drugs that may decrease magnesium: Insulin, antiarrhythmic drugs, digoxin amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, bretylium,  strophanthin, diuretics, isoproterenol. Phosphorus is involved in the intracellular metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Drugs that may decrease phosphorous: Antacids, diuretics, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, ACE inhibitors, insulin. BUN can also reflect protein tolerance, hydration status, degree of catabolism and risk of uremic syndrome. High Level: Hypovolemia, excessive protein levels in the gastrointestinal tract, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart attack, urinary tract obstruction, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, kidney failure, shock. Drugs that may increase BUN: Allopurinol, furosemide, indomethacin, cisplatin, methyldopa, propanolol, tetracyclines, rifampin, vancomycin, thiazide diuretics, gentamycin, carbamazepine, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B.
High Level: Preeclampsia, dehydration, renal problems, rhabdomyolysis, blocked urinary tract, myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism, muscular dystrophy. Drugs that may increase creatinine: Aminoglycosides, methicillin, amphotericin B, cistplatin, dextran,cyclosporine, gallium, lithium, hydroxyurea, methoxyflurane, nitrofurantoin, plicamycin, pentamidine, streptozocin. Auricular acupuncture, whilst originally based upon the ancient Chinese practice of acupuncture, has its origins in modern Europe. Auricular acupuncture is a specialised complementary therapy, where acupuncture points on the outer ear are treated using needles, sometimes with electrical stimulation, to help relieve many chronic complaints. There are over 200 acupuncture points on the ear, each point named after an area of our anatomy. Auricular acupuncture is widely used throughout the United Kingdom and has been growing steadily since the 1970's.
Our clinics in Cambridgeshire and London offer Acupuncture, Osteopathy, Naturopathy, Trigger Point Therapy, Sports Injury and Deep Tissue Massage treatments for an extensive range of conditions. From Deeping St James, our most rural clinic attracts patients from Stamford, Spalding and Peterborough.
Continued public health surveillance of sleep quality, duration, behaviors, and disorders is needed to monitor sleep difficulties and their health impact. Sleep is increasingly recognized as important to public health, with sleep insufficiency linked to motor vehicle crashes, industrial disasters, and medical and other occupational errors.1 Unintentionally falling asleep, nodding off while driving, and having difficulty performing daily tasks because of sleepiness all may contribute to these hazardous outcomes.
In recognition of the importance of sleep to the nation's health, CDC surveillance of sleep-related behaviors has increased in recent years.
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey included a core question regarding perceived insufficient rest or sleep in 2008 (included since 1995 on the Health Related Quality of Life module) and an optional module of four questions on sleep behavior in 2009. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) introduced the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire in 2005 for participants 16 years of age and older. US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. The findings were presented at the American Diabetes Association 75th Scientific Sessions in Boston, MA. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss while many patients taking glimepiride experience weight gain.
30 Weight Loss Motivation Instruments: (weight loss medicine, 90-day diet, how to Lose 60 pounds in 90 days. Many of these are made in foreign countries, like China and Brazil, and contain ingredients that the FDA considers unsafe or has banned—substances like sibutramine, a weight-loss drug recently taken off the American market because of its tendency to up heart attack and stroke risk. It’s a pharmacy grade food supplement with diet program included – both extensive diet plans and exercise video instructions. Use of the web site constitues acceptance of the Defy Media Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Die Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung (DGE) und andere ernahrungswissenschaftlich orientierte Institute versorgen uns mit Informationen zu Nahrung, die uns langfristig auch gesund halten soll.
Im Jahre 2005 wurde dieses Model modifiziert und aus dem 2-dimensionalen wurde ein 3-dimensionales Modell.
Die Getreideprodukte, die bei der DGE die Hauptgruppe darstellten, wurden nur als Beilagen zu den Hauptmahlzeiten empfohlen.
Vom Einkaufsverhalten bis zur korperlichen Betatigung wuden eine Unmenge an Daten von Doktoranden, Professoren und Hilfskraften gesammelt, eingespeist und ausgewertet.
Auf Grund seiner Komplexitat hat es davon abgesehen noch nicht den Weg in alle Kurkliniken oder sonstigen Ernahrungsvortrage geschafft hat. Kammerer ist Ihres Zeichens Professorin der Frauenklink und Poliklinik am Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg. Hinterlassen Sie gerne Ihren Kommentar am Ende des Artikels in der dafur vorgesehenen Kommentarfunktion. No reproduction, transmission or display is permitted without the written permissions of Rodale Inc.
