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The use of this material is free for self-development, developing others, research, and organizational improvement. The purpose of this Structured Interviewing Guide is to provide an overview of a methodology for the development and administration of structured interviews.
The content of the Guide was gathered following a review of the academic and professional literature, best practices research from the private and public sectors and consultations with various stakeholders with expertise in designing and conducting structured interviews. The Guide consists of six sections that describe the features of a structured interview and outline the process before, during and after the interview. The methodology presented in this Guide can be adapted according to the needs of the organization and to suit the context in which the structured interviews will be used. Employment interviews are one of the most widely used and influential assessment tools in the appointment process.
Realizing the full potential of a structured interview requires paying careful attention to each stage of the interview process, from preparation through to development, implementation, and evaluation. The structured interview: This section includes general information on the structured interview and its advantages, the risks associated with an unstructured interview, relevant legal issues, and an overview of the structured interview process. Before the interview: This section provides practical tips on how to design interview booklets, including how to identify the qualifications to be assessed and how to develop interview questions.
During the interview: This section provides step-by-step guidance on how to conduct an interview, such as initiating and closing the interview, asking effective interview questions, and note-taking techniques. After the interview: This section offers guidance on how to accurately assess applicant responses and avoid common assessment errors, how to integrate interview results with other information to support the selection and informal discussion processes and how to provide feedback to applicants. Evaluating the interview process: This section discusses the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of the interview. Additional sources of information: This section lists additional resources such as current research and best practices regarding structured interviewing.
The following table presents the characteristics of structured versus unstructured interviews, in terms of development, administration, evaluation, and interviewer training. Given the enhanced accuracy, consistency, and procedural rigour of a structured interview relative to a more informal process, the gathered information is more likely to comply with the requirements of relevant legislation. Bias and inequity: People are often unaware of their own biases and how these biases unconsciously influence their decisions.
Inaccuracy and low prediction: Research has consistently shown that unstructured interviews are relatively ineffective at predicting job performance7-8. Legal vulnerability: Unstructured interviews are more likely than structured ones to be challenged in court, based on grounds of illegal discrimination9. The model presented in the figure below outlines the key activities that take place before, during, and after the structured interview.
Before conducting interviews, a common understanding of the interview board's role and the purpose and scope of the interview should be determined. Key documents that form the basis of the structured interview and ensure its validity are then reviewed.
The next task is to attend to administrative matters such as providing information to candidates prior to the interview, arranging for a location for interviews, inviting applicants to the interview, and arranging assessment accommodations as required.
During the interview, the board should provide a standard introduction to all applicants, including an explanation of the format of the interview, the questions to expect, and how the board will be recording responses.
After the interview, board members assess each person's performance against the qualifications required to perform the work, by reviewing the interview responses and reaching consensus on a single evaluation for each qualification assessed. Once the appointment process is complete, the effectiveness of the structured interview should be evaluated, especially if it is intended for future use. The PSEA sets out the Public Service Commission's (PSC) authority to make appointments in the public service and to delegate this authority to deputy heads in federal government organizations. Merit is served when a person to be appointed to a position meets the essential qualifications for the work to be performed, as established by the deputy head, including official language proficiency. When properly conducted, the structured interview provides a wealth of information on job-relevant criteria, enabling fair and accurate assessment of qualifications and facilitating making appointment decisions based on merit. Language of assessment: The PSEA requires that an examination or interview, when conducted for the purpose of assessing qualifications other than language proficiency, must be conducted in English, French, or both, at the option of the candidate.
Assessment accommodation: The Employment Equity Act (EEA) requires employers to identify and eliminate barriers to the employment of designated groups, and to institute positive policies and practices and to make reasonable accommodation to ensure that representation is achieved in the workforce. Service, the Guide for Assessing Persons with Disabilities as well as the Guidelines for Fair Assessment in a Diverse Workplace.
Prohibited grounds: The Canadian Human Rights Act defines prohibited grounds of discrimination.
The importance of documentation: Should an appointment decision be challenged, it is essential to document the processes followed and how decisions were made.
The merit criteria, as assessed by the interview board and how the criteria were defined, as well as their relative importance, if applicable.
The assessment criteria, such as the effective behavioural indicators for the behavioural or situational questions or the correct responses to knowledge questions. How the results from the interview were integrated with other sources of information, in order to make appointment decisions. Ensure that interview questions are job-related and based on the requirements of the target position.
Enhance the objectivity of the assessment of applicants by having a well-defined and documented scoring system, and procedures. Provide training to ensure that board members know how to conduct fair and unbiased interviews. Effort should be made to have interview boards reflect the diverse backgrounds of the applicant pool. To the extent possible, it is important that the same board members interview all applicants in a given appointment process in order to increase consistency and standardization of the assessment. A manager should also consider selecting interview board members who have been trained in, and are experienced with, the structured interview process. Members of the interview board must carry out their responsibilities without bias, political influence or personal favouritism.
It is recommended that one member of the interview board be assigned the role of lead interviewer. The first step in designing a structured interview is to clarify its purpose and objectives, making it easier for the board to determine the type of information to collect, and the process that will be used to collect it. For the applicant, the interview is an opportunity to learn more about the job and the organization, and to begin to develop realistic expectations about both. Two important questions that need to be addressed at the early stages of planning are how many applicants will be interviewed and at what stage in the appointment process will the interview be conducted? Whether all applicants or only those that meet the required qualifications should be interviewed depends on a number of factors.
When dealing with large applicant pools, the order in which assessment tools are administered can have a significant impact on the cost of the selection process.
On the other hand, when dealing with a smaller applicant pool, it may be appropriate to assess critical qualifications in a preliminary interview. Appendix A provides a sample Interview Note-taking Booklet that can be adapted to specific appointment processes. When developing interview questions, the board must decide which qualifications from the Statement of Merit Criteria will be assessed.
Which qualifications can be accurately assessed using an interview - for example, flexibility and personal initiative? Which qualifications would be better assessed in a face-to-face situation - for example, oral communication or interpersonal skills?
Are there any qualifications that are partially assessed or not assessed at all by other means in the process?
The Key Leadership Competencies can also be used as a basis for the structured interview and provide a good indication of how applicants would perform on the job. Number of qualifications assessed: Experts advise limiting the number of qualifications assessed in an interview, as research shows that evaluations are more valid when assessors focus on a limited number of factors18. Once the qualifications to be covered in the interview have been determined, the next step is to develop questions that assess these qualifications. What is the difference between employees who are strong in a particular qualification and those who are not? Three of the most common and effective types of interview questions are situational, behavioural, and job knowledge questions. Situational questions: These questions present applicants with a hypothetical situation relevant to the position. Situational interviews have been found to be highly valid and resistant to assessor error such as contrast error, and race or gender bias, also discussed later in this section21-22.
For situational interview questions to be most effective, examples of job-specific events and actual behaviours should be collected from subject matter experts such as supervisors or job incumbents. Suppose you had an idea for a change in procedure to enhance work quality, but some members of your work team were against any type of change.
Behavioural questions: Behavioural questions ask applicants to describe a previous work or life event that is relevant to the position. As with situational questions, behavioural questions are developed using on-the-job events collected from subject matter experts. Establishes a systematic course of action for self and others, to ensure accomplishment of specific objectives. Describe how you managed your work schedule the last time you had competing deadlines to meet. What would you do if you were solely responsible for managing a large scale project with very tight deadlines? Job knowledge questions: These questions typically assess the technical or professional knowledge required to perform the duties of the position.
