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Multilateration uses Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) techniques that triangulate on the signals emitted from the aircraft’s transponder and received by multiple ground stations. A processor converts the information received at each receiver and coordinates time differences to derive position.
A multilateration system for terminal arrival is being installed in Juneau, Alaska, where combined with a required navigation performance approach (RNP) will support terminal operations.
Within the United States, most of the development and use has been on and near the airport.
EUROCONTROL has included multilateration in its surveillance strategy and the Czech Republic and Germany are demonstrating that the technique can be used for terminal and en route surveillance. Mongolia, Tibet and China are investing in multilateration, first to provide terminal area coverage, then to link together systems for en route coverage. While SSR suffers from range and azimuth errors, a multilateration system suffers from dilution of precision that relates to the geometry of the ground stations and the position of the aircraft. Multilateration represents a stable and mature surveillance technique that bridges the uncertainties of early implementation of ADS-B.
Unlike most avionics, the operational procedures for the use of ADS-B technology are yet to be invented, tested and proven safe. While the FAA is clearly committed to multilateration as part of surface movement surveillance and for a replacement to PRM, there is no stated policy to deploy multilateration capabilities as the FAA deploys a network of ADS-B receivers.
FAA should encourage wider use of multilateration as a cost-effective alternative to radar-based PRM. FAA should encourage users to consider multilateration and ADS-B as one, with the focus on development of operational procedures over development of the technology. FAA should develop a surveillance strategy that sets time lines and locations for elimination of existing surveillance infrastructure that reduces service life extensions for primary radar and SSR systems not required for national security and homeland defense. Visit the CCFAW site for information on the wonderful things they do and how you can participate.
The following sections describe the ADS-B and Broadcast Service functional capabilities currently being deployed in the National Airspace System (NAS). ADS-B is an aircraft-based surveillance service being deployed in selected areas of the NAS. TIS-B is a ground-based broadcast service that provides secondary surveillance radar (SSR)-derived traffic data. Only conventional Mode C and Mode S transponder-equipped targets reporting their barometric altitude will be included in a TIS-B broadcast.
Receiving aircraft must be in both radar coverage and GBT coverage in a given area to receive TIS-B service in that area. Updates of TIS-B traffic will occur less often than ADS-B updates because the update rates for SSRs are approximately once every five to twelve seconds, compared to the once-per-second update rate available with ADS-B. FIS-B is the ground-to-air broadcast service of weather and other non-control, aeronautical information that allows pilots to operate more safely and efficiently. ADS-B data can be used for flight monitoring, flight management, surface traffic airline asset management, and other safety and efficiency purposes contingent upon appropriate FAA authorization and approvals. A single or multifunction display and processing system for managing and displaying the broadcast data.
For the purpose of FAA operational approval authorization, aircraft that do not have an installed CDTI or that do not have a data link modem certified to either TSO C-154 (UAT) or TSO C-166 (1090ES) do not fall under the umbrella of those aircraft equipped with surveillance systems that require operational approval. Launching today, the ads, created by Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO, are set to run for two weeks. The series of ads present arguments for and against Britain’s membership of the European Union, fracking as an energy solution, and the use of electronic surveillance by governments around the world.
The three airports in the State will get the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system to bring precision and reliability to satellite-based surveillance of the nation's skies and better air space management.The airports in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode along with Mangalore figure on the list of 14 identified by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) to install the low-cost air transportation system. The time of travel of the signal is compared between these receivers by a central processor and aircraft position is derived. In Europe and Asia, multilateration is starting to be used as an alternative to ATCBI’s and as a substitute for primary radar.
Wide-area Multilateration or WAM operational trials by Skyguide, Germany’s DFS and Austro Control have begun. Multilateration has the advantage of substantially lower cost, an update rate of typically once every second, and has sufficient accuracy to match or out-perform SSR. The bad news is that many of the capabilities that create benefits for ADS-B also create benefits for multilateration. Multilateration needs to be viewed as a transition step to ADS-B that produces some modest benefits.