As nurses are the first-line responders to the healthcare needs of patients, we should always be familiar with the common laboratory values and how to interpret them. It can help diagnose conditions such as infections, autoimmune disorders, anemia and other blood diseases. They circulate in the bloodstream and bind together to form a clot over the damaged blood vessel.
In general, there are five types of white blood cells – neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Although the result of urinalysis cannot directly pinpoint the disease that may be present, it is often used as a supportive examination in diagnosing illnesses. This strip has partitions impregnated by different chemicals that correspond to certain substances present in the urine, so abnormalities will be detected. Therefore, consumption of acidic or basic foods as well as the occurrence of any condition in the body that produces acids or bases will directly affect the pH of the urine.  In some circumstances, too acidic or basic urine produces crystals.
Other types of protein compounds are not detectable in dip stick test and can be measured through a different urine protein test.
However, in some circumstances the renal threshold allows the excretion of glucose in the urine when the blood glucose levels are too high. Ketones are by-products of fat metabolism and they form whenever there is not enough carbohydrates present for energy production. Other conditions that may induce hematuria include cigarette smoking, strenuous exercise, kidney problems and trauma.
Normally, there are white blood cells present in the urine, but they are so few that there is no leukocyte esterase detectable in dip stick test. However, the detection of nitrite in the urine is not used as a sole basis for the determination of UTI as some people can still have UTI with a negative nitrite result. It can also reflect improper urine sample collection as in the case of urine specimen contaminated by vaginal secretions.
However, in cases of severe urinary tract infection, inflammation and malignancies, there will be increased number of epithelial cells in the urine.


However, in cases of urinary tract infection and improper urine collection, microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and trichomonads can be found under microscopic examination. Examples of casts that are not typically present in the urine include leucine, cystine and tyrosine. For this reason, a standard calcium test can be misleading and determination of ionized calcium is recommended. Magnesium levels are determined whenever there are changes in motor functions or when patients are suspected for metabolic diseases. It also participates in the production of ATP which is the chemical compound that supplies energy to the cell. This test is used to determine the adequacy of renal function but it may also produce false-positive result as it is dependent on renal blood flow, protein metabolism, catabolism, drugs and diet.
Whenever there is an elevation in serum creatinine levels, renal dysfunction is usually suspected since the kidneys are responsible for the excretion of creatinine in the body.
She is working as a staff nurse in the pediatric ward of a private city hospital for more than two years.
The seeds are no larger than the tip of an unsharpened pencil, do not pierce the skin, and are painless when affixed to the surface of the skin, and held in place with a small plaster. Each acupuncture point being treated triggers electrical impulses from the ear via the brain, to the specific part of the body being treated. Auricular acupuncture Detox has been recommended by the Department of Health as appropriate for the treatment of clients in Tiers 1 - 4 of their model multi-disciplinary treatment framework, (Department of Health 2002).
Neots, while at the Steeple Morden clinic we receive patients from Baldock and Royston, plus Ashwell and all over North Herts.
Additionally, the Institute of Medicine encouraged collaboration between CDC and the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research to support development and expansion of adequate surveillance of the U.S.
This analysis [PDF - 1.1MB] was conducted using data from the last two survey cycles (2005a€“2006 and 2007a€“2008) to include 10,896 respondents aged a‰?20 years. The National Institutes of Health suggests that school-age children need at least 10 hours of sleep daily, teens need 9-105 hours, and adults need 7-8 hours. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Web Site]. The researchers analyzed how the 2 medications related with the particular stage patients are on (or not on) in the journey to a healthier lifestyle.
It is great choice for people who look for the best fat burner and that extra to help with losing weight and getting motivation. Ein ahnliches Modell wurde im Jahre 2010 in Form einer 7-Stufen-Pyramide vom Osterreichischen Bundesministerium fur Ernahrung veroffentlicht. Dieses Projekt wurde unter anderem deswegen ins Leben gerufen, weil auf das Ernahrungsmodell von 1992-2005, das unter anderem mit der Fastfood-Welle von der Bevolkerung umgesetzt wurde, alle ernahrungsbedingten, gesundheitlichen Folgeerscheinungen (wie Diabetes, Adipositas und Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen) zuruck zu fuhren waren.