Assessing job knowledge in the interview would not be recommended if there are a large number of job knowledge questions, especially if the answers are fairly short and routine.
When developing job knowledge questions, the challenge is in deciding how much knowledge one should be expected to have versus what can be learned later on in the job.
When assessing job knowledge in an interview, it is a good practice to inform applicants in advance that knowledge will be assessed, as additional preparation may be required. Demonstration: How would you go about designing interview questions that ensure that the assessment of applicants is based on merit? Job simulations:In simulations, applicants are asked to perform a task that they would be required to do on the job.
As with the other types of interview questions, the simulation should also be standardized. Any questions that may discriminate against applicants on the basis of any of the following grounds are prohibited: race, national or ethic origin, colour, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy or childbirth), sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability, and conviction for which a person has been granted pardon. The following example illustrates how probing questions can clarify the applicant's role in a specific situation. Probing questions are generally acceptable in a structured interview, but they should not result in the introduction of new topics or issues, since the structured interview is intended to ask the same questions of each applicant.
The recommended approach is to develop discretionary probing questions at the same time as structured interview questions. Listed below is a series of sample probing questions that can help to elicit specific details about the who, when, where, what, why and how of the applicant's responses. Develop questions that call for job knowledge or present a job-related problem or situation. Ensure questions distinguish among applicant qualification levels and differentiate between applicants who will be good performers on the job vs. Require that the applicant's answers describe actual behaviour (behavioural questions) or what they would do in a particular situation (situational questions). Have your questions reviewed by subject matter experts such as managers or consultants who are knowledgeable about the job, or job incumbents who are successful in the targeted position. Have questions reviewed by an employment equity board or by people from diverse cultural backgrounds to ensure that they are inclusive and do not contain words or expressions that could be offensive or create barriers. Use complex language, government-specific terminology or language that requires culture-specific knowledge that is not work-related.
Make questions so specific that applicants who have not experienced particular situations are unable to answer the question.
Develop questions that involve moral judgments unrelated to work or discriminate on the prohibited grounds.
Develop questions that may seem threatening to applicants or could make them feel uncomfortable. Number of questions: Although it is generally recommended that more than one question be asked for each qualification assessed, there is no rule for the exact number.
The overall number of assessed qualifications, the type of questions asked and the amount of interview time available.
If, for example, a given qualification entails many different behavioural indicators, it may take more questions to collect enough information to assess that qualification adequately than if there were only a few behavioural indicators. The number of questions covered within the allotted interview time will also be a function of the types of questions asked. Organizing interview questions:When asking more than one question per qualification, it is recommended that the questions be grouped so that the interview board can ask all the questions assessing a qualification before moving on to another one. Other decisions will also need to be made by the board regarding the interview format and process, such as whether applicants should be given time on-site to prepare for the interview. Board members need to decide in advance how they are going to assess interview responses in a fair and accurate manner.
A sample rating scale:In order to assess applicants fairly, board members should use a common rating scheme and scoring procedure for each applicant. Ratings provided for each qualification should be accompanied by a brief rationale as to why the rating was given, based on the behavioural evidence provided. Situational question: Suppose you had an idea for a change in procedure to enhance work quality but some members of your work team were against any type of change. Behavioural question: What was the biggest difference of opinion you ever had with a co-worker? Alternatively, greater precision can be gained by incorporating more detailed behaviours into the rating scale. Behavioural question: Describe a situation in which you had to deal with people who were upset about a problem.
Establishes and maintains ongoing working relationships with management, other employees, internal or external stakeholders or clients. Presents controversial findings tactfully to irate organization senior management officials regarding shortcomings of a newly installed computer system, software programs, and associated equipment. Cooperates and works well with management, other employees or clients on short-term assignments. Provides technical advice to customers and the public on various types of IT such as communication or security systems, data management procedures or analysis, software engineering or Web development. Cooperates and works well with management, other employees or clients during brief interactions. In the absence of detailed behaviours to define a rating scale, an alternative option is to provide a generic description of performance for each point on the scale. The behaviour is very well-developed and demonstrated with a high degree of consistency, impact and depth. Reserved for the exemplary set of skills that yield a particularly sophisticated approach to handling the situation. The behaviour is also very well-developed although there may be an occasional gap in consistency, impact and depth. Some of the major and minor criteria were met; some deficiencies exist in the areas assessed but none is of major concern. The behaviour is demonstrated to a moderate degree with some gaps in consistency, impact and depth.
An example of an Assessment Booklet that can be tailored to any appointment process is available in Appendix B. Prior to the interview, information about the organization and the position to be staffed may be sent to applicants.
All applicants should be informed of the interview format, the qualifications to be assessed and the expected duration so that applicants can make an informed request for accomodation. Whether an applicant will require accommodation should also be ascertained prior to the interview. If you have any questions or for further information on establishing appropriate accommodation, please refer to the Guide for Assessing Persons with Disabilities. In one appointment process, it was decided that applicants should receive the interview questions in writing prior to the interview; however, one of the applicants was visually impaired. To accommodate an applicant with visual limitations, it might be appropriate to transfer the questions to an electronic document that can be read on a screen or with voice software. It is important to create and follow an interview schedule to ensure a smooth interview process.
The person in charge of scheduling will need to know the expected duration of the interview to ensure ample interviewing time. To the extent possible, the reserved interview room should be well-lit and free from noise and other distractions. Prior to the first interview, board members should go through the Interview Booklet to review the process and assign the role of lead interviewer to one member.
Base situational and behavioural questions on events that have occurred in the position to be filled. Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file.
The material in this report originated in the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Beth P.
Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. This report offers guidance and recommends biosafety practices specifically for human and animal clinical diagnostic laboratories and is intended to supplement the 5th edition of Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL-5), developed by CDC and the National Institutes of Health (1). LAIs and exposures have been reported since early in the 20th century, but only in the 1970s were sufficient data available to attempt quantitative assessments of risk.
Early surveys of LAIs found that laboratory personnel were three to nine times more likely than the general population to become infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (13,14). In clinical chemistry laboratories, data from 17 New York hospitals listed needle puncture (103 cases), acid or alkali spills (46), glass cuts (44), splash in eye (19), and bruises and cuts (45) as the most frequent exposures (21). In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. Panel members reviewed the guidelines that were developed and synthesized by the writing team.
Each section of recommendations was reviewed both within CDC and by the relevant national organizations whose members would embrace these guidelines.
The Blue Ribbon Panel recognizes the need for a voluntary, nonpunitive surveillance and reporting system with the potential for anonymity to be implemented in the United States. The concept of a "culture of safety," as described in this report, encourages all human and animal diagnostic laboratories to promote an organizational culture of systematic assessment of all work processes and procedures to identify associated risks and implement plans to mitigate those risks. Successful establishment of a culture of safety requires that laboratory safety become an integral and apparent priority to the organization, embraced first and foremost by top management and with the concomitant infrastructure support required to foster safe behaviors among its employees (29–31). Laboratory design is fundamental to the safety of laboratory workers, hospital staff, and patients. Design options for the microbiology laboratory should include an enclosed component of the overall laboratory, separated by closable doors from other laboratory sections. Directional air is encouraged to provide zones of containment that proceed with increasing negative pressure toward work spaces in which higher-risk laboratory procedures are conducted. For microbiology laboratories, it is critical that the supervisor and laboratory director, along with a biosafety professional, provide input regarding the special needs of a new laboratory facility. If no BSL-3 facilities are available, BSL-2 plus negative airflow and use of respiratory precautions may be used for some agents, provided a risk assessment has been conducted. For human laboratories, the separate tuberculosis and virology laboratories that manipulate cultures for identification and characterization would ideally meet BSL-3 requirements. The receiving and set-up areas in microbiology laboratories should be designed with sufficient space to accommodate the greatest number of specimens anticipated.
