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What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized? In the 1960s, scientists who were studying rats discovered two regions of the brain that contained dividing cells that ultimately become nerve cells. Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis. Typically, there is a very small number of stem cells in each tissue and, once removed from the body, their capacity to divide is limited, making generation of large quantities of stem cells difficult.
Importantly, scientists must demonstrate that a single adult stem cell can generate a line of genetically identical cells that then gives rise to all the appropriate differentiated cell types of the tissue. As indicated above, scientists have reported that adult stem cells occur in many tissues and that they enter normal differentiation pathways to form the specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside.
Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all the types of blood cells: red blood cells, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Epithelial stem cells in the lining of the digestive tract occur in deep crypts and give rise to several cell types: absorptive cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Skin stem cells occur in the basal layer of the epidermis and at the base of hair follicles. Although isolated instances of transdifferentiation have been observed in some vertebrate species, whether this phenomenon actually occurs in humans is under debate by the scientific community. In a variation of transdifferentiation experiments, scientists have recently demonstrated that certain adult cell types can be "reprogrammed" into other cell types in vivo using a well-controlled process of genetic modification (see Section VI for a discussion of the principles of reprogramming). In addition to reprogramming cells to become a specific cell type, it is now possible to reprogram adult somatic cells to become like embryonic stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs) through the introduction of embryonic genes. How do adult stem cells evolve during development and how are they maintained in the adult? Why do stem cells remain in an undifferentiated state when all the cells around them have differentiated?
Do adult stem cells have the capacity to transdifferentiate, and is it possible to control this process to improve its reliability and efficiency?
If the beneficial effect of adult stem cell transplantation is a trophic effect, what are the mechanisms? What are the factors that stimulate stem cells to relocate to sites of injury or damage, and how can this process be enhanced for better healing? The following expression states that as x approaches the value c and x > c the function approaches the value L. The following expression states that as x approaches the value c and x < c the function approaches the value L.
The following expression states that as x approaches infinity, the value c is a very large and positive number, the function approaches the value L. Also the limit as x approaches negative infinity, the value of c is a very large and negative number, is expressed below.


The chain rule applies when a differentiable function is applied to another differentiable function. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Scientists have found adult stem cells in many more tissues than they once thought possible.
In the 1950s, researchers discovered that the bone marrow contains at least two kinds of stem cells. Despite these reports, most scientists believed that the adult brain could not generate new nerve cells. Scientists in many laboratories are trying to find better ways to grow large quantities of adult stem cells in cell culture and to manipulate them to generate specific cell types so they can be used to treat injury or disease.
In a living animal, adult stem cells are available to divide for a long period, when needed, and can give rise to mature cell types that have characteristic shapes and specialized structures and functions of a particular tissue. Those from bone marrow (bone marrow stromal stem cells, skeletal stem cells) give rise to a variety of cell types: bone cells (osteoblasts and osteocytes), cartilage cells (chondrocytes), fat cells (adipocytes), and stromal cells that support blood formation. The epidermal stem cells give rise to keratinocytes, which migrate to the surface of the skin and form a protective layer. Instead of transdifferentiation, the observed instances may involve fusion of a donor cell with a recipient cell.
This strategy may offer a way to reprogram available cells into other cell types that have been lost or damaged due to disease.
Thus, a source of cells can be generated that are specific to the donor, thereby increasing the chance of compatibility if such cells were to be used for tissue regeneration. Is donor cell-recipient cell contact required, secretion of factors by the donor cell, or both? This value can be any point on the number line and often limits are evaluated as an argument approaches infinity or minus infinity. Scientists also use the term somatic stem cell instead of adult stem cell, where somatic refers to cells of the body (not the germ cells, sperm or eggs). This finding has led researchers and clinicians to ask whether adult stem cells could be used for transplants. One population, called hematopoietic stem cells, forms all the types of blood cells in the body. It was not until the 1990s that scientists agreed that the adult brain does contain stem cells that are able to generate the brain's three major cell types—astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which are non-neuronal cells, and neurons, or nerve cells. In many tissues, current evidence suggests that some types of stem cells are pericytes, cells that compose the outermost layer of small blood vessels. Some examples of potential treatments include regenerating bone using cells derived from bone marrow stroma, developing insulin-producing cells for type 1 diabetes, and repairing damaged heart muscle following a heart attack with cardiac muscle cells. The following are examples of differentiation pathways of adult stem cells (Figure 2) that have been demonstrated in vitro or in vivo.


However, it is not yet clear how similar or dissimilar mesenchymal cells derived from non-bone marrow sources are to those from bone marrow stroma.
Another possibility is that transplanted stem cells are secreting factors that encourage the recipient's own stem cells to begin the repair process. For example, one recent experiment shows how pancreatic beta cells, the insulin-producing cells that are lost or damaged in diabetes, could possibly be created by reprogramming other pancreatic cells. However, like embryonic stem cells, determination of the methods by which iPSCs can be completely and reproducibly committed to appropriate cell lineages is still under investigation. The following expression states that as x approaches the value c the function approaches the value L. Companies that use a cost leadership strategy and those that use a.By implementing a cost leadership or differentiation strategy, companies choose to.
Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are defined by their origin (cells from the preimplantation-stage embryo), the origin of adult stem cells in some mature tissues is still under investigation. In fact, adult hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells from bone marrow have been used in transplants for more than 40 years.
A second population, called bone marrow stromal stem cells (also called mesenchymal stem cells, or skeletal stem cells by some), were discovered a few years later. Stem cells may remain quiescent (non-dividing) for long periods of time until they are activated by a normal need for more cells to maintain tissues, or by disease or tissue injury. Even when transdifferentiation has been detected, only a very small percentage of cells undergo the process.
By "re-starting" expression of three critical beta cell genes in differentiated adult pancreatic exocrine cells, researchers were able to create beta cell-like cells that can secrete insulin.
Scientists now have evidence that stem cells exist in the brain and the heart, two locations where adult stem cells were not at first expected to reside.
These non-hematopoietic stem cells make up a small proportion of the stromal cell population in the bone marrow and can generate bone, cartilage, and fat cells that support the formation of blood and fibrous connective tissue. Use an example marketing.Small companies use undifferentated marketing strategies when their products and. If the differentiation of adult stem cells can be controlled in the laboratory, these cells may become the basis of transplantation-based therapies. While not transdifferentiation by definition, this method for reprogramming adult cells may be used as a model for directly reprogramming other adult cell types.



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