In vielen Fallen wird noch mit dem 2-dimensionalen Modell aus der Zeit vor 2005 gearbeitet. Warum konnen wir als nicht aus den Fehlern der Anderen lernen, ohne diese erst selbst machen und teuer dafur bezahlen zu mussen?
On the other hand, low hemoglobin levels may be present in a variety of blood diseases like sickle cell disease and thalassemia.
Determining platelet count is vital in assessing patients for tendencies of bleeding and thrombosis. The total number of white blood cells is often used as indicator of bacterial and viral infections. A standard urinalysis involves three stages – visual exam, dipstick test and microscopic exam. If cloudiness and unpleasant odor are present, there might be infection in the urinary tract system. Determining specific gravity is useful when you want to detect a particular substance in the urine sample.
Conditions that usually produce high amounts of protein in the urine include preeclampsia, multiple myeloma, inflammation, urinary tract injuries, malignancies and other disorders that destroy red blood cells. The conditions that can cause glucosuria are pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases and hormonal disorders. Ketones also form when insulin levels are not enough to initiate carbohydrate metabolism so the body just uses fat in order to produce the energy needed for daily activities.
It should not be present in a normal urine sample but once detected, it can reflect the presence of liver diseases. High urobilinogen levels in the urine can signify liver diseases and other conditions that can cause RBC destruction. The sediments observed under the microscope are measured in terms of per lower power field (LPF) or per high power field (HPF). Elevated number of epithelial cells can also signify improper collection of urine specimen, especially if it is not collected using the midstream-catch technique. Results should be correlated clinically as these microorganisms are also present externally in the genitals.
When there are kidney problems present, the casts have different components inside like RBCs or WBCs. The movement of nutrients into the cell and the transport of waste products out of the cell are also mediated by potassium. Patients are tested for serum sodium levels in cases of dehydration, edema, abnormal blood pressure levels and changes in motor functions.
Paul Nogier, a neurologist from Lyons in France, observed a locum doctor treating sciatica by cauterizing an area of the ear. The patient can keep these seeds on for up to 1 week and re-stimulate the points themselves, by massaging the ear several times each day. Danach sollten Getreideprodukte mit Brot, Kartoffeln, Nudeln und Teigwaren am meisten verzehrt werden. Aber auch die 3-dimensionale Pyramide weicht stark von dem ab, was durch Harvard herausgefunden wurde.
Wer sich Fastfood bei den bekannten Fastfood-Ketten nicht leisten will, bekommt es auch beim Discounter. Determining hematocrit is helpful in diagnosing and assessing blood diseases, nutritional deficiencies and hydration status.
For example, if you suspect that a patient secretes small amounts of protein in the urine, the first morning-void urine is the best sample because it has high specific gravity and appears concentrated. Other conditions that produce ketones in the urine are diabetes mellitus, frequent vomiting, strenuous exercise, and high protein diet. For people with liver problems and obvious signs of liver dysfunction, the absence of urobilinogen may indicate the presence of hepatic or biliary obstruction. Whenever potassium levels are increased or decreased, the heart rhythms are affected as signified by EKG changes. Determining serum calcium levels is important when there are existing nerve and motor dysfunctions. This prompted extensive research, culminating in the development of the somatopic correspondence of specific parts of the body to the ear, based upon the concept of an inverted foetus. Two new reports on the prevalence of unhealthy sleep behaviors and self-reported sleep-related difficulties among U.S.
This is the first CDC surveillance report to include estimates of drowsy driving and unintentionally falling asleep during the day. Adults who reported sleeping less than the recommended 7a€“9 hours per night were more likely to have difficulty performing many daily tasks. Obst und Gemuse kamen mengenma?ig erst danach zur Geltung, wahrend Fleisch, Fisch und Milchprodukte nur vereinzelt (einmal pro Woche) verzehrt werden sollten.
Nogier believed that pain and other symptoms in the body could be alleviated by needling, massaging or electronically stimulating the corresponding region of the ear. Die Verwendung der Healthy Food Pyramid-Bildatei erfolgt mit ausdrucklicher Erlaubnis der Harvard School of Public Health.



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