The general laboratory should contain sit-down work spaces designed with adequate space for a computer at each station. If possible, locate carbon dioxide and anaerobic gas tanks outside the actual laboratory (preferably shielded or even installed outside the walls of the building). If waste will be decontaminated on-site before disposal, the laboratory must have an autoclave large enough to handle its needs. The availability of board-certified laboratory specialists in the laboratory is as important to a medical facility as highly trained, board-certified medical specialists and surgeons. The laboratory director is ultimately responsible for identifying potential hazards, assessing risks associated with those hazards, and establishing precautions and standard procedures to minimize employee exposure to those risks.
Qualitative biological risk assessment is a subjective process that involves professional judgments. Identifying potential hazards in the laboratory is the first step in performing a risk assessment. Evaluate and prioritize risks (evaluate the likelihood that an exposure would cause a laboratory-acquired infection [LAI] and the severity of consequences if such an infection occurs). Standardization of the risk assessment process at an institution can greatly improve the clarity and quality of this process. Aerosols can be generated from most routine laboratory procedures but often are undetectable.
Examples of possible hazards are decreased dexterity or reaction time for workers wearing gloves, reduced ability to breathe when wearing N95 respirators, or improperly fitting personal protective equipment (PPE). No inherent biologic danger exists to a person working alone in the laboratory; however, the supervisor is responsible for knowing if and when a person is assigned to work alone. Risks are evaluated according to the likelihood of occurrence and severity of consequences (Table 2).
Consequences may depend on duration and frequency of exposure and on availability of vaccine and appropriate treatment.
Risk assessment is an ongoing process that requires at least an annual review because of changes in new and emerging pathogens and in technologies and personnel. Primary containment protects personnel and the immediate laboratory environment and is provided by good microbiological technique and use of appropriate safety equipment. Secondary containment protects the environment external to the laboratory and is provided by facility design and construction. BSLs provide appropriate levels of containment needed for the operations performed, the documented or suspected routes of transmission of the infectious agent, and the laboratory function or activities. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for chemicals are available from the manufacturer, supplier, or an official Internet site. The laboratory director is responsible for ensuring that a laboratory-specific biosafety manual is developed, adopted, annually reviewed, and accessible to all laboratory personnel. The manual should be reviewed and updated annually and whenever procedures or policies change.
Many safety procedures, guidelines, and principles apply to all sections of the diagnostic laboratory. Microbiology specimens are to be received in uncontaminated containers that are intact and are consistent with laboratory specimen collection policy. Ideally, all specimens in a biosafety level (BSL) 2 or higher facility are to be processed in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) adhering to safe BSC practices. Limit the use of a 4-foot-wide BSC for inoculating plates and preparing smears to one employee at a time, wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Submit specimens to the laboratory in transport bags that isolate the patient requisition from specimens; always limit bags to one patient to prevent misidentification and cross-contamination. Visually examine containers for leaks upon arrival and before placing on rockers, in centrifuges, in racks, in closed-tube sampling (cap-piercing probe) systems, in automated aliquot stations or automated slide preparation systems, or on conveyor belts.
Consider all sputum containers as coming from patients with tuberculosis or pneumonia, and handle with care. Viral specimens with damaged or leaking containers may need to be discarded before opening.
Do not rely on visible external contamination to confirm the potential source of contamination. Wipe off visible contamination by using a towel or gauze pad moistened with acceptable decontaminant, such as a 1:10 dilution of household bleach, or use the established laboratory disinfectant.
Always grasp the tube or outside of the specimen container, not the stopper or cap, when picking up tubes or specimen containers to prevent spills and breakage. Ensure tops are tightly secured on all specimen containers, blood-collection tubes, and sample tubes before advancing for analysis or storage. Determine appropriate PPE on the basis of documented risk and hazard assessments of all the operations performed at each bench. Ensure that workstation procedure manuals include instructions for the organization of all instruments, materials, and supplies in each area as well as instructions for any cleaning and disinfection and the frequency of cleaning and disinfection for all surfaces and instruments.


If decontamination of equipment or portions of such equipment is not feasible, do the following. Always remove caps behind a bench-fixed splash shield, or wear additional PPE appropriate to protect from splashes and aerosols. Place a gauze pad over the cap, and then slowly pry or push the cap off with an away-from-body motion. Breakage or leakage of specimens transported using a PTS risks contamination of the transport system itself. Protect requisition forms by a separate pouch, or enclose them in a separate secondary bag to prevent contamination. Place absorbent wadding between patient bags to help absorb spills and minimize contamination to the outside of the carrier. Disinfect contaminated carriers with bleach solution or other disinfectant following the protocol recommended by the manufacturer and approved by the hospital's infection control committee if the system is in use in a hospital. Establish an emergency PTS shutdown plan, including roles and responsibilities; include implementation of an alternative specimen transport plan.
Develop a system to track and analyze incidents of improperly closed carriers, cracked tubes, loose caps, and leaking containers. Prepare SOPs for both laboratory operators and the nonlaboratory service providers with their input and consultation. Document training and competency assessment of service providers and bench operators for PTS maintenance and decontamination procedures. If engineering controls are in place to prevent splashes or sprays, the requirement for PPE can be modified on the basis of a risk assessment and evidence of the effectiveness of the engineering control to prevent exposure from splashes or sprays. Because no two workstations are identical, written procedures for each clinical laboratory workstation must include specific work practices and work practice controls to mitigate potential exposures.
Install a dedicated handwashing sink with hot water in each work area for use after contamination of hands or gloves with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
In the general microbiology laboratory, masks and disposable gloves are not required in the open laboratory but may be voluntarily used. Splash guards at workstations are recommended during work at the blood culture bench or at any station at which the potential for splashing exists. Notify nearby workers and the supervisor if a splash or spill occurs, regardless of how small. Sniffing of bacterial cultures growing on artificial media (to detect characteristic odors supposedly emitted by certain bacteria) is a potentially unsafe laboratory practice that has been associated with multiple types of LAI.
Locate disinfectant-containing discard containers and sharps containers within easy reach of the work station. Use protective covers for computer keyboards at workstations; covers need to be easily cleanable and routinely disinfected along with the bench top, at least at the end of the work shift.
Place blood culture bottles behind a safety splash shield or in a BSC when tapping with a needle. Urine remaining from culture activities can be discarded down the sink drain or into the sanitary sewer.
Discard feces and other specimens such as body fluids and respiratory specimens remaining from culture activities with medical waste, and autoclave if warranted by risk assessment.
Discard tissue remaining from culture activities of BSL-3 infectious agents into medical waste, and autoclave it. PPE includes a variety of items, such as gloves, laboratory coats, gowns, shoe covers, boots, respirators, face shields, safety glasses, and goggles, that are designed to protect the laboratory worker from exposure to physical, biological, and chemical hazards.