En route, WAM can provide independent verification of ADS-B position reporting and provide a secondary means of surveillance if the navigation solution on the aircraft is lost due to GPS vulnerabilities. It would be used initially to gather data for the safety case on ADS-B performance on in-service avionics systems leading to more complex uses of ADS-B.
By providing an independent means of monitoring navigation and position reporting, WAM can provide the additional safety margin that would not be there if ADS-B alone were used for separation. What multilateration does is provide the underlying surveillance safety services for the anticipated significant changes of how aircraft will operate in the future with ADS-B – a safety transition until full maturity of the ADS-B procedures can be attained. While there is some trade-offs on early benefits, the transition cost to ADS-B is mostly in avionics.
The NASA Helicopter IFR Tracking System (HITS) operational trials in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated that ADS-B and multilateration (individually and together) bettered or equaled SSR performance. This allows users and the FAA to better understand the benefits and business case for their own avionics investments. This opens up additional airports for independent parallel approaches and simultaneous offset instrument approaches. Existing surveillance (other than weather radar) should be phased out and replaced with the lower-cost alternatives of multilateration and ADS-B. This underlying technology broadcasts a radio transmission approximately once-per-second from the aircraft containing its position, velocity, identification, and other pertinent information.
This means most Mode C and Mode S transponders with altitude encoders that are within sight of both nearby radars and GBTs will be shown on the receiving aircraft’s Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). To reduce display clutter, the TIS-B service is only providing traffic information below 18,000 feet.
This may be caused by the ADS-B-to-SSR target association process within the ground system. A transmit-only configuration does not have provisions for a CDTI or the ability to receive and display up linked broadcast services. First generation 1090ES systems that were certified under TSO C-112A may not be used for any ground-based surveillance function except the flight monitoring function, unless the equipment has been shown to function satisfactorily in the NAS. The comparatively cheaper system has an ADS-B transponder in the aircraft, an antenna to get frequency from the aircraft transponder, and a receiver at the Air Traffic Control (ATC). In essence, this is the equivalent of an “inverted GPS” where the aircraft is the satellite and multiple ground stations derive position. Aircraft with TCAS emit the Mode S squitter and this emission is used in the air and on the ground for surface movement surveillance.
Wide-area multilateration (WAM) has been tested by NASA in the Gulf of Mexico for tracking both low-altitude helicopter operations and high altitude en route flights in experiments examining the performance of multilateration and ADS-B, separately and in combination with each other. Louis have shown that a multilateration system can replace the electronically scanned precision runway monitor (PRM).
The first operationally approved system provides surveillance for the Innsbruck Valley in Austria, an area where traditional surveillance would not work because of terrain and cost. The Central European WAM project includes coverage from Zurich via Nurnberg, Salzburg to Innsbruck. This is why multilateration can replace an electronically scanned PRM or an SSR for en route and terminal operations. An error in one aircraft’s ADS-B position report can have serious safety implications with the aircraft showing a location different from its actual position. Multilateration can verify that the aircraft do not exist in the airspace and can identify the source of the spoof transmissions. Since the ground infrastructure for multilateration and ADS-B receivers can be the same, the cost differential to the FAA is minor compared to the transition benefits and possible back-up strategies while ADS-B matures and equipage rises. By networking together the ADS-B ground stations and adding a timing source or reference fixed transponder, WAM can be implemented and benefits can be realized for aircraft with a 1090 or Univeral Access Transceiver ADS-B configuration as well as existing aircraft with a Mode A, C or S transponder.
This will encourage direct user benefits and aid in procedural development in the transition to ADS-B. ADS-B can also receive reports from other suitably equipped aircraft within reception range.
TIS-B shall not be used for avoidance maneuvers during times when there is no visual contact with the intruding aircraft. This is a different technology than is used for Traffic Information Service (TIS), which relies solely on Mode S terminal radars.
Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations to ensure initial and continued airworthiness. Since the transponder response to an interrogation travels at the speed of light, the different arrival times at different receivers can be measured.

Results showed that the surveillance is as good as that from the air traffic control beacon interrogator Model 6 (ATCBI-6), or secondary surveillance radar (SSR). Using multilateration for PRM makes a strong business case for deployment of more units because of the substantially lower cost of multilateration over radar. Using nine remote unit receivers and antennas for coverage, wide area coverage accuracies of 10 to 50 meters are being achieved.
Europe is also using multilateration for height verification using a 5-receiver system in a grid for reduced vertical separation (RVSM) with a 25-foot height measurement accuracy.
Based on testing by EUROCONTROL, multilateration had an effective range of approximately 170 nautical miles (at 35,000 feet elevation) with a 5-receiver system suitable for en route separation.
While good enough for existing separation standards, ADS-B can reduce separation over SSR and WAM; however, WAM provides the backup to fully aircraft-dependent surveillance. A network of these ground receivers will convert the ADS-B information and track data into a format that existing air traffic automation systems can use. No avoidance maneuvers are provided for, nor authorized, as a direct result of a TIS-B target being displayed in the cockpit. The TIS-B service is intended to provide ADS-B equipped aircraft with a more complete traffic picture in situations where all other nearby aircraft are not equipped with ADS-B.
This phenomenon may be minimized by standardized filtering software implemented into the aircraft avionics.
With TDOA between two receivers on the ground, they form mathematical hyperboloid shapes on which the aircraft is located. For Innsbruck, each remote unit has its own accurate timing clock synchronized to a reference transponder. No, but it will slow ADS-B equipage until such time that operational policies and procedures are created that advantage ADS-B.
In a mixed equipage environment (some with ADS-B and most without) multilateration provides for comparable services as envisioned for ADS-B Out – the broadcast of position without the benefits of cockpit display of traffic information. These reports can be transmitted to ground based transceivers (GBTs) and used to provide air traffic surveillance services and fleet operator monitoring of aircraft.
Maintenance programs should identify inspection items, establish in-service intervals for maintenance and inspections, and include any calibration procedures necessary to ensure continued airworthiness. Improved accuracy, integrity, and reliability of satellite signals will enable the controllers to safely reduce the mandatory separation between aircraft.In addition, the ADS-B will reduce the risk of runway incursions.
With three receivers hearing the same aircraft emission, the aircraft’s position can be determined. Austro Control is reporting annual operating costs of 150,000 Euros against an estimated 13,000,000 Euro cost if the system used the traditional SSR configuration.
ADS-B using GPS will be far more accurate than WAM across all flight domains and surface operations.
Pilots and controllers will be able to see the precise location of aircraft and properly equipped ground vehicles in the airport. However, the greatest benefits of ADS-B come with common situational awareness in the cockpit. The GPS-aided Geo Augmentation Navigation (GAGAN) programme that is in progress in the country and the ADS-B will work in tandem for better airspace management, sources said. If the aircraft is also reporting its altitude (Mode C or Mode S) a 3D position can be derived.
The ability to space your aircraft relative to another for passing, station keeping and tailored arrivals will produce the more significant benefits than improved surveillance.
The ADS-B will also be installed in the Jaipur, Lucknow, Amritsar, Varanasi, Portblair, Ahemedabad, Nagpur, Mangalore, Coimbatore, Guwahati and Agartala airports.
With four ground receivers, the 3D position of the aircraft can be calculated based on the intersecting hyperbolas. Reduction in separation in remote and oceanic airspace brings benefits from ADS-B and common situational awareness.
But for some early applications that rely on improved surveillance, requirements can be met with RNP and multilateration.

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