PPE is often used in combination with BSCs and other devices that contain the agents or materials being handled. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defines PPE as "appropriate" if it does not permit blood or other potentially infectious materials to pass through or reach the employee's street clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under normal conditions of use (33). The Class II-A1 or II-A2 BSC is best suited and recommended for the diagnostic laboratory (Table 5) (1).
Every diagnostic microbiology laboratory needs one or more BSCs as a primary means of containment for working safely with infectious organisms.
Regardless of the method, the purpose of decontamination is to protect the laboratory worker, the environment, and any person who enters the laboratory or who handles laboratory materials that have been carried out of the laboratory.
Instructions for disinfecting a laboratory work bench are to be a part of each SOP and must include what PPE to wear, how to clean surfaces, what disinfectant to use, and how to dispose of cleaning materials.
Routinely clean environmental surfaces before setting up work areas and again before leaving work areas. Reserve sterilants and high-level disinfectants cleared by FDA for processing reusable medical devices. Use of disposable liners may reduce cleaning intervals of the equipment but does not replace the need to clean surface areas or equipment. Disposable, flexible, polyethylene film–backed, nonskid highly absorbent surface liners are available commercially and help to prevent soak-through of most solutions, including dyes and corrosive chemicals. Allow dried blood or body fluid at least 20 minutes' contact with the laboratory-specified decontaminating solution to allow permeation and easy removal (1). Never mix different chlorine solutions or store them with cleaning products containing ammonia, ammonium chloride, or phosphoric acid. If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly.
Law criminology personal statement, template, examples, university with class teacher freshers. It provides fundamental information as well as advice to help hiring managers and Human Resources (HR) specialists get the most out of structured interviews. Each section consists of several subheadings and hyperlinks for quick reference and includes practical tips for HR practitioners.
Of all the factors that impact interview effectiveness, their structure has emerged as the most critical. Following the suggested practices in this Guide will facilitate this task and ensure that hiring managers and Human Resources (HR) practitioners fully benefit from the time and effort they invest in this valuable assessment tool.
It also addresses important activities such as inviting applicants, arranging for assessment accommodation, if required, and preparing the interview board. Included are tips on how to modify the interview process to ensure that it continues to meet organizational requirements, especially if it is used on an ongoing basis. At one end of the continuum, an unstructured interview is completely unplanned – questions are asked spontaneously, vary across candidates, and responses are not evaluated in any consistent manner. By asking the same questions and assessing responses according to the same job-relevant criteria, candidates have an equal opportunity to demonstrate their qualifications and to be assessed fairly. Since questions are linked to job-related competencies, a candidate's responses are more likely to predict their on-the-job performance. When structured interviews are developed and administered according to professional guidelines, they are more likely to be legally defensible. Research has shown that attributes such as physical attractiveness3, similarity of the applicant to the interviewer4, gender5 and race6 can inappropriately influence an interview board's assessment. This finding is largely attributed to the use of questions that are not necessarily based on qualifications required to perform the work.
Each of these activities enhances the quality and legal defensibility of the obtained information.
Issues such as the number of applicants to interview and where to position the interview in the appointment process are also discussed. These may include the job description, competency profile, and merit criteria that can help to identify the task requirements and qualifications needed to perform the job successfully. A note-taking booklet includes descriptions of the qualifications to be assessed and the questions that are linked to them.
Before interviews are held, the interview board ensures it is well-prepared by undergoing training on skillful interviewing, as required, and by reviewing all relevant steps involved in a structured interview. After asking an interview question, the board may need to probe a person's answer for greater detail or ask follow-up questions. These interview results are then integrated with those of other assessment tools, such as tests or reference checks, to reach a final assessment for all applicants.
By identifying the strengths and areas of improvement related to the interview content and process, the structured interview will continue to meet the organization's requirements. The PSC has developed the Appointment Framework, including the Assessment Policy, to guide its delegates in building their own staffing systems, while ensuring that merit, non-partisanship and the guiding values of access, fairness, representativeness, and transparency are respected. In addition, managers may take into consideration other merit criteria such as asset qualifications, operational requirements, and present or future organizational needs. The Assessment Policy requires that a structured interview be conducted as part of the assessment process for all Executive-level appointments, unless an exception to this requirement is granted by the PSC. Failure to do so is one of the grounds for a complaint to the Public Service Staffing Tribunal (PSST).
Aligned with the EEA, the Employment Equity in the Appointment Process Policy states those requirements that ensure that the public service reflects and respects our diverse society.
These include: race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy or childbirth), sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability, and conviction for which a pardon has been granted. While there is no need to be artificially rigid, a businesslike focus on the task of interviewing the applicant is recommended.
Managers need to be able to explain their staffing decisions should there be complaints to the PSST. Research has shown that interviews conducted by a board are more valid than those conducted by only one interviewer11.
This diversity may help to put applicants at ease and make the outcome more acceptable to them. All members must be familiar with the interview process and maintain objectivity when assessing applicants. This person is responsible for the introduction, determining who will ask specific questions, asking some of the questions, and concluding the interview. An advantage of the structured interview is that it can allow the employer to learn more about the applicant and vice versa. Treating the interview as a two-way exchange can also have a positive influence on the perception of the hiring organization.
These include the size of the applicant pool, the other types of assessment tools used in the appointment process and the resources available.
One way to minimize time and costs is to first eliminate applicants with insufficient qualifications, using relatively inexpensive selection methods such as automated screening on training, experience, and education.
For example, early stages of the process may focus on assessing essential job qualifications. Each interview board member should have an Interview Booklet for each applicant being assessed. To maximize the validity of the appointment process, the interview should build on information from other assessment tools. Values and Ethics, Strategic Thinking, Engagement, and Management Excellence, relate to qualifications such as oral communication, interpersonal skills, teamwork, initiative, and behavioural flexibility, which can be assessed effectively through structured interviews17. For example, although job knowledge can be accurately assessed in an interview, if there are many questions requiring detailed answers, the use of written tests may be more cost-effective.
Trying to assess too many factors in too little time may yield superficial data of limited value, resulting in an ineffective assessment19. Interviews can cover a range of qualifications from work experience, training and education, to specific job qualifications such as knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal attributes. Although each of these formats can be independently effective, a more comprehensive assessment can be achieved by combining different types of questions for a given qualification.
These examples represent exceptionally good or poor performance on the qualification being assessed, and provide the hypothetical situations that will be presented in the interview question. They are usually about a time when they had to demonstrate a particular qualification that is important for the job. Research has found behavioural interviews to be highly valid in predicting job performance25.
Sets priorities, goals and timelines to achieve maximum productivity and to ensure objectives are met on time. With these questions, applicants are asked to demonstrate their knowledge in specific areas such as basic accounting principles, computer programming, financial management, policy, or legislation, etc. Assessing job knowledge in an interview is particularly useful when the position for which you are hiring requires the verbalization of technical information and work procedures.
In such cases, a written test would be more efficient and usually less expensive to administer and score. Such questions should assess knowledge of information that is essential or important to the overall performance of the job and not knowledge that is difficult but only peripheral to the job at hand.
Although simulations have not traditionally been considered as interview questions, they are often used by managers for this purpose.
Applicants should be given instructions and a brief scenario, either verbally or in writing, and the same questions must be asked of every applicant. First, the scenario and the questions need to be job-related and based on the qualifications required to do the job. This variability is acceptable as long as enough information is obtained to assess each qualification fairly and accurately.
These discretionary, standardized probes should ensure that enough details of the situation, the applicant's behaviour in the situation and the outcome of the behaviour are being described. Ensure that questions contain only one issue or topic at a time for each qualification being assessed. While some experts recommend asking more than one question per qualification, others suggest at least three questions per qualification27.
Ultimately, information should be collected until the topic is exhausted or until the interview board judges that enough information was gathered to perform an accurate assessment. Typically, it should allow three minutes for a knowledge question, and up to ten minutes for a situational or behavioural question.
This facilitates the analysis and assessment process for interview board members, since all of the information on a given qualification will have been considered together. One way to ensure the same assessment criteria are applied consistently is to develop an Assessment Booklet for evaluating applicants' performances. This standardized approach improves the accuracy of judgements made by board members and helps in later comparisons among applicants.
For instance, a rating may be justified by noting that "the applicant made up for poor project planning by taking the initiative to ensure the project was completed on time. This precision will help to ensure that all share a common understanding of what a given qualification means and what kinds of behaviours represent weak, moderate and strong performance on related interview questions. Remains courteous when discussing information or eliciting highly sensitive or controversial information from people who are reluctant to give it. Remains courteous when discussing information or eliciting moderately sensitive or controversial information from people who are hesitant to give it. Remains courteous when discussing information or eliciting non-sensitive or non-controversial information from people who are willing to give it. Generally exceeds criteria relative to quality and quantity of behaviour required for successful job performance. Meets criteria relative to quality and quantity of behaviour required for successful job performance. Generally does not meet criteria relative to quality and quantity of behaviour required for successful job performance (e.
It should be made clear that the interview will be structured with an interview board and specify the types of questions that will be asked, the qualifications assessed and the amount of time allotted for the interview. Additional information such as dress code, pay range, benefits and working conditions, as well as any specific requirements such as shift work, may also be covered ahead of time.
Deputy heads have a duty to accommodate applicants in the appointment process and to remove barriers to employment. It is important that all members of the interview board be properly trained on how to conduct structured interviews and how to assess applicants to ensure fairness in the staffing process. Pre-testing your interview to ensure that an adequate amount of time is allocated is useful for this purpose. The more that questions are based on what really happens on the job, the better they will be at predicting job performance. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. This document was written not to replace existing biosafety guidelines, but to 1) improve the safety of activities in clinical diagnostic laboratories, 2) encourage laboratory workers to think about safety issues they might not previously have considered or addressed, and 3) encourage laboratorians to create and foster a culture of safety in their laboratories. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2008, approximately 328,000 medical laboratory technicians and technologists worked in human diagnostic laboratories in the United States. The most common agents of laboratory-acquired fungal infections are the dimorphic fungi Blastomyces, Histoplasma, and Coccidioides (18,19); most reported infections were caused by inhalation of conidia.
Needle puncture, glass cuts, splash in eye, and bruises and cuts have the highest potential for infection from microbes. In non-microbiology sections of the diagnostic laboratory, the primary mistake may be assuming that a given specimen contains no infectious agents and then working with little attention to risk for infection. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based research and publications focused on biosafety; particularly missing are studies documenting safe practices in the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories. Members of the panel were either selected by the invited national laboratory organization they represented or were invited by CDC because of their roles in biosafety at the national level. Official endorsements by the organizations they represented were not required, although each representative was required to submit written approval of the recommendations. These included the College of American Pathologists, Greater New York Hospital Association Regional Laboratory Task Force, American Society for Microbiology, American Clinical Laboratory Association, Association of Public Health Laboratories, American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Biological Safety Association, American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, and individual physicians and subject matter experts.
Whether the patients are humans or animals and whether laboratorians work in microbiology or elsewhere in the laboratory, the human and animal diagnostic laboratory is a challenging environment. Other laboratory incidents such as minor scrapes or cuts, insignificant spills, or unrecognized aerosols occur even more frequently and might not cause an exposure that results in an LAI.
Such a system would allow for reporting and evaluation of all LAIs and would potentially lead to training and interventions to facilitate a negligible incidence rate.
The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document, Laboratory Design; Approved Guideline (32), discusses laboratory design in detail.
Although not required, directional inward airflow from the main laboratory into the microbiology laboratory is also recommended in newly constructed diagnostic laboratories.
Air handling systems within the microbiology laboratory suite must be able to be adjusted and balanced with directional airflow from the corridor into the microbiology laboratory and from the general microbiology laboratory into separate and enclosed tuberculosis, mycology, and virology specialty laboratories. For animal diagnostic virology laboratories in which most manipulated viruses are not human pathogens, the practice is to meet BSL-2 requirements unless a risk analysis indicates a high probability that an agent in a specimen needs BSL-3 containment. This area needs a Class IIA2 BSC, a sink for hand washing, and an emergency eye wash station. Work benches that have storage shelves above the center of the bench might be preferred; these would provide space for supplies without cluttering the work area.
Placing the tanks outside the laboratory or the building in a locked area will allow easy access for exchange of tanks. Locate the autoclave in a well-ventilated area, or ensure it is exhausted through a capture hood above it. The room might need to be renovated to accommodate a Class IIA2 BSC, directional air flow, telephone jacks, and communication devices such as intercoms. Some identification instruments require at least 8 feet of footprint space for the unit, printer, and modules.
Because the identity of an infectious agent is initially unknown in the clinical laboratory, the general recommendation is that the biosafety level (BSL)-2 standard and special practices in Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th edition (1) be followed for all work in the clinical laboratory, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Standard Precautions (gloves, gowns, and protective eyewear) (33) and BSL-2 practices (2) be employed during handling of all blood and body fluids.
Because of uncertainties or insufficient scientific data, risk assessments often are based on incomplete knowledge or information.
Many categories of microbiological hazards are encountered from the time a specimen is collected until it is disposed of permanently. Because assigning a person to work alone is a facility-specific decision, a risk assessment should be conducted that accounts for all safety considerations, including type of work, physical safety, laboratory security, emergency response, potential exposure or injury, and other laboratory-specific issues.
The four BSLs, designated 1–4, are based on combinations of laboratory practice and techniques, safety equipment (primary barriers), and laboratory facilities (secondary barriers). All laboratory employees must read this manual, and the director must maintain records of personnel who have read it.
Annual training in biosafety practices is recommended for all personnel who access the laboratory. The recommendations presented in this section represent a broad view of safety throughout the laboratory. However, routine clinical laboratory testing may provide the first evidence of an unexpected bioterrorism event.
Adopt specific standard operating procedures (SOPs) in the event that irreplaceable specimens are considered for transportation using these systems. If a BSC is unavailable in the laboratory, the laboratorian processing intake specimens must wear a laboratory coat and gloves, employ an effective splash shield, and continue to follow universal precautions. These containers are unacceptable for culture because the contents may have become contaminated.
Increases in documented events may indicate the need to clarify or strengthen specimen acceptance policies or improve specimen collection or transportation practices, or they might identify defective container lot numbers. External contamination caused by inappropriate lid closure can contaminate the gloves of the laboratorian and all contents of the BSC. If any concern exists about external contamination, carefully disinfect the outside of the tubes or bottles before inserting them into the blood culture instruments. Contact the supervisor for instructions on whether or not to continue processing, and be prepared to notify the submitter and request another specimen. Try to incorporate engineering controls and PPE information in the same location in all procedure manuals, and clearly post the information for each operation carried out at the bench. Gloves provide protection from the live organisms as smears are prepared and provide protection from unintentional exposure to stain. Examine equipment contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials before servicing or shipping, and decontaminate as necessary. Limit specimen size, volume, weight, and container types sent through the tube system, if warranted.
Documented training and assessment of competency will include knowledge of the risks associated with using a PTS and the precautions to be taken to control those risks. Examples of engineering controls include use of a BSC, having sealed safety cups or heads in centrifuges, and negative air flow into the laboratory. Employees cannot rely solely on a sink in a rest room for washing their hands after work in a technical area. If gloves are used, they can easily become contaminated during routine use; therefore, gloves are not to be washed and reused. In some situations where working in a BSC is impractical, PPE, including splash shields, may form the primary barrier between personnel and hazardous materials (1). The employer must provide laundry service for reusable protective laboratory coats, gowns, uniforms, or scrubs that are potentially or visibly contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials at no cost to the employee. FDA has indicated that patient examination gloves used during patient care and vascular access procedures meet its adulteration requirements and have a 510(k) medical device registration with this agency.
This includes opening containers and pipetting, manipulating, aliquoting, or testing specimens, cultures, biological agents, or other hazardous materials outside the BSC. An overview and summary of the different classes and types of BSCs is available in Appendix A of BMBL-5 (1).
It protects personnel and the room environment but is not designed to protect the product inside the cabinet. FDA has identified manufacturers, active ingredients and contact conditions for these products.
Never use a knife or other instrument to scrape dried blood or body fluid from surface areas; doing so can cause percutaneous injury or generate aerosols. Undiluted bleach solution is corrosive to stainless steel, and thorough rinsing must follow its use in the BSC and stainless steel sinks to remove the residue. Combining these chemicals could result in release of chlorine gas, which can cause nausea, eye irritation, tearing, headache, and shortness of breath. This Guide will help hiring organizations in the federal public service to realize the full potential of structured interviews and support merit-based appointments. It is well-established that structured interviews are better than unstructured ones at predicting on-the-job performance.
At the other end, the highly structured interview includes questions that are based on a thorough analysis of job requirements and the merit criteria required to perform the work.
In addition, the use of an interview board rather than one individual assessor increases objectivity since consensus on a final evaluation must be reached.
Research has shown that structured interviews are up to twice as effective at predicting job performance as unstructured ones1-2. Personal beliefs and values may also influence the unstructured interview process so that different questions may be asked of different people, or the same answer provided by different applicants may be interpreted differently.
Since the assessment criteria are unclear, interview board members may inaccurately and inadvertently judge applicants on irrelevant factors. A brief description of the three main interview stages is provided below to illustrate how the proposed interview process unfolds. An assessment booklet is a form for rating applicants against job- relevant qualifications.


This ensures that the board elicits as much information as it needs to fully understand and assess the applicant's qualifications.
The Assessment Policy governs one of the essential steps in the appointment process, namely to assess applicants against the qualifications required for the position. Also, when the EX appointment is for an acting over four months, the acceptable alternative to the structured interview and structured reference check is a narrative assessment that assesses all of the relevant merit criteria using concrete behavioural examples, including the Key Leadership Competencies. The Policy on Official Languages in the Appointment Process offers additional guidance on these requirements. Organizations must provide reasonable accommodation through all stages of the appointment process. An interview board can reduce the impact that personal biases may have on the selection of an employee. Research has shown that using diverse interviewing panels can reduce or eliminate rating biases due to race and similarity in attitudes between interviewees and interviewers12-13. For instance, research has shown that perceptions of the interview process and the interpersonal skills of the interview board members, as well as their skills in listening, recruiting, and conveying information about the organization and the target job, affect the applicant's evaluation of the interview board members as well as the organization14-15.
As a result, the organization can use more expensive selection tools such as the interview, on a smaller number of highly qualified people. Follow-up interviews can then be conducted with the reduced number of applicants, to explore their asset qualifications, or vice versa.
Statement of Merit Criteria, competency profile and job description), an Interview Note-taking Booklet may be designed. Similarly, mental ability may also be better assessed through the use of standardized, written tests rather than an interview. The recommendation is for a maximum of seven qualifications to be assessed in an interview20. Competency-based questions should beformulated to target specific behavioursrelated to the qualifications and work to be performed. Applicants are asked to describe what they would do in such a situation, taking into consideration available resources and the context of the job. One advantage of situational questions is that applicants respond to a hypothetical situation rather than describing experiences from their past, thus not placing anyone at a disadvantage. As situational questions are derived from actual examples of job performance, the job-relevance of these questions is ensured. These questions are suitable for most types of positions and are recommended when applicants have relevant experience, and it is more informative to know their past behaviours rather than their intentions. Behavioural questions are usually straightforward and easy to develop, based on the qualifications identified in the Statement of Merit Criteria. What are the levels of complexity, the time constraints and any obstacles or challenges that are usually encountered?
It would also not be appropriate in situations where the questions deal with complex behaviours such as diagnosing defects, operating equipment or manipulating data or information. Knowledge questions should not ask about material that is easily learned on the job or that would be taught as part of a training program for the job. For example, an applicant could be provided with a budget sheet and asked questions related to the work required to do the job. An assessment guide for all applicants needs to be prepared to ensure consistency of the assessment. Second, simulations should not take up a large part of the interview, but be used to supplement applicant information obtained from the other types of interview questions. Please read these exam instructions to us as if you were reading them to a large group of applicants.
However, there may be a need to request additional examples or more specific information to more fully understand the applicant's answer. It is also important not to reveal effective behavioural indicators through probing questions.
Probing questions can also be used to help applicants focus on specific incidents when they are responding with generalizations. These time constraints reinforce the recommendation that one should aim to assess a relatively small number of qualifications in an interview, ideally no more than seven. It is reasonable to allow roughly 30 minutes for applicants to review the questions and prepare their responses.
When designing such booklets, it is important to consider the kinds of actions, responses, and behaviours that are effective and relevant for each qualification assessed. This type of scale could be used when assessing only one applicant for an acting appointment.
In order to create appropriate behavioural anchors for the scale, it is important to review documents such as the Statement of Merit Criteria, the competency profile and the job description.
The scale may also vary in the breadth and level of detail provided in the behavioural description.
Rather, it entails outlining specific answers to the questions that define the different proficiency levels. Effectively handles situations involving a high degree of tension or discomfort involving people who are demonstrating a high degree of hostility or distress. Effectively handles situations involving a moderate degree of tension or discomfort involving people who are demonstrating a moderate degree of hostility or distress. Effectively handles situations involving little or no tension, discomfort, hostility or distress. In so doing, the structured interview questions will be the main focus during the allotted time, ensuring that applicants have ample time to answer. It is important to remind applicants in a timely fashion of their right to request accommodation and to ensure that the necessary arrangements are made.
Delays can have a negative effect on applicants and board members which may affect the assessment process.
When conducting back-to-back interviews, it is also good practice to allow for 15 minutes between interviews so that they do not overlap even if they run over time and also to permit board members to take breaks. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). Should any of the guidelines provided herein conflict with federal, state, or local laws or regulatory requirements, the laboratorian should defer to the federal, state, or local requirements. An estimated 500,000 persons in all professions work in human and animal diagnostic laboratories.
Reported parasite-associated LAIs were caused primarily by Leishmania, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Chagas disease organism, and other trypanosomes (20).
This scenario can be particularly problematic in laboratories developing new technologies, such as molecular and biochemical technologies, and in point-of-care diagnostics performed by staff unaccustomed to testing that requires biosafety considerations and use of barrier techniques such as personal protective equipment.
The organizations participating in the panel represented the majority of laboratory technologists in the United States. Edits and comments from each participant were carefully considered and incorporated where appropriate. Future research in biosafety practices in the laboratory will contribute to further recommendations and will substantiate others as well as provide opportunities to revise this document.
The more that laboratorians become aware of and adhere to recommended, science-based safety precautions, the lower the risk. In this report, "laboratory exposures" refer to events that put employees at risk for an LAI and events that result in actual acquisition of LAIs. In many cases, the only association was that the infected person worked with a microbiological agent or was in the vicinity of a person handling a microbiological agent.
These risks typically are associated with design flaws or lack of or inadequacy of safety procedures and training (1,2). Because remediating poorly designed laboratory workspace is difficult, or even impossible, design warrants careful planning and consideration of safety issues. If the facility is an open design and has no drop ceiling, the microbiology laboratory can have clear glass or Plexiglas walls, which give an appearance of openness but provide a floor-to-ceiling safety barrier from possible aerosol exposures.
The microbiology section must have a decontamination facility or have a medical waste contract in place, and it must provide a sink for hand washing.
Risk assessments should be performed on each facility to include consideration of the specific risks encountered in each laboratory. Telephone jacks, computer jacks, and electrical outlets should be built into the module (Use of wireless technologies can reduce the need for telephone or computer wiring in each module.) along with refrigerator space for one or two side-by-side glass-front refrigerators or one double refrigerator to enable easy access by the set-up staff. Where appropriate, lines that connect gas tanks to specific areas of the laboratory should be made of synthetic tubing to allow future moving if necessary. If the laboratory will provide the service, it should plan for a medium-sized anaerobe chamber, about 6 feet of footprint. Additionally, diplomates of the American Board of Medical Microbiology or the American Board of Medical Laboratory Immunology or equivalent specialists in leadership positions are valuable assets to laboratories that receive and manipulate microbes. Inherent limitations of and assumptions made in the process also exist, and the perception of acceptable risk differs for everyone.
A comprehensive approach for identifying hazards in the laboratory will include information from a variety of sources. At BSL-2 and above, a BSC or similar containment device is required for procedures with splash or aerosol potential (Table 3).
Routine clinical specimens also may harbor unusual or exotic infectious agents that are dangerous to amplify in culture. Check the manufacturer's recommendations before allowing two employees to work simultaneously in the larger cabinet, and then allow only after a risk assessment. For mycobacteriology and virology laboratories where organism manipulation is conducted, workers should wear a fit tested N95 respirator or select other appropriate respiratory protection, as indicated by the risk assessment. If the specimen is leaking or contaminated, consider rejecting it and requesting another specimen if feasible. Otherwise, disinfect the outside of the container before culturing the contents, and change and discard gloves before proceeding. Laboratories without the ability to determine or rule out Brucella or Francisella (gram-negative coccobacilli) should consider directly shipping these isolates to a reference laboratory and not try to isolate and identify them. Dispose of single-use protective clothing with other contaminated waste or deposit reusable clothing for laundering by the institution. OSHA recommends that selection be based on the tasks performed and the performance and construction characteristics of the glove material. For those who need corrected vision, wear prescription safety glasses with side shields in the laboratory.
The lack of a BSC is a Phase II deficiency for microbiology departments that handle specimens or organisms considered contagious by airborne routes.
The Class I BSC could be used in the general laboratory setup area as a second choice of cabinet.
Air can be recirculated back into the room through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters with little risk if the cabinet is maintained properly and certified annually.
Moving the cabinet can damage the filter at the glue joint or at the gasket, resulting in dangerous leaks, so filter and cabinet integrity must be tested after each move.
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The Guide is intended for anyone who develops, conducts or evaluates structured interviews.
In addition, the information obtained from a structured interview tends to be more accurate and reliable, less subject to bias and more legally defensible.
All candidates are asked the same questions and their responses are assessed in a standardized manner against job-relevant criteria using a predetermined rating scheme. Also, unstructured interviews make it easier for applicants to give answers they think the interview board is looking for, rather than answers that provide accurate information on how they will perform once on the job. Sections two to five of this Guide provide more detailed information on how this model can be applied in the appointment process.
The questions and rating criteria are the same for all candidates to ensure consistency of approach and comparability of information and results.
The board concludes the interview by thanking the person, outlining the next steps in the appointment process, and providing the candidate a final opportunity to ask any other questions. The Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) provides candidates with the opportunity for an informal discussion to discuss the reasons why they were not selected. The policy states that the assessment of qualifications must be designed and implemented without bias, political influence, or personal favouritism, and does not create systemic barriers. However, an examination or interview, when conducted for the purpose of assessing the qualifications of the candidate in the knowledge and use of English or French or both, or of a third language, is to be conducted in that or those languages. It is inappropriate to inquire about areas that are unrelated to actual job performance, such as hobbies, social activities, political beliefs, residence, medical status, and any past legal actions (including workers' compensation claims), and safety complaints.
Multiple interviewers may also capture information that a single interviewer might overlook, thus ensuring a more balanced, and complete assessment of the applicant. The Objective Eye is a relevant resource to consult because it brings managers and designated group members together to discuss the possibility of participating on assessment boards. To do so, the interview board will need to identify the qualifications to assess and develop questions that tap into these factors. Ultimately, the job requirements, organizational needs and the available assessment tools, should dictate whether qualifications should be assessed through an interview, another type of assessment tool, or a combination of tools.
The remaining qualifications in the Statement of Merit Criteria would be assessed by other means such as written tests, simulations, or reference checks, ensuring that individuals are fully assessed before making the appointment decision. These behavioural indicatorsallow for a more accurate and objective assessment of the applicant. This type of question is based on the premise that people's intentions are predictive of their future behaviour.
Responses tend to be directly comparable and are easier to rate reliably by multiple interviewers23. Research has demonstrated that most interviewees tend to prefer situational questions over behavioural questions, because they are less memory-dependent and more relevant to the target job24.
It may also be possible to provide accommodation for persons with disabilities, and assess job knowledge in the interview instead of in a written knowledge test. In these situations, job simulations or written knowledge tests are usually more appropriate. Asking probing or follow-up questions is a necessary component of the interview because it helps to ensure that sufficient data is obtained for all qualifications being assessed. It is recommended that interviews be 45-60 minutes, with a maximum of 90 minutes in length. Board members should also decide in advance which questions each person will ask applicants.
For instance, the figure below provides a basic description of the expected responses for an applicant to receive a score of 1, 3 or 5 for situational and behavioural questions. BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine.
A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. This culture of safety is also supported by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2).
Any of these workers who have chronic medical conditions or receive immunosuppressive therapy would be at increased risk for a laboratory-acquired infection (LAI) after a laboratory exposure.
Of the 52 cases of laboratory-acquired malaria, 56% were vector borne (from mosquitoes used in research, not clinical laboratories).
The guidelines provided herein are synthesized and supported from systematic reviews of peer-reviewed publications of evidence-based data from which recommendations could be made, justifying common-sense approaches that should be articulated, and where safe procedures have been described and proven. The goal of a safety program is to lower the risk to as close as possible to zero, although zero risk is as yet unattainable as long as patient specimens and live organisms are manipulated. Except for reporting requirements imposed by CDC's Select Agent Program, which deals with handling of specific, potentially hazardous biological agents and toxins, no national surveillance system is in place to which medical laboratory exposures and subsequent work-related infections are reported. The inability to identify a specific event was also reported in a more recent study (27), which found that the probable sources of LAIs were apparent in only 50% of cases. In addition, the day-to-day operations of a human or animal diagnostic laboratory differ markedly from those of an academic or research laboratory and require different biosafety guidelines; these differences prompted the focus of this report on medical laboratory communities, their occupational risks, potential for exposure, and opportunities to mitigate those risks. The following are suggestions to consider in the design or renovation of the diagnostic laboratory. If a drop ceiling is in place, the clear wall needs to penetrate the deck beyond the ceiling to seal the area.
Hands-free sinks (foot-pedal operated) are required for biosafety level (BSL)-3 facilities and are recommended for BSL-2 facilities. Accommodations need to be made for daily reading of the gauges in the laboratory unless alarms can be installed. Double-door autoclaves can be installed so that one side opens into the mycobacteriology laboratory and the other side opens into a disposal area used by the laboratory for disposing of other waste. Risk assessments must include evaluation of the infectious aerosols that might be produced by automated procedural equipment to determine whether containment ventilation is recommended. Using their skills as laboratory director or as consultant is invaluable and highly recommended.
Risk assessment, as outlined here and in Section 12, may determine that decreasing or increasing the BSL practices or facilities is warranted (Figure 1). Methods to ascertain hazard information can include benchmarking, walkabouts, interviews, detailed inspections, incident reviews, workflow and process analysis, and facility design.
Laboratory directors are responsible for determining which BSL is appropriate for work in their specific laboratories. These agents are often difficult to identify, and the routine bench technologist might continue work on the culture by passage, repeated staining, nucleic acid testing, neutralization, and other methods.
An N95 respirator is usually not required for biocontainment levels up through BSL-2, although it provides a higher degree of protection than a surgical mask. Supply each workstation with alcohol hand rub to facilitate frequent hand cleaning, and with absorbent work pads to contain accidental spills. Disposable gloves must be made available in a variety of sizes to ensure that employees are able to select the size that best fits their hands. In a chemical splash, contact lenses can intensify eye damage because the lens will hold the chemical against the eye for a longer period. The A-1 or A-2 BSC in the mycobacteriology laboratory is also an option with a thimble connection to a building exhaust duct and annual certification. A worker exposed to an unpleasantly strong odor after mixing of a chlorine solution with a cleaning product should leave the room or area immediately and remain out of the area until the fumes have cleared completely (see Section 9.1). Use of bleach solutions with lower hypochlorite concentrations might not provide the proper level of disinfection.
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This audience may include managers, human resources (HR) practitioners, internal and external consultants, applicants and others who are interested in learning more about the structured interview process. Using a more structured approach improves the likelihood that hiring decisions will be based on merit. These features help to establish a clear link between performance at the interview and performance on the job and minimize the impact of personal bias on the assessment process.
The hiring manager, HR practitioner or others may carry out different tasks in the interview process.
Sample Interview Note-taking Booklet and Assessment Booklets, which can be tailored to an organization's specific appointment process, are provided in Appendices A and B. A well-structured interview is a robust assessment tool that can be used to achieve that purpose. Outside of the structured interview format, casual conversation can be equally dangerous as it can easily stray into prohibited topics. The applicant's answers are evaluated against established criteria, discussed later in this section. Because responses are open to verification through follow-up questions, it is risky for applicants to provide inaccurate or untruthful answers to behavioural questions.
It is preferable to position applicants and board members around a small table or at the corner of a larger table rather than to have the applicants sit at one side of a large table with the board members all seated along the other side.
Work in a diagnostic laboratory entails safety considerations beyond the biological component; therefore, these guidelines also address a few of the more important day-to-day safety issues that affect laboratorians in settings where biological safety is a major focus. Precise risk for infection after exposure is unknown because determining the source or the mode of transmission often is difficult. Most infected health-care workers acquired infection from needle sticks during preparation of blood smears or while drawing blood. The Blue Ribbon Panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. Protection of laboratorians, coworkers, patients, families, and the environment is the greatest safety concern. Increased attention has been focused on laboratory biosafety and biosecurity since 2001 but has been largely limited to precautions required for agents of bioterrorism. These data suggest that unsuspected infectious aerosols can play a large role in LAIs (1,23,24,28). Although there is no national standard requirement for an amount of space per person working in the laboratory, 300–350 sq.
In a previously constructed laboratory without directional room air, the continual operation of biological safety cabinets (BSCs) is encouraged to provide some direction to potential aerosols. Bench-tops must be constructed of impervious materials; laminate materials can delaminate and become difficult to disinfect. For convenience, electrical outlets are recommended at each work station, along with telephone and computer jacks. Validation of the autoclave cycles for effective decontamination of the projected loads is recommended in addition to a regular maintenance and quality-assurance program. Also, technology specialists should be recruited and retained, particularly in microbiology where interpretive judgment is critical to specimen analysis and ultimately directly affects patient care and outcome. This continued workup places the technologist and others in the laboratory at risk for infection. Make safety glasses, splash shield, respiratory protection, and gloves available for use and when determined necessary by the type of isolate, as described in BMBL-5 (1).
Never hard-duct the Class A BSC to the building exhaust system because building airflow patterns cannot be matched to the cabinet. Unstructured interviews were found to be discriminatory in 59% of these cases, whereas structured interviews were found NOT to be discriminatory in 100% of cases.
The interview board may be asked to perform some of these tasks before, during, and after the interview. These qualities provide employers with an idea of how potential employees are likely to act on the job and how well they can interact with others. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly.
In the absence of supporting evidence-based research and documentation, some recommendations are based on expert opinion by international experts in the field of microbiology and must be appropriately applied until evidence-based research can substantiate their validity.
Other laboratory exposures and LAIs continue to occur, almost always because of a breakdown of established safety protocols. For BSCs that vent to the outside, air handling should be planned carefully to ensure that the air is vented to the outside after filtration and that the outside vents are placed away from the facility's air intake units.
Ideally, these specimens are not to be processed or tested in the routine laboratory, and they can be removed from the testing stream if the suspected agent is known. Mycobacterial, fungal, viral, and molecular specimens may require specific additional safeguards. Date may 1991 collaborated with aspirations toward graduate clinician, center for admission. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. The authors reviewed and approved their own sections and also evaluated how their topics accurately reflected and supported the goals of the entire document. Because of the lack of an official surveillance mechanism for reporting LAIs and because of the fear of punitive action by an oversight agency if injuries are reported, the data needed to determine the extent and cause of LAIs are unavailable. Ideally, allow a minimum 5-foot space between the worker (at a laboratory chair) and any object behind the worker to provide reasonable maneuverability.
For laboratories that contain multiple classes of BSCs, the hazards that are permitted to be manipulated within the specific unit need to be clearly indicated (by label) to staff (1). Relationships with the state public health laboratory, and subsequently with the Laboratory Response Network, are critical in this effort.
They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Illinois university, dekalb, job as supporting sample cv for graduate school in psychology creative writing college board credentials.
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